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THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE

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Presentation on theme: "THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE"— Presentation transcript:

1 THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE
CHAPTER 15 THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE AP US HISTORY

2 EARLY AMERICA 1800’S AMERICA TODAY? Alexis de Tocqueville
French man who came to America to judge American jails Wrote Democracy in America In America, women were put on a pedestal In France, if you raped a woman you were just slapped on the wrist, in America you were put to death “No country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America” DESCRIBE ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE AND HOW HE SAW AMERICA DURING THE EARLY 1800’S AMERICA TODAY? “America is great, because America is good; when she ceases to be good, she will cease to be great” EARLY AMERICA 1800’S

3 DEISM AND UNITARIANISM
America had seen in the early 1800s a weakening in its focus on religion Brought about by deism and Unitarian beliefs UNITARIANISM DEISM Believed in God as one person (opposed God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit) Believed in free will--not predestined Stressed goodness of man, love of God rather than man’s sinfulness and God’s strictness Ralph Waldo Emerson famous Unitarian Belief that God did create Heaven and Earth, but… Denied Christ divinity Did not believe in original sin, that you were born pure COMPARE AND CONTRAST DEISM AND UNITARIANISM. WHAT IMPACT DID THEY HAVE ON EARLY 1800’S AMERICAN RELIGION?

4 SECOND GREAT AWAKENING
CAMP MEETINGS Became perhaps the most important era in history of American religion Hundreds of thousands became “born again” Christians Shattered and reorganized churches and new sects WHAT WAS THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING AND WHY WAS IT IMPORTANT IN AMERICAN HISTORY? Revivals held outside--main method of preaching Baptists and Methodists gained the most from the Second Great Awakening--became the two largest Protestant denominations

5 LEADERS OF SECOND GREAT AWAKENING
PETER CARTWRIGHT CHARLES FINNEY Greatest of the revival preachers Brought two new ideas: Anxious bench--people would set in front of you and tell you they sinned First to say women should pray outside in public Famous “circuit rider” or traveling preacher WHO WERE THE TWO MOST FAMOUS LEADERS OF THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING? WHAT WERE THERE BELIEFS? LEADERS OF SECOND GREAT AWAKENING

6 Most came out of area in New York known as “Burned Over District”
NEW RELIGIOUS SECTS Most came out of area in New York known as “Burned Over District” Millerites Led by William Miller who told the people that Christ would return back to earth on Oct 22, 1844 Mormons WHAT TWO MAJOR RELIGIOUS SECTS WERE CREATED DURING THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING AND WHAT IS THEIR HISTORIES? Mormons--see next slide!!!

7 THE MORMONS Joseph Smith Brigham Young
Founder of Mormon’s in the 1830’s Said he supposedly received 2 golden plates from angels and from that they made the Book of Mormon Mormon’s also called The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Believed in polygamy--have more than one wife at a time Joseph and his brother were killed, probably b/c of polygamy Joseph Smith Took over Mormon’s after death of Smith Took Mormons out west to Utah and Salt Lake City where they established their colony Brigham Young had 27 wives and 56 children Practice of polygamy caused Utah to be one of the last states to joint Union Brigham Young

8 ERA OF REFORMS How can I remember them all???
Most reforms were driven by evangelical religion Women were the most important in reform crusades Major reform issues included Abolition of slavery Temperance Women’s Rights Education Mental institutions Prisons Debtor’s Prisons War (sought to end all wars) How can I remember them all??? “A Totally Wicked Elephant Made People Devour Worms” WHAT WERE THE MAJOR REFORM ERAS AMERICANS FOCUSED ON DURING THE EARLY AND MID-1800’S? WHO DROVE THESE REFORMS?

9 EDUCATION Noah Webster Horace Mann
“A nation that was both ignorant and free, declared never was and never will be.” --Thomas Jefferson People started believing in paying taxes for public schooling Education lagged behind in the South Teachers were mostly men but Catherine Beecher encouraged women to become teachers Horace Mann 1st reformer of education Believed in more schools, expanded curriculum, higher pay for teachers, longer school terms DISCUSS IN DETAIL HOW EDUCATION WAS CHANGING IN THE 1800’S “Schoolmaster of the Republic” Helped create reading textbooks that expressed patriotism Noah Webster Created McGuffey Readers that expressed morality, patriotism, and idealism

10 HIGHER EDUCATION Lyceums Emma Willard Troy Female Seminary Mary Lyon
Started first female college for women State supported universities began to develop First state supported college was the University of North Carolina Women were not to be educated past grade school --many thought would hurt the female mind, health Troy Female Seminary Mary Lyon Lyceums How adults became educated Mt. Holyoke

11 MENTAL REFORMS DOROTHEA DIX
Reformer most associated with helping mentally handicapped WHO WAS THE CHAMPION OF MENTAL REFORMS?

12 PRISON AND DEBTOR REFORM
We quit putting people in jail for not having money We quit whipping and branding people Jails were becoming places for reform instead of just punishment DESCRIBE HOW REFORMS WERE HANDLED IN REGARDS TO PRISON AND DEBTORS?

13 “Father of Prohibition”
AMERICAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY--first organized attempt to control alcohol consumption COLD WATER ARMY--kids would ask relatives to drink cold water instead of alcohol Ten Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw There Written by TS Walker Neal Dow Promoted ‘teetotalism’--totally against alcohol DISCUSS IN DETAIL THE EFFORT MADE IN TEMPERANCE REFORM Passed Maine Laws--prohibited the manufacturing and sale of alcohol--Maine became first dry state “Father of Prohibition” Temperance Reform

14 SENECA FALLS CONVENTION
WOMEN’S RIGHTS In the early 1800s, women could not vote, and could be beaten by their husbands FAMOUS WOMEN: Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell--1st female doctor Myra Bradwell--1st female lawyer Margaret Fuller--became editor of a news journal called The Dial Grimke Sisters--Sarah and Angelina--from South and against slavery and for women’s rights Lucy Stone--retained her maiden name when married Amelia Bloomer--1st women to wear “turkish” pants (Bloomers) 1848 First women’s rights convention Held in New York at Seneca Falls Issued Declaration of Sentiments saying “All men and women created equal” Launched women’s rights movement EXPLAIN THE WOMEN’S RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN DETAIL AND ITS LEADERS SENECA FALLS CONVENTION

15 ELIZABETH CADY STANTON WOMEN’S RIGHTS REFORMERS
LUCRETTIA MOTT ELIZABETH CADY STANTON SUSAN B. ANTHONY Main leader in the WR Movement Followers known as Susan B’s Main leader in the WR Movement Refused to use the word “obey” in marriage vows Quaker who fought for women’s rights and against slavery WOMEN’S RIGHTS REFORMERS

16 ATTEMPTS AT UTOPIA Shakers Oneida New Harmony Robert Owen Brook Farm
Believed in free love Practice eugenics Practiced birth control through abstinence New Harmony Shakers Brook Farm DISCUSS ATTEMPTS MADE AT CREATING UTOPIA SOCIETIES Didn’t believe in marriage or sex

17 JOHN J. AUDUBON Great painter of birds
Audubon Society--formed for the preservation of birds Famous book: Birds of America DESCRIBE THE IMPORTANCE OF JOHN J. AUDUBON ON AMERICAN HISTORY JOHN J. AUDUBON

18 1800’S MEDICINE Medicine still very primitive; still bleeding people
Life expectancy low in early America Medicines not so safe… “If we took all the medicines we had, and threw them in the sea, humans will be better off and fish will be worse off”--Oliver Wendell Holmes Suffering from teeth aches For surgeries, give a drink of whiskey and start sawing as fast as possible About 1840, some doctors and dentists start using “laughing gas” and either SUMMARIZE IN DETAIL THE MEDICAL PRACTICES AND CONDITIONS OF THE 1800S

19 HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL OF ART
Gilbert Stuart Charles Wilson Peale John Trumbell HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL OF ART Group of American artists that started painting American landscapes DISCUSS THE ARTS OF THE 1800’S IN PAINTING AND LITERATURE FAMOUS PAINTERS

20 KNICKERBOCKER WRITERS
Washington Irving Legend of Sleepy Hollow Rip Van Winkle James Fenimore Cooper Last of the Mohicans Deer Slayer Wm. Cullen Bryant Writer of poems “Meditation on Death”

21 THREE FAMOUS TRANSCENDENTALISTS
TRANSCENDENTALISM Famous works included Self-Reliance and The American Scholar “We will walk with our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will walk on our own feet; we will speak our own minds” Famous work: Leaves of Grass Whitman known as “Poet Laureate of Democracy” Famous work: Civil Disobedience and Walden”Life in the Woods Civil Disobedience--taught nonviolence--opposition to Mexican War Influenced several people include Ghandi and MLK Very difficult to define--belief that truth and knowledge comes from within, every person possesses an inner light This inner light comes through the senses Believed in self-reliance, individualism, and self-discipline THREE FAMOUS TRANSCENDENTALISTS DESCRIBE TRANSCENDENTALISM AND THE MAJOR INDIVIDUALS INVOLVED Henry David Thoreau Walt Whitman Ralph Waldo Emerson

22 OTHER FAMOUS NAMES Stephen Foster James Russell Lowell
White Northerner famous for black Southern songs like My Ol’ Kentucky Home James Russell Lowell Wrote Biglow Papers; written in opposition to Mexican War

23 OTHER FAMOUS NAMES Louisa May Alcott Emily Dickinson
Writes Little Women Emily Dickinson Writer of lots of poems; becomes famous after death

24 Fall of the House of Usher
Literary dissenters Edgar Allan Poe Nathaniel Hawthorne Herman Melville Raven Fall of the House of Usher Scarlet Letter Moby Dick


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