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Academic Bullying: Practical Strategies for Faculty

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Presentation on theme: "Academic Bullying: Practical Strategies for Faculty"— Presentation transcript:

1 Academic Bullying: Practical Strategies for Faculty
Mary Chavez Rudolph University of Colorado, Denver Thomas Sebok University of Colorado, Boulder

2 Today’s Agenda Student Incivility Factors that Affect Conflict
Perceptions Emotion Communication Incivility in Academia Faculty Incivility & Bullying Interventions

3 Student Incivility in the College Classroom
STUDENT INCIVILITY IN THE COLLEGE CLASSROOM FROM A FACULTY PERSPECTIVE: RACE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PERCEPTION, ATTRIBUTION, EFFECT, AND RESPONSE Mary Chavez Rudolph, 2005 Doctoral Dissertation

4 SI Behaviors (Amada, 1999) sleeping in class prolonged chattering
excessive lateness poor personal hygiene overt inattentiveness eating, drinking, gum chewing, smoking carrying pagers and beepers passing notes unexcused exits from class verbal or physical threats to students or faculty disputing the instructor’s authority and expertise

5 Student Incivility (SI) Concern of Faculty and Administrators
Incivility by one student or by many students has the potential to severely compromise the effectiveness of the classroom instruction and learning. “In related studies, where I tracked new faculty longer, these traumatic events (CI) [Classroom Incivility] and resulting impressions of undergraduates as adversaries were among the few early turning points that derailed careers.” (Boice, 1998)

6 Causes of SI Nature of Students
Student Mental Health Consumer Attitude Student Learning vs. Faculty Teaching Nature of Society, the Classroom, the Course Incivility in Society Informality of Organizations Large Classrooms

7 Causes of SI (con’t.) Instructor Behaviors
Increasing ethnic and gender diversity of students and instructors, and that SI and conflict is a reflection of cultural differences.

8 Read Terry and Anna Case Study… Discuss with your neighbor…
What are the different perspectives of the parties in this situation? How does this affect this conflict? How is emotion affecting this conflict? How is communication affecting this conflict?

9 Factors Affecting Conflict
Perceptions Identity, History Emotion Communication

10 Perceptions “…conflict lies not in objective reality, but in people’s heads.” Fisher and Ury, 1991 Check out Assumptions Put yourself in their shoes Ask / Discuss Perceptual Errors

11 Emotion Emotion and (is) Motivation
Both move us in some way, as implied by the common Latin root of both words (movere, to move). Brian Parkinson and Andrew M. Colman, 1995 Emotions are often precursors of motivational phenomena. Oatley, 1992 “Emotion as Insight” Jones & Brinkert, 2008 Managing Emotion

12 Communication Timing and Setting Active Listening Open-ended questions
I language Limit-Setting Issue Consequences

13 Incivility in Academia
DEFINING “INCIVILITY” “Civility” – concern, regard, and respect “Behavior that helps to preserve the norms for mutual respect at work.” “Incivility” – rudeness, disregard, and mistreatment Andersson and Wegner (2001)

14 Incivility – Bullying - Violence
Norms for the organization erode Spiraling and Cascading “Incivility goes unchecked and can escalate leading to a chain of more aggressive, coercive behaviors possibly leading to violence.” Pearson, Andersson, and Porath, 2000

15 INCIVILITY IN ACADEMIA
Unique Factors Culture of Critique Student Development Tenure and Rewards for Faculty Department Chair (Head) Role

16 INCIVILITY IN ACADEMIA (cont’d.)
Unique Factors Funding Free Speech/Academic Freedom Free Speech/Right of Dissent Conflict Avoidant Culture

17 INCIVILITY IN ACADEMIA
Not So Unique Factors Physical Separation External and Internal Customer Service Challenges Evaluative Relationships Peer/Colleague Relationships

18 Read Case Study Susan and George

19 Workplace Bullying Definition of Workplace Bullying:
Workplace Bullying is repeated, health-harming mistreatment of one or more persons (the targets) by one or more perpetrators that takes the forms of: verbal abuse, offensive conduct/behaviors (including nonverbal) which are threatening, humiliating or intimidating, and/or work interference -- sabotage -- which prevents work from getting done (Workplace Bullying Institute)

20 Bullying Behaviors Threat to professional status
(e.g., belittling opinion, public professional humiliation, accusation regarding lack of effort); Threat to personal standing (e.g., name-calling, insults, intimidation, devaluing with reference to age); Isolation (e.g., preventing access to opportunities, physical or social isolation, withholding of information); Overwork (e.g., undue pressure, impossible deadlines, unnecessary disruptions); Destabilization (e.g., failure to give credit when due, meaningless tasks, removal of responsibility, repeated reminders of blunders, setting up to fail). (Rayner, Charlotte, 1997)

21 Bullies Targets 50% men / 50% women
81% of bullies are bosses 14% peers, or co-workers 5% bully a higher ranking target Targets Women are the majority of targets (3/4 of all) Men bully women in 69% of the cases / women bully women 84% of the time

22 Effects on the Target Rank Health Item 1
Anxiety, stress, excessive worry 2 Disrupted sleep / Exhaustion 3 Loss of Concentration 4 Feeling edgy, irritable, easily startled, on guard (paranoia) 5 Obsession over details of bully’s tactics 6 Stress Headaches 7 Racing Heart Rate 8 Diagnosed Depression

23 Why Do Individuals Fail to Act?
42% of the cases - perpetrator’s immediate bosses directly helped the Bully or punished the complaining Target 40% of the cases - Bullies’ managers did nothing to intervene (tacit support) 32 % of the cases - HR supported the Bully or did nothing (51% of the cases) 11% of the cases - the Target’s co-workers sided with the Bully 7% of the cases - negative sanctions against the bully (censure, transfer, or termination)

24 Relative Impunity United States
In the U.S. the law is attentive to harassment or discrimination when it relates to sex and race (Title VII). U.S. Courts have consistently ruled that rude and even abusive behavior does not violate federal EEO laws unless it is directed at an individual (or group of individuals) because of his or her race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or disability. The “equal opportunity harasser” defense.

25 Interventions Awareness raising
Policy or code - gives victims the confidence to seek redress and reduce the benefit/cost balance for those tempted to bully others Anger and frustration management for bullies Work w/individuals – assertiveness training, make changes in the structure (physical space, reporting, etc.), conflict management, mediation

26 Bystanders Matter Training to encourage intervention
Training to identify options for bystanders Encourage the identification and discussion of unacceptable behavior

27 Working with Individuals (Targets)
Goals and Interests Strategies Conflict Styles Communication

28 Goals & Interests Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Physiological Security
Social Esteem Self-Actualization

29 Strategies Generate Options Identify Pros and Cons
Evaluate Options based on Goals & Interests

30 Conflict Styles Most people have one or two preferred styles of responding to conflict Thomas and Kilmann developed an instrument to help people determine their preferred style Utilization of a particular style should be situation-dependent

31 Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode
Compete Collaborate Compromise Avoid Accommodate

32 Proactive Strategies How to set up an environment that is respectful or turn a disrespectful environment around… What do you want? What respectful behaviors do you want to increase? 3-4 minutes brainstorms

33 Questions…


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