Presentation on theme: "THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE"— Presentation transcript:
1THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTURE CHAPTER 15THE FERMENT OF REFORM AND CULTUREAP US HISTORY
2EARLY AMERICA 1800’S AMERICA TODAY? Alexis de Tocqueville French man who came to America to judge American jailsWrote Democracy in AmericaIn America, women were put on a pedestalIn France, if you raped a woman you were just slapped on the wrist, in America you were put to death“No country in the world where the Christian religion retains a greater influence over the souls of men than in America”DESCRIBE ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE AND HOW HE SAW AMERICA DURING THE EARLY 1800’SAMERICA TODAY?“America is great, because America is good; when she ceases to be good, she will cease to be great”EARLY AMERICA 1800’S
3DEISM AND UNITARIANISM America had seen in the early 1800s a weakening in its focus on religionBrought about by deism and Unitarian beliefsUNITARIANISMDEISMBelieved in God as one person (opposed God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit)Believed in free will--not predestinedStressed goodness of man, love of God rather than man’s sinfulness and God’s strictnessRalph Waldo Emerson famous UnitarianBelief that God did create Heaven and Earth, but…Denied Christ divinityDid not believe in original sin, that you were born pureCOMPARE AND CONTRAST DEISM AND UNITARIANISM. WHAT IMPACT DID THEY HAVE ON EARLY 1800’S AMERICAN RELIGION?
4SECOND GREAT AWAKENING CAMP MEETINGSBecame perhaps the most important era in history of American religionHundreds of thousands became “born again” ChristiansShattered and reorganized churches and new sectsWHAT WAS THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING AND WHY WAS IT IMPORTANT IN AMERICAN HISTORY?Revivals held outside--main method of preachingBaptists and Methodists gained the most from the Second Great Awakening--became the two largest Protestant denominations
5LEADERS OF SECOND GREAT AWAKENING PETER CARTWRIGHTCHARLES FINNEYGreatest of the revival preachersBrought two new ideas:Anxious bench--people would set in front of you and tell you they sinnedFirst to say women should pray outside in publicFamous “circuit rider” or traveling preacherWHO WERE THE TWO MOST FAMOUS LEADERS OF THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING? WHAT WERE THERE BELIEFS?LEADERS OF SECOND GREAT AWAKENING
6Most came out of area in New York known as “Burned Over District” NEW RELIGIOUS SECTSMost came out of area in New York known as “Burned Over District”MilleritesLed by William Miller who told the people that Christ would return back to earth on Oct 22, 1844MormonsWHAT TWO MAJOR RELIGIOUS SECTS WERE CREATED DURING THE SECOND GREAT AWAKENING AND WHAT IS THEIR HISTORIES?Mormons--see next slide!!!
7THE MORMONS Joseph Smith Brigham Young Founder of Mormon’s in the 1830’sSaid he supposedly received 2 golden plates from angels and from that they made the Book of MormonMormon’s also called The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsBelieved in polygamy--have more than one wife at a timeJoseph and his brother were killed, probably b/c of polygamyJoseph SmithTook over Mormon’s after death of SmithTook Mormons out west to Utah and Salt Lake City where they established their colonyBrigham Young had 27 wives and 56 childrenPractice of polygamy caused Utah to be one of the last states to joint UnionBrigham Young
8ERA OF REFORMS How can I remember them all??? Most reforms were driven by evangelical religionWomen were the most important in reform crusadesMajor reform issues includedAbolition of slaveryTemperanceWomen’s RightsEducationMental institutionsPrisonsDebtor’s PrisonsWar (sought to end all wars)How can I remember them all???“A Totally Wicked Elephant Made People Devour Worms”WHAT WERE THE MAJOR REFORM ERAS AMERICANS FOCUSED ON DURING THE EARLY AND MID-1800’S? WHO DROVE THESE REFORMS?
9EDUCATION Noah Webster Horace Mann “A nation that was both ignorant and free, declared never was and never will be.”--Thomas JeffersonPeople started believing in paying taxes for public schoolingEducation lagged behind in the SouthTeachers were mostly men but Catherine Beecher encouraged women to become teachersHorace Mann1st reformer of educationBelieved in more schools, expanded curriculum, higher pay for teachers, longer school termsDISCUSS IN DETAIL HOW EDUCATION WAS CHANGING IN THE 1800’S“Schoolmaster of the Republic”Helped create reading textbooks that expressed patriotismNoah WebsterCreated McGuffey Readers that expressed morality, patriotism, and idealism
10HIGHER EDUCATION Lyceums Emma Willard Troy Female Seminary Mary Lyon Started first female college for womenState supported universities began to developFirst state supported college was the University of North CarolinaWomen were not to be educated past grade school--many thought would hurt the female mind, healthTroy Female SeminaryMary LyonLyceumsHow adults became educatedMt. Holyoke
11MENTAL REFORMS DOROTHEA DIX Reformer most associated with helping mentally handicappedWHO WAS THE CHAMPION OF MENTAL REFORMS?
12PRISON AND DEBTOR REFORM We quit putting people in jail for not having moneyWe quit whipping and branding peopleJails were becoming places for reform instead of just punishmentDESCRIBE HOW REFORMS WERE HANDLED IN REGARDS TO PRISON AND DEBTORS?
13“Father of Prohibition” AMERICAN TEMPERANCE SOCIETY--first organized attempt to control alcohol consumptionCOLD WATER ARMY--kids would ask relatives to drink cold water instead of alcoholTen Nights in a Barroom and What I Saw ThereWritten by TS WalkerNeal DowPromoted ‘teetotalism’--totally against alcoholDISCUSS IN DETAIL THE EFFORT MADE IN TEMPERANCE REFORMPassed Maine Laws--prohibited the manufacturing and sale of alcohol--Maine became first dry state“Father of Prohibition”Temperance Reform
14SENECA FALLS CONVENTION WOMEN’S RIGHTSIn the early 1800s, women could not vote, and could be beaten by their husbandsFAMOUS WOMEN:Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell--1st female doctorMyra Bradwell--1st female lawyerMargaret Fuller--became editor of a news journal called The DialGrimke Sisters--Sarah and Angelina--from South and against slavery and for women’s rightsLucy Stone--retained her maiden name when marriedAmelia Bloomer--1st women to wear “turkish” pants (Bloomers)1848First women’s rights conventionHeld in New York at Seneca FallsIssued Declaration of Sentiments saying “All men and women created equal”Launched women’s rights movementEXPLAIN THE WOMEN’S RIGHTS MOVEMENT IN DETAIL AND ITS LEADERSSENECA FALLS CONVENTION
15ELIZABETH CADY STANTON WOMEN’S RIGHTS REFORMERS LUCRETTIA MOTTELIZABETH CADY STANTONSUSAN B. ANTHONYMain leader in the WR MovementFollowers known as Susan B’sMain leader in the WR MovementRefused to use the word “obey” in marriage vowsQuaker who fought for women’s rights and against slaveryWOMEN’S RIGHTS REFORMERS
16ATTEMPTS AT UTOPIA Shakers Oneida New Harmony Robert Owen Brook Farm Believed in free lovePractice eugenicsPracticed birth control through abstinenceNew HarmonyShakersBrook FarmDISCUSS ATTEMPTS MADE AT CREATING UTOPIA SOCIETIESDidn’t believe in marriage or sex
17JOHN J. AUDUBON Great painter of birds Audubon Society--formed for the preservation of birdsFamous book: Birds of AmericaDESCRIBE THE IMPORTANCE OF JOHN J. AUDUBON ON AMERICAN HISTORYJOHN J. AUDUBON
181800’S MEDICINE Medicine still very primitive; still bleeding people Life expectancy low in early AmericaMedicines not so safe… “If we took all the medicines we had, and threw them in the sea, humans will be better off and fish will be worse off”--Oliver Wendell HolmesSuffering from teeth achesFor surgeries, give a drink of whiskey and start sawing as fast as possibleAbout 1840, some doctors and dentists start using “laughing gas” and eitherSUMMARIZE IN DETAIL THE MEDICAL PRACTICES AND CONDITIONS OF THE 1800S
19HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL OF ART Gilbert StuartCharles Wilson PealeJohn TrumbellHUDSON RIVER SCHOOL OF ARTGroup of American artists that started painting American landscapesDISCUSS THE ARTS OF THE 1800’S IN PAINTING AND LITERATUREFAMOUS PAINTERS
20KNICKERBOCKER WRITERS Washington IrvingLegend of Sleepy HollowRip Van WinkleJames Fenimore CooperLast of the MohicansDeer SlayerWm. Cullen BryantWriter of poems“Meditation on Death”
21THREE FAMOUS TRANSCENDENTALISTS TRANSCENDENTALISMFamous works included Self-Reliance and The American Scholar“We will walk with our own feet; we will work with our own hands; we will walk on our own feet; we will speak our own minds”Famous work: Leaves of GrassWhitman known as “Poet Laureate of Democracy”Famous work: Civil Disobedience and Walden”Life in the WoodsCivil Disobedience--taught nonviolence--opposition to Mexican WarInfluenced several people include Ghandi and MLKVery difficult to define--belief that truth and knowledge comes from within, every person possesses an inner lightThis inner light comes through the sensesBelieved in self-reliance, individualism, and self-disciplineTHREE FAMOUS TRANSCENDENTALISTSDESCRIBE TRANSCENDENTALISM AND THE MAJOR INDIVIDUALS INVOLVEDHenry David ThoreauWalt WhitmanRalph Waldo Emerson
22OTHER FAMOUS NAMES Stephen Foster James Russell Lowell White Northerner famous for black Southern songs like My Ol’ Kentucky HomeJames Russell LowellWrote Biglow Papers; written in opposition to Mexican War
23OTHER FAMOUS NAMES Louisa May Alcott Emily Dickinson Writes Little WomenEmily DickinsonWriter of lots of poems; becomes famous after death
24Fall of the House of Usher Literary dissentersEdgar Allan PoeNathaniel HawthorneHerman MelvilleRavenFall of the House of UsherScarlet LetterMoby Dick