Presentation on theme: "SS.912.A.6.1 Examine causes, course, and consequences of World War II on the United States and the world."— Presentation transcript:
SS.912.A.6.1 Examine causes, course, and consequences of World War II on the United States and the world.
1935-created embargo on trading arms and war materials with all parties in a war forbade all loans or credit to belligerent nations American ships could not transport any passengers or articles of war to belligerent nations Cash and Carry- Countries at war could purchase goods from us if they arranged transport Decided that passive aid could be given to an aggressor. Repealed 1935 and 1937 SS.912.A.6.2 Describe the United States’ response in the early years of World War II (Neutrality Acts, Cash and Carry, Lend Lease Act).
Cash and Carry- Gave the United States the right to trade with nations at war as long as they picked up the goods and paid in full Lend-Lease Act- Gave the United States the right to trade with nations who were in “vital need” Effectively ended United States Neutrality
Embargo of 1940 passed by Congress (July) U.S. placed embargo on export of aviation gasoline, lubricants, scrap iron and steel to Japan. In December, extended embargo to include iron ore and pig iron, some chemicals, machine tools, and other products. Japan signs treaty with Italy and Germnay Pearl Harbor Attack- surprise attack on Hawaiian naval base-December 7, 1941 United States declares war 3 days later End of US Neutrality
Military mobilization Selective Service registration expanded to men after Pearl Harbor. 258,000 women enlisted as WAAC's (Women's Army-Air Corp), WAVES (Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service), and WAFS (Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron). women provided their services in medical and technical support flying military equipment to war zones cryptography decoding By war's end, 16 million men and women served in the military. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy
Economic Mobilization War Production Board (WPB) WPB established in 1942 by FDR to regulate the use of raw materials. "Rosie the Riveter" More than five million women joined the labor force during the war, often moving to new communities to find jobs in the aircraft, ship building, munitions, and automobile industries. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy
Office of Price Administration (OPA) In charge of rationing and creating ration coupons for people to use. Certificate Rationing Plan: Used by businesses to buy cars, tires, typewriters, etc.: Coupon Rationing Plan: Used by families to buy meat, coffee, sugar, gas, etc. Number of coupons received depended on size of family. No coupons, no purchase. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy
Taxes were increased to finance the war Many who had never had to pay taxes were now required to. million filed tax returns; in million filed tax returns Smith-Connolly Antistrike Act (1943) – expired in 1947 Authorized government seizure of factory or mine idled by a strike if war effort was impeded. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy
Science goes to war: Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) Led to advances in technology, radar, insecticides. Manhattan Project Established to research all aspects of building A-bomb. Formed after Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi warned FDR in a letter in 1939 that the Germans were working on building a bomb through nuclear fission. Los Alamos, New Mexico -- group charged with building the bomb itself. Headed by Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer Trinity -- first test July 16, 1945 in desert outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy
African American civil rights issues During war years, there was massive migration of minorities to industrial centers. Resulted in competition for scarce resources (e.g. housing) and tension in the workplace. Violence plagued 47 cities, the worst example occurring in Detroit. Detroit Race Riot in June, 1943; 25 blacks dead; 9 whites dead. SS.912.A.6.4 Examine efforts to expand or contract rights for various populations during World War II.
Bracero Program During the war, the need for increased farm production led to a U.S. government policy for short- term work permits to be issued to Mexican workers. Zoot Suit riots in L.A. (1943) Young Mexican and Mexican-Americans became object of frequent violent attacks in Los Angeles. Sailors on leave roamed streets beating "zooters," tearing their clothes, cutting their hair. SS.912.A.6.4 Examine efforts to expand or contract rights for various populations during World War II.
Internment of Japanese Americans – Japanese relocation Executive Order 9066 (February 19, 1942) FDR authorized the War Department to declare the West Coast a "war theater". 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry were forcibly put into internment camps (concentration camps). Pearl Harbor left public paranoid that people of Japanese ancestry living in California might help Japan. One-third of Japanese who were forced into the internment camps were Issei – foreign born Two-thirds of Japanese who were forced into the internment camps were Nisei – American born. SS.912.A.6.4 Examine efforts to expand or contract rights for various populations during World War II.
Early Defeats- US lost land in the Philippines to Japan Bataan Death March – 85-mile forced march of U.S. GIs who were tortured and eventually burned alive. Early Defeats in Europe and Africa German submarines sunk 8 million tons worth of allied supplies Germans were as far east as Stalingrad by fall 1942, and as deep as El Alamein, Egypt WWII Course
Battle of Stalingrad (September 1942) Perhaps most important battle of the war. First major Nazi defeat on land. The German army in retreat from the east until Berlin is occupied by the Russians in the spring of Turning Points
Casablanca Conference (January 14-25, 1943) At the Casablanca Conference, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met and agreed to invade Italy in the spring of 1943 and France later in the same year. The two leaders also agreed on the term of “unconditional surrender” when defeating the enemy. Winston Churchill opted for North African invasion instead. Stalin never forgave the Allies for not opening a second front earlier; USSR had to bear the full brunt of Nazi invasion. Diplomacy
Moscow Conference (October 1943) Secretary of State Cordell Hull obtained Soviet agreement to enter the war against Japan after Germany was defeated and to participate in a world organization after the war was over. Tehran Conference (November 28-December 1, 1943) First meeting of the "Big Three" -- FDR, Stalin, and Churchill Allies agree to an invasion of the Western Europe in Initial planning for Operation Overlord. Stalin reaffirmed the Soviet commitment to enter the war against Japan and discussed coordination of the Soviet offensive with the Allied invasion of France. Diplomacy
North Africa -- "Operation Torch" - led by General Eisenhower, November 8, 1943 British had been desperately fighting German Panzer (tanks) divisions in North Africa since Germans led by General Irwin Rommel (the "Desert Fox") November 1943, 100,000 Allied troops invaded North Africa in Algeria and Morocco (Casablanca) Major victory at the Battle of El Alamein (Egypt) signaled end of the Nazi presence in North Africa Turning Points
Invasion of Italy (commanded by US General George C. Patton) July 10, 1943, British and U.S. forces land on Sicily; victorious within 1 month Mussolini forced out of power by officials within the Fascist Party and was now on the run. Two years later, he and his mistress were shot to death, beat up, lynched upside down, spat on by the people and then quartered. June 4, Allies march into Rome First capital city freed from Nazi control Other parts of Italy remain under Nazi control until May 2, Europe
D-Day (June 6, 1944) -- "Operation Overlord“ Planned and commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower 120,000 troops left England and landed at 5 beachheads at Normandy Coast (NW France). 800,000 more men within 3 weeks; 3 million total Casualties during D-Day: 2,245 Allies killed; 1,670 wounded Europe
Invasion of Germany Pre-invasion bombing To soften up the Germans for the impending Allied invasion of Germany, the U.S. and Great Britain bombed many major German cities and vital factories, oil refineries and railroads. Berlin was consistently bombed, Hamburg, Dresden and Nuremburg were all but wiped out by the bombing in the summer Other major cities and targets were repeatedly bombed as well. Allied invasion in September 1944 initially repelled by Germany, but eventually the Allies took the upper hand. Europe
Battle of the Bulge (December 16, 1944) Germans launched last major offensive on U.S. positions in Belgium and Luxembourg; U.S. casualties: nearly 80,000 General George Patton and his 101st Airborne Division stopped Hitler’s last gasp counter-offensive By January, the Allies were once more advancing toward Germany. Europe
Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942) – entire battle fought with aircraft. Japan prevented from successfully invading New Guinea and Australia. Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942) – turning point in the Pacific war Allies broke the Japanese code. Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers (of 10)--7 of 11 other ships destroyed; 250 planes. Significance: Japan no longer had any hopes of attacking U.S. mainland. Yet, Japanese-Americans still in internment camps. Japan
Island Hopping campaign begins in 1943 – eventually pushed Japanese forces all the way back to Japan. Sought to neutralize Japanese island strongholds with air and sea power and then move on. Battle of Guadalcanal (Solomon Islands -- August 1942-February 1943) First Japanese land defeat after 6 months of bitter jungle fighting. Japan
Battle of Iwo Jima (February, 1945) this 25-day assault left over 4000 Americans dead Fighter planes now close enough to bomb Japan. famous raising of the US flag after winning this battle on Mt. Suribachi. Battle of Okinawa (April 1, ends in June) 50,000 American casualties resulted from fierce fighting which virtually destroyed Japan’s remaining defenses. Bombing of Japan results in destruction of most major cities March 1945, 100,000 die in a single Tokyo raid; 60% of buildings destroyed. Japan
Yalta Conference (February 4-11, 1945) "Big Three" met to discuss post-war Europe. Stalin agreed to enter Pacific war within 3 months after Germany surrendered. Stalin was still upset with the U.S. and England for not opening up a second front in Europe two years earlier. Stalin agreed to a "Declaration of Liberated Europe" which called for free elections. Called for a world organization, the United Nations, to meet in the U.S. beginning on April 25, Germany and the capital city, Berlin, was divided into occupied zones watched over by the US, England, France and the Soviet Union. The End
End of the War in Europe April and May 1945 U.S. approached Berlin from west while Soviets come from east. Hitler goes into bunker in Berlin in April and commits suicide on April 30. Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7, 1945 Allies celebrate V-E Day (Victory in Europe Day) The End
Potsdam Conference (Mid-July – early August 1945) Attended by President Truman, Stalin, and Clement Atlee (the new Prime Minister of England) President Truman informed the other two leaders of the A-bomb. Stalin became jealous and began to send spies to the U.S. to obtain the A-bomb plans. The US citizens never forgave this mistake by President Truman with Stalin by telling him of the A-bomb. Three allied leaders warned Japan with an ultimatum to surrender or suffer "complete and utter destruction." 4. President Truman’s justification for the use of the atomic bomb was to prevent further U.S. casualties in the war. Discussed the concept of war crimes trials and the demilitarization and de-Nazification of Germany. The Atomic Bomb
August 6, First atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima. The bomb was called “Little Boy.” 80,000 killed immediately; 100,000 injured. Countless people die later of radiation sickness or cancer Bomb dropped by the plane called the Enola Gay The Japanese government still did not surrender. The Atomic Bomb
August 9, Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki; 60,000 dead. This A-bomb was called “Fat Man.” August 14, Japan surrenders – Victory over Japan (VJ Day) World War II was over. September 2, 1945 Japanese formally surrender aboard the U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay. The Japanese Emperor, Hirohito, was allowed to continue to be the figure-head of Japan, but without any power; similar to the British monarchy. The End
Massive casualties million dead; 35 million wounded; 3 million missing About 30 million soldiers died (including about 300,000 Americans) 25 million civilians 15 million in USSR alone (23 million combined with military casualties) Casualities
Six million Jews that were killed in Hitler's concentration camps. The Holocaust was a part of the "Final Solution" which was Hitler’s plan to kill all the Jews. Other who were also killed including Gypsies, homosexuals, physically handicapped, Jehovah’s Witnesses and political opponents. SS.912.A.6.3 Analyze the impact of the Holocaust during World War II on Jews as well as other groups.
United Nations officially created in 1945 in San Francisco Attended by the NAACP: W.E.B. Dubois, Walter White and only female member Mary McLeod Bethune SS.912.A.6.9 Describe the rationale for the formation of the United Nations, including the contribution of Mary McLeod Bethune.
Nuremberg Trials held after the War to punish war criminals Top Nazi personnel put on trial to show the world that War Criminals would be put to justice Criticized for only punishing the losers, while ignoring crimes committed by victors Established an international court still at use today. SS.912.A.6.7 Describe the attempts to promote international justice through the Nuremberg Trials.