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INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (cont’d) Causal pathways in health and disease A1 B1 A2 B2 C A3 B3 A4 Causal FactorsCellular/Biochemical/Disease Physiologic.

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Presentation on theme: "INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (cont’d) Causal pathways in health and disease A1 B1 A2 B2 C A3 B3 A4 Causal FactorsCellular/Biochemical/Disease Physiologic."— Presentation transcript:

1 INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (cont’d) Causal pathways in health and disease A1 B1 A2 B2 C A3 B3 A4 Causal FactorsCellular/Biochemical/Disease Physiologic changes Source: Bauman et al (2002)

2 INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (cont’d) Mediators, moderators, and confounders –Mediator or intervening causal variable is on the causal pathway between exposure to the intervention and program effects or outcomes –Moderator or effect modifier may vary the strength of the relationship between a program and the outcome –Confounder is a predictor of the outcome, but is also associated with exposure

3 INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY (cont’d) Mediators, moderators, confounders (cont’d) M2M3 Mediators (M) A M1 C ProgramMediatorsOutcome Confounder (B) A C B Moderator (effect modifier) B1AC Levels of moderatorB2AC B3AC Source: Bauman et al (2002)

4 NORTH CAROLINA AND PITT COUNTY HEALTH STATISTICS North Carolina - Total Estimated Population by 2005 (based on U.S. Census 2001) RaceRace/SexSex Total WhiteMinority White male White female Minority male Minority female MaleFemale 6,479,70 2 (74.63%) 2,202,36 4 (25.37%) 3,231,002 (37.21%) 3,248,70 0 (37.42%) 1,046,090 (12.05%) 1,156,274 (13.32%) 4,277,09 2 (49.26%) 4,404,97 4 (50.74%) 8,682,06 6 (100%) Source: NC Dept. of Health and Human Services/Center for Health Statistics (2007)

5 NORTH CAROLINA AND PITT COUNTY HEALTH STATISTICS (cont’d) Pitt County - Total Estimated Population by 2005 (based on U.S. Census 2001) RaceRace/SexSex Total WhiteMinority White male White female Minority male Minority female MaleFemale 91,150 (63.65%) 52,057 (36.35%) 44,521 (31.09%) 46,629 (32.56%) 23,695 (16.55%) 28,362 (19.80%) 68,216 (47.63%) 74,991 (52.37%) 143,207 (100%) (1.65%) Source: NC Dept. of Health and Human Services/Center for Health Statistics (2007)

6 NORTH CAROLINA AND PITT COUNTY HEALTH STATISTICS (cont’d) North Carolina – Race-specific and Sex-specific Age-adjusted* Leading Death Rates/100,000 (*Std = Year 2000 U.S. Population) WhitesMinoritiesMalesFemales Total Rate Total #RateTotal #RateTotal #RateTotal #Rate Hearth Diseases 71,620218.519,436259.445,315285.545,741183.0226.8 Cancers 64,093191.217,335223.642,952252.638,476162.0197.7 Cerebrovascular Disease 19,39659.86,21985.29,79065.815,82563.064.7 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases 16,60050.32,20030.09,45761.09,34338.646.9 Diabetes Mellitus 7,23221.84,04153.85,15630.46,11725.327.6 Source: NC Dept. of Health and Human Services/Center for Health Statistics (2007)

7 NORTH CAROLINA AND PITT COUNTY HEALTH STATISTICS (cont’d) Pitt County – Race-specific and Sex-specific Age-adjusted* Leading Death Rates/100,000 (*Std = Year 2000 U.S. Population) WhitesMinoritiesMalesFemales Total Rate Total #RateTotal #RateTotal #RateTotal #Rate Hearth Diseases 826223.9461256.9629305.9658187.8234.4 Cancers 712185.7477264.0610273.2579173.6210.9 Cerebrovascular Disease 21960.416896.813470.625371.872.1 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases 19352.74123.311962.811534.243.9 Diabetes Mellitus 8823.410359.49142.61002934.7 Source: NC Dept. of Health and Human Services/Center for Health Statistics (2007)

8 NORTH CAROLINA AND PITT COUNTY HEALTH STATISTICS (cont’d) North Carolina’s Rate Ratios for Leading Causes of Death Rate Ratios Cause Minorities/WhitesMales/Females Diseases of heart1.191.56 Cancers1.171.56 Cerebrovascular Disease1.421.04 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases0.601.58 Diabetes Mellitus2.471.20 Alzheimer’s Disease0.73 Unintentional Motor Vehicle Injuries1.012.32 Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome & Nephrosis2.361.32

9 NORTH CAROLINA AND PITT COUNTY HEALTH STATISTICS (cont’d) Pitt County’s Rate Ratios for Leading Causes of Death Rate Ratios Cause Minorities/WhitesMales/Females Diseases of heart1.151.63 Cancers1.421.57 Cerebrovascular Disease1.600.98 Chronic Lower Respiratory Diseases0.441.84 Diabetes Mellitus2.541.47 Nephritis, Nephrotic Syndrome & Nephrosis2.931.07 Unintentional Motor Vehicle Injuries0.902.98 Septicemia2.200.90

10 HEALTH STATISTICS AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT Obesity and associated problems: –Diabetes –Cardiovascular Diseases –Orthopedic injuries Source: Koop (2006)

11 HEALTH STATISTICS AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (cont’d) Source: http://www.greenvillenc.gov/departments/community_development/information/default.aspx?id=1051 http://www.greenvillenc.gov/departments/community_development/information/default.aspx?id=1051

12 HEALTH STATISTICS AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT (cont’d) City of Greenville - Planning Division The City of Greenville Planning Division serves as the administrative and technical coordinator for land development and zoning requests throughout the city's 65-square-mile planning jurisdiction... The division assists developers and general citizens in the submission, analysis, recommendation and approval of both citizen and administratively-initiated development proposals and plans. The Division includes a Zoning Compliance/Enforcement Section, a Site Plan Section, a Subdivision Section, an Annexation/Environmental Services Section, a Zoning/Land Use Section and a Geographic Information System (GIS) Section. In addition, the Division collects and interprets data related to future land use needs and prepares and maintains long range planning studies, including the Horizons Comprehensive Plan. Source: http://www.greenvillenc.gov/departments/community_development/information/default.aspx?id=1067 http://www.greenvillenc.gov/departments/community_development/information/default.aspx?id=1067


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