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Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds OBJECTIVES: -What is an Open Chest wound? How do we treat it? -What is a Closed Chest wound? How do we treat it?

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Presentation on theme: "Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds OBJECTIVES: -What is an Open Chest wound? How do we treat it? -What is a Closed Chest wound? How do we treat it?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds OBJECTIVES: -What is an Open Chest wound? How do we treat it? -What is a Closed Chest wound? How do we treat it?

2 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Signs and Symptoms of a Sucking Chest Wound Signs and Symptoms of a Sucking Chest Wound Sucking or Hissing sounds coming from the Chest wound Sucking or Hissing sounds coming from the Chest wound Casualty coughing up blood Casualty coughing up blood Frothy blood coming from the wound site Frothy blood coming from the wound site Shortness of breath; Difficulty breathing Shortness of breath; Difficulty breathing Chest not rising normally when casualty inhales Chest not rising normally when casualty inhales Pain in shoulder or anywhere that increases with breathing Pain in shoulder or anywhere that increases with breathing Bluish tint of lips, inside mouth, fingertips or nail beds Bluish tint of lips, inside mouth, fingertips or nail beds Rapid and weak heartbeat Rapid and weak heartbeat

3 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Air in between Lung “bag” and rib cage. Decompression allows the escape of this air Will not re-inflate lung, but will relieve tension and pressure in chest area.

4 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Open Pneumothorax Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Open Pneumothorax

5 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Management: Ensure an open airway Ensure an open airway Seal the wound. Both entrance and exit with an occlusive dressing, petrolatum gauze or Asherman Chest Seal ® (LOOK FOR THE EXIT HOLE) Seal the wound. Both entrance and exit with an occlusive dressing, petrolatum gauze or Asherman Chest Seal ® (LOOK FOR THE EXIT HOLE) Real world: Place the casualty in their position of comfort. Test=injured side Real world: Place the casualty in their position of comfort. Test=injured side Monitor respirations after an occlusive dressing is applied. Consider doing a NCD if respirations become labored. Monitor respirations after an occlusive dressing is applied. Consider doing a NCD if respirations become labored.

6 Open Pneumothorax Open Pneumothorax  Petroleum Gauze can also be used to seal a sucking chest wound.

7 "Asherman Chest Seal  "

8 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)

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10 For multiple injuries to the chest ( e.g. casualty exposed to shrapnel from a mortar or an IED), You can use Tegaderm ( IV OP Sites) to cover multiple areas. For multiple injuries to the chest ( e.g. casualty exposed to shrapnel from a mortar or an IED), You can use Tegaderm ( IV OP Sites) to cover multiple areas. The Goal is to seal the Chest area immediately The Goal is to seal the Chest area immediately

11 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Demonstration of sealing an Open Chest Wound, and discussion of various materials that can be used in this process. Demonstration of sealing an Open Chest Wound, and discussion of various materials that can be used in this process. Demonstrate how to create a “Flutter Valve” and the need for one. Demonstrate how to create a “Flutter Valve” and the need for one. Demonstrate how to seal an Open Chest wound with an impaled Object Demonstrate how to seal an Open Chest wound with an impaled Object

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13 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Closed Chest Wounds / Tension Pneumothorax Closed Chest Wounds / Tension Pneumothorax Signs and Symptoms Signs and Symptoms Anxiety, agitation, and apprehension Anxiety, agitation, and apprehension Diminished or absent breath sounds Diminished or absent breath sounds Increasing difficulty in breathing with cyanosis (bluish tint around lips, nail beds, inside mouth) Increasing difficulty in breathing with cyanosis (bluish tint around lips, nail beds, inside mouth) Rapid shallow breathing Rapid shallow breathing Abnormally Low Blood Pressure ( NO RADIAL PULSE IS PRESENT) Abnormally Low Blood Pressure ( NO RADIAL PULSE IS PRESENT)

14 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Signs and Symptoms of a Tension Pneumothorax (Cont’d) Signs and Symptoms of a Tension Pneumothorax (Cont’d) Distended Neck veins Distended Neck veins Cool clammy skin Cool clammy skin Decreased Level of Consciousness Decreased Level of Consciousness Visible deterioration of casualties condition Visible deterioration of casualties condition Tracheal deviation (Shifting of the windpipe to the left or right) [ A late sign, and probably will not be observed]. Tracheal deviation (Shifting of the windpipe to the left or right) [ A late sign, and probably will not be observed].

15 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) Air pushes over heart and collapses lung Heart compressed not able to pump well Air outside lung from wound

16 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Management: Ensure an open airway Ensure an open airway Decompress the affected side Decompress the affected sideIndications: – Any chest trauma with progressive respiratory distress.

17 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Procedure:  Identify the second ICS on the anterior chest wall, MCL:

18 Needle Chest Decompression

19 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Insert a 14 ga. Catheter at a 90  angle over the top of the 3 rd rib, into the 2 nd ICS at the MCL.  Needle must be long enough to enter the chest cavity (3 1/4 – 3 1/2 inches). Per the Army Surgeon Generals guidance.

20 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)

21  If a tension pneumothorax is present, a “hiss of air” may be heard escaping from the chest cavity.  Remove the needle, leave the catheter in place.

22 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Tape the catheter hub to the chest wall.  The casualty's condition should rapidly improve.  If the catheter is removed accidentally, just re-insert another 14 gauge needle next to the former one.  Evacuate ASAP  Make sure Flight Medic KNOWS he has a catheter in his chest.

23 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Questions: Why “up and over”and Why “up and over”and Never “down and under” What if casualty doesn't have a tension pneumothorax and you perform NCD? What if casualty doesn't have a tension pneumothorax and you perform NCD? May already have hole(s) in chest May already have hole(s) in chest Probably larger than diameter of 14 ga. needle Probably larger than diameter of 14 ga. needle No additional damage No additional damage

24 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Questions: Will lung re-inflate after pressure is released from chest cavity? Example: The Three Kings movie Will lung re-inflate after pressure is released from chest cavity? Example: The Three Kings movie No. To re-inflate the lung you must have a chest tube with suction and or positive pressure ventilation. No. To re-inflate the lung you must have a chest tube with suction and or positive pressure ventilation. NCD merely releases the tension and built up pressure which will ultimately suffocate the casualty. NCD merely releases the tension and built up pressure which will ultimately suffocate the casualty.

25 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Complications: Insertion of the needle over the top of the rib prevents laceration of the intercostal vessels or nerve which can cause hemorrhage or nerve damage. Insertion of the needle over the top of the rib prevents laceration of the intercostal vessels or nerve which can cause hemorrhage or nerve damage. “Up and over” NEVER “down and under” “Up and over” NEVER “down and under”

26 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d)  Injuries to the chest are fewer in nature secondary to modern body armor, however it doesn't protect 100%.  Wounds to the chest can be rapidly fatal if not identified early and treated appropriately.

27 Treating Open and Closed Chest Wounds (Cont’d) QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS? Demonstration of NDC on a mannequin Demonstration of NDC on a mannequin


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