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Nutrition and Aging Review Date 11/13 G-0510 Provided Courtesy of Nutrition411.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Nutrition and Aging Review Date 11/13 G-0510 Provided Courtesy of Nutrition411.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nutrition and Aging Review Date 11/13 G-0510 Provided Courtesy of Nutrition411.com

2 Changes in body composition Physiological Changes Associated With Aging

3 Changes in body composition Decline in immune system Physiological Changes Associated With Aging (cont’d)

4 Changes in body composition Decline in immune system Changes in gastrointestinal tract Physiological Changes Associated With Aging (cont’d)

5 Changes in body composition Decline in immune system Changes in gastrointestinal tract Dental problems Physiological Changes Associated With Aging (cont’d)

6 Changes in body composition Decline in immune system Changes in gastrointestinal tract Dental problems Sensory losses Physiological Changes Associated With Aging (cont’d)

7 Eating alone Changes in support system and/or environment Polypharmacy Other Issue for Older Adults

8 Fluid Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults

9 Fluid Calories Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults (cont’d)

10 Fluid Calories Protein Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults (cont’d)

11 Fluid Calories Protein Fat Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults (cont’d)

12 Fluid Calories Protein Fat Fiber Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults (cont’d)

13 Fluid Calories Protein Fat Fiber Folate Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults (cont’d)

14 Fluid Calories Protein Fat Fiber Folate Vitamins B 12 and D Calcium Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults (cont’d)

15 Fluid Calories Protein Fat Fiber Folate Vitamins B 12 and D Calcium Zinc Nutrients of Concern for Older Adults (cont’d)

16 Water Energy Protein Whole grains and fiber-rich foods Fat Vitamins and minerals Energy and Nutrient Needs

17 Cancer Heart disease Hypertension Diabetes Osteoporosis Macular degeneration/vision problems Arthritis Alzheimer’s disease Health Concerns of Older Adults

18 Vision Problems Cataracts—thickening of eye lens Macular degeneration—deterioration of the center of the retina, which is responsible for straight- ahead vision Antioxidants in foods may protect against vision loss Common Nutrition-Related Diseases in Older Adults

19 Arthritis Osteoarthritis—cushioning cartilage in joint breaks down Rheumatoid arthritis—disease of the immune system with painful inflammation of the joints Overweight can affect arthritis Common Nutrition-Related Diseases in Older Adults (cont’d)

20 Alzheimer’s Disease A healthy diet can help promote brain health Research on a connection between diet and Alzheimer’s disease is ongoing Common Nutrition-Related Diseases in Older Adults (cont’d)

21 Osteoporosis Loss of bone density, resulting in fractures More common in women than men Diet and exercise can help treat osteoporosis, but may not prevent it in older adults Common Nutrition-Related Diseases in Older Adults (cont’d)

22 Bok choy Broccoli Calcium-fortified juices and cereals Canned fish with bones Cottage cheese Fortified soy beverage Kale Milk Yogurt Calcium Sources

23 Participate in weight-bearing activities Avoid smoking Consume calcium-rich foods or supplements Consume adequate vitamin D Promoting Bone Formation (all ages)

24 Calcium Requirements Age Calcium (mg/day) Equivalent (dairy servings/day) 9-18 years1300 mgfour years 1000 mgthree 50+ years1200 mgfour mg=milligram

25 Vitamin D Requirements IU=international unit Age Equivalent (IU/day) 9-50 years600 IU years600 IU 70+ years800 IU

26 Several similar dietary recommendations exist for disease prevention and management of chronic diseases: – Dietary Guidelines for Americans – MyPlate – DASH Eating Pattern Eating Patterns for Older Adults

27 Balance calories to manage weight Increase some foods: – Fruits and vegetables – Whole grains – Lean meats, seafood, and other protein foods Reduce some foods: – Sodium – Saturated fat, trans fats, and cholesterol – Added sugar and refined grains Build healthy eating patterns Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010

28 Prevent and/or reduce overweight and obesity through improved eating and physical activity behaviors Control calorie intake to manage weight Consume fewer calories from foods and beverages Increase physical activity and decrease time spent in sedentary behaviors Balance Calories to Maintain Weight

29 Reduce sodium intake to less than 2300 mg: – Some people (those older than 51 years of age, individuals with chronic kidney disease, diabetes, or hypertension, and African Americans) should reduce sodium intake to 1500 mg/day Consume less than 10% of calories from saturated fatty acids by replacing them with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids Consume less than 300 mg/day of dietary cholesterol Food and Food Components to Reduce

30 Keep trans fatty acid consumption as low as possible by limiting foods that contain sources of trans fats Reduce the intake of calories from solid fats and added sugars Limit foods that contain refined grains, especially those that contain solid fats, added sugars, and sodium If alcohol is consumed, do so in moderation Food and Food Components to Reduce (cont’d)

31 Increase fruit and vegetable intake Eat a variety of vegetables, especially dark green, red, and orange vegetables, beans and peas Consume at least one-half of grains as whole grains Increase intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products, including: – Yogurt – Cheese – Fortified soy beverages Food and Nutrients to Increase

32 Choose a variety of protein foods, including: – Seafood – Lean meat and poultry – Eggs – Beans – Soy products – Unsalted nuts and seeds Food and Nutrients to Increase (cont’d)

33 Increase the amount and variety of seafood consumed by choosing seafood in place of some meat and poultry Replace protein foods that are higher in solid fat with choices that are lower in solid fats and calories and/or are sources of oils Use oils to replace solid fats when possible Food and Nutrients to Increase (cont’d)

34 Choose foods that provide more potassium, dietary fiber, calcium, and vitamin D These foods include: – Vegetables – Fruits – Whole grains – Milk – Milk products Food and Nutrients to Increase (cont’d)

35 Select an eating pattern that meets nutrient needs over time at an appropriate calorie level Account for all food and beverages consumed and assess how they fit within a total healthy eating pattern Follow food safety recommendations when preparing and eating foods to reduce the risk of foodborne illness Building Healthy Eating Patterns

36 Individuals older than 50 years of age should consume 1500 mg sodium or less per day Individuals older than 50 years of age should consume foods fortified with vitamin B 12, such as: – Fortified cereals – Dietary supplements Dietary Guidelines and Aging

37 A diet pattern that meets the Dietary Guidelines for Americans: – High in fruit and vegetables – Low in saturated fat – Low in sodium – High in potassium – High in fiber DASH Eating Pattern

38 MyPlate

39 Follow the DASH eating pattern or MyPlate Enjoy whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products daily in recommended portions Exercise at least 30 minutes most days of the week Nutrition for Aging

40 Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. Dietary Guidelines for Americans US Dept of Agriculture Web site. Accessed November 23, 2013.http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DietaryGuidelines.htm Chernoff R. Geriatric Nutrition: The Health Professionals Handbook. 3rd ed. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett; US Dept of Agriculture. MyPlate. ChooseMyPlate Web site. Accessed November 23, References


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