2Agricultural Origins and Regions Origins of agricultureHunters and gatherers (Our first 30,000 years)Invention of agriculture (Learning to plant/farm)Location of agricultural hearthsVegetative planting (potato…plant part of it)Seed agriculture (plant grows from seed)Classifying agricultural regionsSubsistence vs. commercial agricultureMapping agricultural regions
3Origins of agriculture: Hunters and gatherers Before the invention of agriculture, all humans probably obtain the food they needed for survival by hunting for animals, fishing, or gathering plants (including berries, nuts, fruits, and roots). Hunters and gatherers lived in small groups, usually fewer than 50 persons; because a larger number would quickly exhaust the available resources within walking distance.TODAYEstimated 250,000 people living in isolated areas still live as hunter-gatherersArctic, and the interiors of Africa, South America and AustraliaInvention of agricultureAgriculture is the deliberate modification of the Earth’s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain.Dates back some 10 to 12 thousand years
4Hunter-Gatherers (No…this doesn’t mean running through the cafeteria looking for French fries.) Humanity’s only “economic” activity for at least 90% of our existence.Low population densities.Wide variety of natural foodstuffs eaten.
5The diffusion of agriculture. The origins of agriculturecannot be documented withcertainty, because it beganbefore recorded history.Scholars try to reconstruct alogical sequence of eventsbased on fragments ofinformation about ancientagricultural practices andhistorical environmentalconditions. Determining theorigin of agriculture firstrequires a definition.Agriculture is deliberatemodification of the Earth’s surfacethrough cultivation of plantsand rearing of animals toobtain sustenance or economic gain.
6The First Agricultural Revolution: Somewhere around 30,000 years ago, some early men (Women?) learned to plant.Location of Agricultural Hearths.Multiple places where Agriculture began (Vegetative planting)A. Southeast Asia-north to the rest of Asia and west to Europe.B. Crops like yams, bananas. Livestock like pigs, dogs, and chickensOther early hearth areas were in W. Africa and S. America.Seed Agriculture: Developed in The Middle East, W. India, N. China,and Ethiopia with wheat and barley and later in Europe and theAmericas.The Middle East was the area where cattle, sheep and goats were firstdomesticated and used to pull a plow. Seed agriculture reachedEurope from the Middle East.Seed agriculture developed in the America’s in southern Mexico andN. Peru with the crops of corn, beans and squash. The America’snever developed herding animals and the only animals theydomesticated were Llama’s, Turkeys and Alpaca.
7Results of the First Agricultural Revolution: Primary effects:Urbanization (first cities were formed)Social stratification (first classes of society)Occupational specialization (bakers, carpenters)Increased population densities (population grew)Secondary effects:Endemic diseases (found in one area...malaria or the flu)Famine (became dependent on one crop)Expansionism (People began to move because of overcrowding)
8What is the difference between farming in LDC’s and MDCS? The biggest difference between farming in LDC countries and farming in MDC’s is that LDC farmers mostly practice subsistence farming (farming for food they eat), while MDC farmers mostly practice commercial farming (farming for food they sell for money).
9Forms of Agriculture Subsistence (LDC) Commercial (MDC) produced for own consumptionwork by handmost people workshifting agriculturenomadic herdingrice (intensive subsistence)Non-rice (intensive subsistence)Commercial (MDC)produced for marketmechanizedfew laborerslivestock & ranchinghorticulturedairy farmingmixed cropgrainMediterraneanplantation agriculture
11Shifting cultivation: mostly small scale farming done in regions with hot and wet climates. Slash and burn agriculture-this generally takes place with the people living in a small village and working the land around the village. This cleared land is often known as “swidden” land. When the swidden is no longer fertile they move on to clear more.Ownership of land in shifting cultivation: usually the entire village owns the land and the village chief or ruling council allocates patches of land to each family according to their needs. About ¼ of the world’s farmland (but only 5% of its people) is in shifting cultivation.
12Shifting CultivationVegetation “slashed” and then burned. Soil remains fertile for 2-3 years. Then people move on.Where: tropical rainforests. Amazon, Central and West Africa, Southeast AsiaCrops: upland rice (S.E. Asia), maize (corn) and manioc (S. America), millet (a small eatable seed) and sorghum (molasses in Africa)Declining at hands of ranching andlogging.
13Future of shifting cultivation: the amount of land in shifting cultivation is dropping. These kinds of farms are being replaced by logging, cattle ranching and cash crop farming. Some opponents to shifting cultivation say that it contributes to global warming by destroying forests that cut down on carbon dioxide. Others point out that this is a way to clear forests for needed development and settlement.Pastoral Nomadism: though once thought of as only a step between Hunter-Gatherer’s and Sedentary farmers we now see pastoral nomads as just another type of farming. Like other subsistence farmers, pastoral nomads depend mostly on grain for food. Skin and hair provide clothing and shelter. Some nomads move constantly while others follow the seasons with their herds or stay in one place for long periods while they exchange animal products for crops grown by non-nomadic farmers.The type of animal herded depends on the climate. The number of animals needed to support a typical nomadic family of 6 or so people, is goats or sheep, or camels.
14Pastoral Nomadism:The breeding and herding of domesticated animals for subsistence.Where: arid and semi-arid areas of N. Africa, Middle East, Central AsiaAnimals: Camel, Goats, Sheep, CattleTranshumance: seasonal migrations from highlands to lowlandsMost nomads are being pressured into sedentary life as land is used for agriculture or mining.Transhumance: seasonal migration between mountains and lowland pasture.Bedouin ShepherdSomali Nomad and Tent
15Intensive Subsistence agriculture: Shifting cultivation and Nomadism are forms of subsistence agriculture found in regions of low density. (Why?) BUT ¾ of the world’s people live in densely packed LDC’s which need another type of subsistence farming to keep them fed. Intensive subsistence agriculture is using a small amount of land to produce as much food as possible. No land is wasted. Roads are narrow, crops are grown in layers, and hillsides are terraced to produce usable growing areas. In Asia, agriculture can be divided between areas where wet rice is grown and areas where it is not grown.Intensive subsistence with wet rice: Wet rice begins in a nursery on dry land but then has to be transplanted to a wet flooded field for growth. It takes a lot of effort, hand labor and constant work (plus a lot of water) but the yield in rice is huge. This is the number 1 crop of most of South Asia, China and Southeast Asia.
16Double cropping: If your climate had warm winters you may get two or more crops per year. Intensive subsistence without wet rice: If your climate is not good for rice you must chose something else. The methods are the same as Intensive rice producing areas…human labor and use of animals, wheat, barley and corn are the key crops for non-wet-rice areas. Beans and other vegetables are also key crops. Cotton, tobacco and other non-food crops are also key. These areas are sometimes good for crop rotation methods of rotating the crop to prevent wearing out the soil.
17Intensive Subsistence Agriculture Wet Rice Dominantwhere: S.E. Asia, E. India, S.E. Chinavery labor intensive production of rice, including transfer to sawah, or paddiesmost important source of food in Asiagrown on flat, or terraced landDouble cropping is used in warm winter areas of S. China and TaiwanThe Fields of BaliThai Rice Farmers
19Rice…one of the world’s main crops. Top 20 Rice Producers by Country—2011 (million metric ton People's Republic of China202.6 India155.7 Indonesia65.7 Bangladesh50.6 Vietnam42.3 Thailand34.5 Burma32.8 Philippines16.6 Brazil13.5 Pakistan9.2 Cambodia8.8 Japan8.4 United States8.3 South Korea6.3 Egypt5.6 Nigeria4.5 Nepal4.4 Madagascar4.3 Sri Lanka3.9 Iran3.2Source: Food and Agriculture OrganizationAsian farmers grow over 90% of the world’s rice. India and China alone account for over half of world rice production.
27Modern Agricultural Revolution: The second Agricultural Revolution began in the 1830’s as part of the Industrial Revolution.Technology allows much greater production (surplus) with less human labor, but has high social and environmental costs.Metal plows, Reapers, Cotton Gin, the Train.Tractors (Internal Combustion Engine)CombinesChemical Pesticides/FertilizersHybrid and genetically modified crops
28Agribusiness: The industrialization of agriculture Modern commercial farming is very dependent on inputs of chemical fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides.Oil is required to make fertilizer and pesticides.It takes 10 calories of fossil fuel energy to create 1 calorie of food in modern agriculture.Small farmer can’t buy needed equipment and supplies.Fewer than 2% of U.S. population works in agriculture.
29Agriculture in MDC’s Commercial Agriculture $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Mixed Crop and Livestock FarmingDairy FarmingGrain FarmingLivestock RanchingMediterranean AgricultureTruck FarmingNorth Dakota Potato and Wheat Fields
30Agribusiness.WisconsinPennsylvaniaWhy is 95% of the milk produced in Wisconsin turned into cheese, while 95% of the milk produced in Pennsylvania is sold fresh? answerBecause there are 80 million people within easy drive of Pennsylvania who need fresh milk everyday. Way more milk is produced in Wisconsin than can be consumed near by so most Wisconsin milk is made into cheese for easy shipment elsewhere.
31Mixed crop and livestock farming: These methods are mostly found in MDC’s. In this system there is an integration of farming with livestock…most of the crops are grown to be fed to the farm animals. Hay, corn, clover, are grown on ¾ of the farm but the farm’s income comes from the ¼ where the farm animals are raised and fed the crops. This usually uses a crop rotation system often leaving a field “fallow” (left alone) so it regains nutrients. “Rest” crops like clover are grown to help a field regain nutrients.Dairy Farming: This is the #1 type of commercial agriculture found in the northern U.S. and northwestern Europe. 20% of the total value of farm products in N. America and W. Europe are from dairy farming. Nearly 60% of the world’s supply of milk is produced and consumed in N. America, W. Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Russia. Because milk is highly perishable, dairy farms are found very close to big cities (the milkshed). The dairy farms located further away from the big cities put their milk into cheese and butter production as they can be shipped better.Problems for dairy farmers include the heavy workload and the cost of feed especially in the winter. Dairy farmers work 7 days a week and many of their children don’t want to take over the farm when mom and dad retire. 2/3 of America’s dairy farms were sold between 1980 and (Who to?) Despite that, the number of milk cows dropped only by 1/8 and milk production has risen due to the better yields per cow on the large corporate farms.
32Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming Where: Ohio to Dakotas, centered on Iowa; much of Europe from France to Russiacrops: corn (most common), soybeansIn U.S. 80% of product fed to pigs and cattleHighly inefficient use of natural resourcesPounds of grain to make 1 lb. beef: 10Gallons of water to make 1 1b wheat: 25Gallons of water to make 1 1b. beef: 2500
33Dairy FarmingWhere: near urban areas in N.E. United States, Southeast Canada, N.W. EuropeLocational Theory: butter and cheese more common than milk with increasing distance from cities and in West.milkshed: historically defined by spoilage threat; refrigerated trucks changed this.Hey look Bossie, that’s Mr. Kessinger’s APHUG class. Well mooooo to youoooo APHUG students.Dairy Farm, Wisconsin
34Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment Milk production reflects wealth, culture, and environment. It is usually high in MDCs, especially production per capita, and varies considerably in LDCs.
35Grain farming: Grain is the seed from various grasses like wheat, corn, barley, oats, and rice. Some form of grain is a major crop on most farms in the world. Crops on a grain farm are grown partly for human consumption and partly for animal feed and fuel.Commercial grain farmers sell their crop to companies who make cereal, flour, and other foods. Wheat is the world’s chief grain and China is the worlds #1 producer of wheat. The US is 3rd in wheat and 1st in corn. Our Midwest and prairie lands are known as the World’s breadbasket.Commercial grain farming is done generally in dryer regions than mixed crop/ livestock. This type of farming is highly mechanized as it covers vast areas of land.
36Grain FarmingWhere: worldwide, but China, India the U.S. and Russia are predominantCrops: wheatWinter wheat: Kansas, Colorado, OklahomaSpring wheat: Dakotas, Montana, southern CanadaHighly mechanized: combines, worth hundreds of thousands of dollars, migrate northward in U.S., following the harvest.
38Quiz yourself:___________allows much greater production (surplus) with less human labor, but has high social and environmental costs.Pastoral nomads depend almost entirely on __________ rather than crops._____ ______ was humanity’s only “economic” activity for at least 90% of our existence.______is the world’s chief grain and ______ is the worlds #1 producer of it.______ is the #1 type of commercial agriculture found in the northern U.S.______ _________is using a small amount of land to produce as much food as possible. No land is wasted.______ _______ features vegetation “slashed” and then burned. Soil remains fertile for 2-3 years. Then people move on.The biggest difference between farming in LDC ‘s and farming in MDC’s is that LDC farmers mostly practice _________while MDC farmers mostly practice____________Only about _____% of U.S. population works in agriculture.10. Which of these is neither a primary vegetative or primary seed agricultural hearth? A) Africa B) S. America C) The Middle East D) Europe E) Asia11. Generally, crop rotation is done to…A) change up what we eat B) change up what farm animals eat C) keep from wearing out the soil D) produce more income12. In mixed crop livestock farming most of the crops are grown to ______________
39Quiz answers: Technology 10. D Animals 11. C Hunter gathering feed to livestockWheat, ChinaDairy farmingIntensive farmingShifting cultivation8. Subsistence, commercial9. 2%
40Livestock ranching: This type of agriculture is generally done on land that is too dry for farming. It takes vast amounts of land to allow for enough grass production for herds of cattle, or sheep to graze. In the early days of the old west, much land was open and belonged to no one, and a cattle owner could just graze his cattle anywhere before moving them on to market. Range wars between cattlemen and farmers took place but by the 1880’s this open range had been purchased by settlers and fixed location ranching became the dominant form.Today’s ranching has changed. Ranches are large because the arid land doesn’t produce much food for the cattle. Today’s new irrigation techniques has put once cattle land into better farming land so there aren’t as many full time ranches as their once was.Ranching is big throughout the world. The Pampas region of south America (Argentina) is the 2nd largest ranching area in the world and Australia is also a major producer.
41Livestock Ranching Environmental effects: Where: arid or semi-arid areas of western U.S., Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Spain, Argentina and Portugal.History: initially open range, now sedentary with transportation changes…trains haul cattle to market.Texas Feedlot:Environmental effects:overgrazing has damaged much of the world’s arid grasslands (< 1% of U.S. remain!)2) destruction of the rainforest is motivated by Brazilian desires for fashionable cattle ranches. Slash and burn cattle ranching.
42Mediterranean agriculture: Horticulture Mediterranean agriculture: Horticulture. This style of agriculture involves growing mostly crops for human consumption based on growing fruits, nuts, vegetables, flowers and tree crops. This began in the Mediterranean countries but now includes other parts of the world with sunny mild climates. Southern California is our key Mediterranean Agriculture area.Commercial gardening and fruit farming: A larger scale type of horticulture isTruck farming. This kind of farming grows fresh fruits and vegetables for the big cities (Strawberry farms in Plant City). Instead of just a few crops like most commercial farms, truck farms grow a wider variety of things people want and their nearness to big cities helps their sales. Specialty farms produce things like Christmas trees, nursery plants, grass for lawns as well as flowers, and berries.Plantation farming: Plantations are large farms which specialize in one or two crops and are often owned by companies or people who live in another country. Often the crop is something sold by LDC’s to MDC’s as part of the International trade method of development; rubber, coffee, cocoa, tea, sugar, cotton, etc.
43Mediterranean Agriculture Where: areas surrounding the Mediterranean, California, Oregon, Chile, South Africa, AustraliaClimate has summer dry season. Landscape is mountainous.crops: olives, grapes, nuts, fruits and vegetables; winter wheatCalifornia: high quality land is being lost to suburbanization; initially offset by irrigation
44Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming Where: U.S. Southeast, NewEngland, near cities around theworldcrops: high profit vegetables and fruits demanded by wealthy urban populations- apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, tomatoes, etc.mechanization: such truck farming is highly mechanized and labor costs are further reduced by the use of cheap immigrant (and illegal) labor.distribution: situated near urban markets, near large urban areas.
45Plantation Farminglarge scale mono-cropping of profitable products not able to be grown in Europe or U.S.where: tropical lowland Peripherycrops: cotton, sugar cane, coffee, rubber, cocoa, bananas, tea, coconuts, palm oil.Plantations are often owned or operated by Europeans or North Americans and grow crops for sale primarily in more developed countries.
47Making Money in Commercial Agriculture Value-AddedVery little of the value of most commercial products comes from the raw materials“adding value” is the key to high profit margins The advertising makes the difference.Average dairyfarmer gets $.72per gallon beforededucting for hisCosts.Why are these items on these shelves?Roughly 6% of the price of cereal is the cost of the grain. The rest is advertising, shipping and packaging
49Von Thünen’s land use model German landowner in the 1800’sNoticed pattern of agricultural land useThree assumptions:Isolated city (no trade)Surrounded by homogenous landscapeAll that matters is transport costs!!!!!
50The Von Thunen Model:The concept of bid rent. That is, agricultural practices that yield a high profit per acre can out bid those practices that are not as profitable. Thus they are able to occupy the more accessible land near the city. The closer your farm is to the city (market) the less you pay for transportation to the market. Products that are expensive to transport (milk, eggs, flowers)need to be nearer to the market. Products that are less expensive to transport (wheat, cattle, potatoes) can be much further away.
51to ship products to market, cost of the land itself, cost for irrigation, etc.) and finds out how much he can sell a crop for. You must find a crop they you can sell for more than the land costs.Land valueVon Thunen’s Model-The number one question for farmers is: what crop can I grow and make the most $$$. The way to determine this is to determine the cost of his land (cost to ship products to market, cost of the land itself, cost for irrigation, etc.) and then find how much he can sell a crop for. You must find a crop that you can sell for more than the land costs.The MarketThe MarketDistance from market
52. . . . . . Distance from market Distance from market $18 Land value $15Producing andtransporting corncosts you $.50 per mile. The best price you canget is $ 6 per bushel.Producing andtransportingmeat costs you $1.50 per mile. The best price you can get is $9 for each 20 pounds.Producing and transporting milk and cheese costs you $18 per mile. Best price you can get is $18 for each 25 gallons or pounds.Producing andtransportingfresh vegetablescosts you $5 per mile. The best price you can get is $15 per bushel..$12.$9.$8.$6.Distance from market$3Distance from market$01 mile miles miles miles
53Distance from market $18 Land value Land value $15 Producing and transporting milkand cheese costs you $18 per mile for every unit you sell (25 gallons or 25 pounds).The most you can get for your product is $18per unit, so the farthest you can be from the market is 1 mile. (Actually just under I mile.)$12$9$8$6$30$Distance from market1 mile
54Where lines cross (dotted lines) are where the farmer could do either crop and make a profit. Past the dotted line is where the farmer may want to switch to the next crop.
55$18$15Point where farmer may want to switch crops to the next one. At this point you will make $12 for either product.$121 mileLand valueProducing and transportingfresh vegetables costs you$5 per bushel per mile. The max you will get is $15, so the farthest you can be from the market is 3 miles.$0Distance from market1 mile3 miles
56Land value Distance from market $18 $15 $12 Points where farmer may want to switch crops to the next one.$9Land value$8$6Producing and transportingmeat costs you $1.50 per mile for each 20 pound unit. The most you can get is $9 for each 20 pound unit, so the farthest you can be is 6 miles from the market.1 mile miles milesDistance from market
57Distance from market So, what you produce will depend $18So, what you produce will dependon your production and transportation costs to market. There is more to being a successful farmer than just putting seeds in the ground or feeding the pigs.Land value$15Lnd value$12$9$8$6Producing and transporting corncosts you $.50 per bushel per mile. The most you can get for your corn is $6 so the farthest you can be from the market is 12 miles.$4$0Distance from market1 mile miles miles miles
58So, transportation costs is one of the keys to picking a crop to grow. Johann Heinrich von Thünen's model of agricultural distribution around a city in concentric circles. The dot represents a city. The white area around it represents dairy and market gardening;2) (green) the forest for fuel;3) (yellow) field crops and grains;4) (red) Ranching and livestock ;and the outer (dark green) region represents the wilderness where agriculture is not practiced.
59What things did Von Thunen not consider? Von Thunen didn’t consider what the farmer wants to do or what he knows how to do best.Von Thunen also didn’t consider imports of foods which would compete with the foods produced by the farmers.He didn’t consider that the farm land could be different as you move out from the city.Von Thunen also didn’t consider the growing season and the possibility of double cropping.His ideas are just plain math statistics on transportation costs, that a farmer should consider when planning his crop.
60Sustainable Agriculture: (Organic farming) This type of agriculture uses more detail in taking care of the land without the heavy use of insecticides and fertilizers. It is more expensive and perhaps not as efficient, but it uses more “natural” means of production. It is not corporate farming. These farms are more likely to be small.New problems for Subsistence Farmers: 1. Huge ever-growing population to feed 2. International trade development means that the LDC farmers export most of what they grow and/or produce what can be exported to MDC’s. This leaves less food for THEM.Boserup’s theory…stages for intensified farm production in LDC’s:Population growth in LDC’s has changed the types of subsistence farming done. Trying to feed the ever-growing population in LDC’s and still sell in international trade causes:Fields once left fallow to allow for rest are now being used sooner resulting in wearing out the soil.Subsistence farmers must intensify production with new farm methods,better machinery, fertilizer and terraced farming to gain more land. Morelabor is needed.Production will increase but the production just barely keeps up with the increase in population. They go into debt to buy the machinery and fertilizer.
61Subsistence farming and international trade: The need for modern machinery, fertilizers, and seeds drives LDC’s to export food to MDC’s to pay for the needed supplies. However this increase in exported foods cuts back on the food supply needed for the growing population of the country. They are trapped in a problem. Which one do you do…feed your people and keep your country poor or try to raise the development of your country for it’s future?????Drug crops: Drugs sell for high prices. LDC’s need money!!!!!Strategies to increase the food supply:Increase the land area used for agricultureIncrease the productivity of the land now in useIdentify new food sourcesIncrease exports from other countries
62Increase the amount of land… Currently only 11% of the world’s land area is cultivated. This seems to say we have lots of areas for increased farming, but problems exist. Much land is too cold, too hot, too dry, too mountainous or too wet for farming. Some of the land we presently use is losing its ability to be used for farming.Desertification is taking large areas of land once used successfully for farming and turning it into desert.Increase food supply through higher productivity…We have been doing this through projects like the Green Revolution which began in the 1960’s. The Green Revolution involves the introduction of new Hybrid seeds and the vast use of fertilizers to increase food production. All this costs $ which is difficult for LDC’s to obtain. There is also a Blue Revolution which is the scientific farming of fish.
63World Desertification hazards: The most severe desertification hazards are in northern Africa, central Australia, and the southwestern parts of Africa, Asia, North America, and South America.
64The Sahel…the Sahara grows. The Sahel, which is south of the Sahara, frequently faces drought and food shortages, as does the Horn of Africa. Once the desert moves in, it doesn’t move out.
65Increase the food supply by identifying new food sources: Easier said than done. We cultivate the oceans, we are trying to develop higher protein cereals which will give us more food, and attempts are being made to find ways to eat things we don’t normally eat.Religion and custom often prevent this from happening. Are you willing to eat insects?Increase the food supply by increasing exports from other countries: This has been done but the problem of cost still remains a problem for LDC countries. How do we squeeze more food out of countries who already are at maximum production?
67The Green Revolution…success??? Gains in food production were made by:Dwarf varieties: plants are bred to allocate more of their photosynthetic output to grain and less to vegetative parts.Planting in closer rows, allowed by herbicides, increases yields.Bred to be less sensitive to day length, thus double-cropping is more plausible. The new “Plant City” strawberry is full grown 10 days faster than other strawberries.Very sensitive to inputs of fertilizer and water. Some new hybrid seeds fertilize themselves.
68Technical and Resource Limitation Problems with the Green Revolution Heavy Use of Fresh WaterHigh Dependence on Technology and Machinery Provided/Sold by Core Countries. Difficult for LDC’s to afford.Heavy Use of Pesticides and Fertilizer causes pollution and harms the soil.Reduced Genetic Diversity / Increased Blight Vulnerability. Eating more of just a few crops…is it good to depend on just a few foods?Questionable Overall Sustainability…what happens when the price of oil goes up?
69Ethical IssuesStarvation of many prevented, but extra food may lead to higher birth rates.Life expectancy in less developed countries increased by 10 years in less than two decades (43 in 1950’s to 53 in 1970’s). IS THIS GOOD? How can it possibly be bad? Well……Dependency on core countries increased; rich-poor gap increased.Wealthy farmers and multinational companies do well, small farmers become wage laborers or unemployed – dependent.More at risk? More people malnourished/starving today than in 1950 (but lower as a percentage).U.S. spends $10,000,000,000 year on farm subsidies, damaging farmers and markets in LDCs. Our cheap corn and wheat has actually put corn and wheat farmers in some LDC’s out of business. How????????? Our farmers produce huge amounts of corn and wheat and we need to sell it. We can sell it to LDC’s cheaper than they can produce it. What happens to them if we cut production?
70Biotechnology in Agriculture CloningRecombinant DNABT Corn Debate (transgenic maize)This produces more corn than ever before, but is it safe?
71Agricultural Trends Today: Hand Labor Mechanization:Small Plots Large corporation owned holdingsNo fertilizers natural fertilizers chemical fertilizersNatural Seed Production Hybrid SeedsFarm to family Farm to processing to supermarketNature controlled water man controlled water
72Quiz yourself:Crops grown using the Green Revolution methods use more water and pesticides than standard crops. T-FAnother name for organic food, this type of agriculture does not have large corporate agri-farms. ______________ Agriculture._______ __________ type of agriculture is generally done on land that is too dry for farming.Often found near large cities , this kind of farming grows fresh fruits and vegetables for the big cities. ______ __________large farms which specialize in one or two crops and are often owned by companies or people who live in another country. __________________ is taking large areas of land once used successfully for farming and turning it into desert.________________ theory sheds light on the LDC’s problem of how to feed their growing population and still sell crops as part of the International Trade method.8. Truck farms are always situated near urban markets. T-F9. In Von Thunen’s original model there was always a circle of land, just beyond the nearby horticulture and dairy area ,left to be forest. This was for __________.10. The land area in Africa just south of the Sahara is know as the __________.11. The big money in agriculture comes from the ______ ________ from advertizing and processing.12-15: Explain the main idea of VonThunen’s model. You may draw a diagram… BUT YOU MUST EXPLAIN IT.
73Quiz answers:True SahelSustainable value addedLivestock ranching It explains how the Von Thunenmodel is mostly concerned with the costof transporting farm products to4. Commercial gardening market. An expensive product totransport (such as fresh milk) usually5. Plantation needs to be produced as close to themarket as possible. This will mean that6. Desertification the cost of that land will normally behigher than land further away from the7. Boserup’s market (bid rent). The successful farmerneeds to know these prices before8. True deciding what to produce on their land andthe Von Thunen model helps a farmer predict9. Firewood fuel the best products for his location (based ontransportation costs only).
74Key topic/chapter 10 test: These questions come from a combination of our slides, your text book, and common knowledge you should have discussed in your AP classroom. They are very typical of what you will see on the National Exam.The relatively large size of the average North American farm results in all but which of the following? A) Most farms are owned by large corporations.B) Mechanization is necessary. C) Farming is expensive. D) All of the above are true. 2) In the United States many farms are integrated into a large food production industry. This is known as… A) agribusiness. B) commercial farming. C) food processing. D) mechanized farming. 3) The type of agriculture practiced on a commercial farm depends on all but which of the following? A) cultural factors, such as consumer preferences B) locational factors, such as access to raw materials C) site factors, such as climate and soil D) situation factors, such as access to markets 4) According to von Thünen's model, a commercial farmer is concerned with which of these costs? A) price of land B) cost of transporting output to market C) value of yield per hectare D) All of the above are considered. 5) Von Thünen's model can best be used to explain the location of which of the following types of agriculture? A) dairying in the Northeast United States B) ranching in the dry lands of North Africa C) shifting cultivation in the tropics of South America D) intensive subsistence in South China 6) According to the von Thünen model, market-oriented gardens and milk producers were located in the first ring for all but which of the following reasons? A) delivery cost B) perishability C) proximity to market D) quality of soil 7) China, the United States, Russia, and India are the leading producers of… A) commercial grain. B) livestock ranching. C) milk products. D) corn (maize). 8) Compared to shifting cultivation, intensive subsistence agriculture is characterized by which of the following? A) higher agricultural density B) greater use of animal power C) smaller farms D) none of these 9) In shifting cultivation, the cleared land is often known of as…A) choco B) prairie C) bog D) steppe E) swidden 10) Commercial agriculture is distinguished from subsistence agriculture by all but which of the following? A) farm size B) heavy use of machinery C) output consumed on the farm. D) low percentage of farmers in the labor force
7511) Less developed countries generate funds to promote development through… A) encouraging traditional subsistence agriculture. B) feeding the rapidly growing population. C) selling export crops. D) bartering with urban residents. 12) The most important distinction for dividing the world into agricultural regions is… A) whether crops are grown or animals are raised. B) the location of the first agriculture. C) the population density of the crop-producing region. D) whether the product is consumed on or off the farm. 13) In general, the farther a dairy farm is from a large urban area the lower the percentage of output devoted to fresh milk. This occurs primarily because… A) milk is more perishable than butter. B) transport costs are greater farther from the urban area. C) the quality of soil is lower near an urban area D) land costs are lower farther from the urban area. 14) Shifting cultivation is most commonly found in which climate region? A) humid low-latitude B) dry C) warm mid-latitude D) cold mid-latitude 15) Shifting cultivation is a form of agriculture criticized for all but which of the following reasons? A) It destroys natural resources such as forests. B) It causes soil erosion and depletion of nutrients. C) It upsets the ecology through the use of fertilizers. D) It consumes a lot of land to feed a small number of people. 16) Farmers in more developed and less developed countries share which following problem? A) inadequate income B) lack of equipment C) surplus production D) access to fertilizers 17) Which of the following is not a typical practice in growing rice in Asia? A) flooding the plowed land with rain water B) flattening the land C) transplanting seedlings grown in a nursery D) harvesting with a plow drawn by oxen 18) Other than corn, the most important crop in the U.S. mixed crop and livestock region is… A) soybeans. B) grain. C) fruits and vegetables D) wheat. 19) Pastoral nomads are distinguished from other forms of subsistence farmers by all but which of the following? A) They obtain grain through trade. B) They occupy dry lands. C) They consume animals rather than grain. D) All of the above distinguish pastoral nomadism20) Which type of agriculture occupies the largest percentage of the world's land area? A) intensive subsistence B) plantation C) shifting cultivation D) dairying
7621) The different areas of the world where Mediterranean agriculture predominates share similar… A) climate. B) cultural beliefs. C) levels of development. D) social customs. 22) Which is not a form of subsistence agriculture? A) shifting cultivation B) pastoral nomadism C) Mediterranean D) All of these are forms of subsistence agriculture. 23) The predominant form of agriculture in the U.S. Southeast is… A) mixed crop and livestock. B) dairy farming. C) Mediterranean agriculture. D) commercial gardening. 24) The decline in the number of farmers can best be described as a consequence of…A) push/pull factors B) urban sprawl C) climate change D) migration E) demographic transition25) Which type of agriculture is practiced by the largest percentage of the world's people? A) hunting and gathering B) intensive subsistence C) pastoral nomadism D) shifting cultivation 26) Shifting cultivation causes environmental damage primarily when… A) population exceeds environmental capacity. B) more fertilizers are introduced. C) fields are permanently cleared. D) cultural traditions are ignored. 27) Unlike other forms of commercial agriculture, plantations are… A) owned by people in less developed countries. B) found primarily in less developed countries. C) part of agribusiness. D) none of these 28) Vegetative planting probably originated in… A) Southeast Asia. B) South America. C) Ethiopia. D) all of the above 29) Which is not an important agricultural hearth is… A) Southeast Asia. B) South America. C) Ethiopia. D) Europe30) Which statement correctly describes hunting and gathering? A) All humans obtained their food this way before the invention of agriculture. B) It is a form of nomadism. C) This form of agriculture is still practiced. D) all of the above The following questions are written at the high school level. You will find some questions from part one often rewritten here. This is all designed to help you transition to the college/AP style of written questions.
7731. In terms of total tonnage, which of the following is currently the leading export crop in the world? A. coffee B. Sugar cane C. Wheat D. Corn E. Rice32, Von Thunen emphasized which of the following factors in his model of agricultural land use? A. labor cost B. transportation cost C. fertilizer cost D. machinery cost E. seasonal fluctuations in prices of farm products.33. Which of the following is a characteristic of shifting cultivation? A. dependency on irrigation. B. sharecropping C. production of cash crops for export D. demand for wage laborers. E. cultivated land quickly becomes worn out.34. The “Green Revolution” refers to…A. the environmental politics of Greenpeace. B. hybrid crops introduced to promote agricultural development C. a Fundamentalist Islamic movement. D. effort to provide parks and open spaces around industrial cities. E. the development of gardens in cities.35. The cultivation of plants by cutting stems and dividing roots is…A) seed planting B) agribusiness C) vegetative planting D) hybrid farming36. Corn (Maize) was first domesticated in… A. N. Argentina B. the Tibetan plateau C. the Canadian prairie D. central Mexico E. central Australia37. Which of the following is true of Hunter-Gathering as an activity? A. it is prevalent where resources are rich and climate conditions are not extreme. B) it is pursued by less than 1% of the modern human population. C) it is limited to tropical areas. D) it does not have a gender-based division of labor.38. Women played a crucial role in the domestication of plants because they…A. were interested in varying the diet of their family. B. were engaged in collecting plants as a resource. C. were agile climbers on the hillsides of the Fertile Crescent D. knew how to achieve control over their environment. E. traveled long distances from their home base.39. A world map of Hog production per capita would reveal that the lowest values would be in which of the following areas? A) The U.S. B) Asia C) The Middle East D) China40. Which of the following includes the world’s earliest centers of plant domestication? A) British Isles, Scandinavia, the U.S. B) N.E. Asia, E. Europe, S. Africa C) Australia, N. Zealand, China D) S.E. Asia, S. America (Mesoamerica), Middle East. E) Russia, China, Australia
7841. What is the purpose of crop rotation. A 41. What is the purpose of crop rotation? A. maintaining fresh products for market B. maintaining price supports C. maintaining fertility of fields D. responding to shifting consumer preference D. reducing transportation costs.42. The primary factor in von Thunen’s model for choosing commercial farm products is…A) land price B. market location C. climate D. soil character E. labor cost43. Von Thunen’s model can best be used to explain the location of which of the following types of agriculture? A) dairying in the Northeast U.S. B) ranching in the dry lands of North America C) shifting cultivation in the tropics of S. America D) intensive subsistence in South China E) Mediterranean agriculture in Chile44. According the Von Thunen model, timber production was located in the second ring from the city because of what factor? A) labor intensive harvesting methods B) perishability C) need for a vast area D) product weight E) distance decay45. The farther a dairy farm is located from the urban area the lower the percentage of output devoted to fresh milk. This occurs primarily because…A) land costs are lower farther from the urban area. B) processed milk is less perishable C) transport costs are greater farther from the urban area. D) the quality of the soil is lower near an urban area. E) rural populations drink less milk per capita that urban dwellers do.46. The area around a city from which fresh milk can be supplied without spoiling is known as the…A) transit zone B) milkshed C) lactose zone D) commodity zone E) none of these47. Ranching has declined in the southwestern United States primarily because…A) crops yield more income per acre B) the predominant breed of cattle has changed C) long-distance cattle drives are no longer practical D) the region lacks adequate water supplies E) exports tariffs on beef.48. The different areas of the world where Mediterranean agriculture predominates have similar…A) climate B) cultural beliefs C) broad expanses of flat land along the coast D) social customs E) levels of livestock production with mixed crop and livestock regions.49. Farmers in more developed countries and less developed countries share which of the following problems…A) access to fertilizer B) inadequate income C) lack of equipment D) surplus production E) declining market demand50. Less developed countries generate funds to promote agriculture through…A) bartering with urban residents. B) encouraging traditional subsistence agriculture C) feeding the rapidly growing population. D) selling export crops E) adopting shifting agriculture.
81Answer Key:1. A A B D2. A C A C3. B A D B4. B B D A5. A A C D6. D D B B7. A C E B8. B A B A9. E C C A10. C D D B11. C A B D12. D B B13. A A C
82Free Response Rubric:Remember, there is no complete right or wrong for Free Response answers. Each FR question is worth a certain number of points. You pick up points for each part of the question that you answer. On the AP National exam there will be 3 FR’s which together count as one half of the exam, and are added to the multiple choice section to make up your total score. On this test, score your answers for the two FR’s and then add that score to what you got on the multiple choice part to get your final score for the test.FR #1: How does the Tea plantation above both (A) help and (B) harm a subsistence farming family in this LDC country?The tea plantation helps in that it provides jobs for the local people and brings in cash income from outside the country, as the tea is mostly sold in other countries. This outside income gives the country money that can be used to buy things from the outside world that this poor country doesn’t produce. (maximum of 12 points)This tea plantation is harmful in that it uses some of the best land available in the production of a non food crop. This land could be used by the local people to grow food they could eat, but instead is used for tea production which is sold outside the country. The highest income jobs mostly belong to the owners of the plantation, which almost always are international corporations whose offices are in MDC countries. (maximum of 13 points)FR #2: A) Define the term “Green Revolution” and (B) explain how the “Green Revolution” is not what most environmentalists are referring to when they speak of “going green.”The Green Revolution involves the introduction of new Hybrid seeds and the vast use of fertilizers to increase foodproduction. (maximum of 10 points)
83B. When environmentalists speak of “going green” they are referring to using crops and methods that are safe and non-harmful to the environment. The “Green Revolution” is all about producing as much food as possible through the use of any method, regardless of environmental hazards. Green Revolution farming will use mass amounts of chemical fertilizers and water. While this will produce large quantities of food, the pollution from this mass use of fertilizer and the water drain off is harmful to the environment. (maximum of 15 points)
84Calculating your grade on test #10. Add how many you got correct on the multiple choice part (50 possible) to how manypoints you scored on the FR portion (50 possible)…100 total.The following scale will show the approximate score if this test were the real AP exam. Remember that this is an approximation. While 65-74% is normally the range for a 3 on the test, it is not definite. Over the years I have seen scores as low as 60% be the low portion of a 3 score.Out of 100 possible points:65-76 is most likely a 377-87 is most likely a 4is most likely a 5Now lets move on to the next chapter/key topic…the study of industry.