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An Invitation to Health Chapter 9 Reproductive Choices Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

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Presentation on theme: "An Invitation to Health Chapter 9 Reproductive Choices Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Invitation to Health Chapter 9 Reproductive Choices Dr. Lana Zinger ©2004 Wadsworth Publishing Co.

2 The Testes Spermatogenesis

3 Fertilization

4 Birth Control Basics None of today’s contraceptives are 100% safe, 100% effective or 100% convenient. None of today’s contraceptives are 100% safe, 100% effective or 100% convenient. Abstinence is the only form of birth control that is 100% effective and risk-free. Abstinence is the only form of birth control that is 100% effective and risk-free. Female contraceptive methods account for 63% of all contraceptive methods. Female contraceptive methods account for 63% of all contraceptive methods. Lack of male involvement may account for 40% of each year’s unwanted pregnancies. Lack of male involvement may account for 40% of each year’s unwanted pregnancies. Each individual engaging in sexual activity must assume full responsibility for their own reproductive ability. Each individual engaging in sexual activity must assume full responsibility for their own reproductive ability.

5 Choosing a Contraceptive How well will it fit into your lifestyle? How convenient will it be? How effective will it be? How safe will it be? How affordable will it be? How reversible will it be? Will it protect against sexually transmitted infections?

6 Hormonal Contraceptives Oral Contraceptives Skin Patch Injections Vaginal Ring

7 Oral Contraceptives Basics Most researched, tested, and carefully followed medications in history. Most researched, tested, and carefully followed medications in history. Use does not increase mortality rates. Use does not increase mortality rates. Combination Pills (monophasic and multiphasic) Combination Pills (monophasic and multiphasic) Combination oral contraceptives significantly reduce the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer and produce no increase in serious disease. Combination oral contraceptives significantly reduce the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer and produce no increase in serious disease. Progestin-Only Pills Progestin-Only Pills Risk of heart disease is lower than with any combination pill. Risk of heart disease is lower than with any combination pill. Can exacerbate depression, and must be taken at exactly the same time everyday. Can exacerbate depression, and must be taken at exactly the same time everyday.

8 Oral Contraceptives Advantages Extremely effective. Extremely effective. They are reversible. They are reversible. After 5 years of use, the pill halves the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. After 5 years of use, the pill halves the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. Reduces the risk of breast lumps, ovarian cysts, iron- deficiency anemia, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Reduces the risk of breast lumps, ovarian cysts, iron- deficiency anemia, and pelvic inflammatory disease. Disadvantages Side effects: Spotting between periods, weight gain or loss, nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, and decreased sex drive. Other medications can diminish their effectiveness. Increases the risk of cardiovascular problems.

9 The Patch (Ortho Evra) Advantages Good for women who can’t remember, don’t like, or have problems swallowing pills. Good for women who can’t remember, don’t like, or have problems swallowing pills. Nausea less likely. Nausea less likely. Reduced risk of breakthrough bleeding, mood swings, and other symptoms that occur with pill use. Reduced risk of breakthrough bleeding, mood swings, and other symptoms that occur with pill use. Disadvantages Side Effects: Breast tenderness, headache, and upper respiratory infections. Increased risk of blood clots, heart attack, and stroke. Smokers are at a higher risk for serious cardiovascular side effects. May effect use of contact lenses.

10 The NuvaRing The ring works by preventing ovulation through the emission of hormones through the vaginal tissues. The ring is inserted anywhere in the vagina. The ring stays in place for 3 weeks, then is removed the 4 th week of the menstrual cycle.

11 The NuvaRing Advantages Safer for women with mild hypertension or diabetes. Fewer pill-related side- effects. Easy to use and no need to remember to take a pill. Disadvantages Possibility of vaginal discharge, irritation, and infection.

12 Contraceptive Injectables Injectables provide no protection against HIV and other STIs. Injectables provide no protection against HIV and other STIs. Lunelle Lunelle Consists of the same hormones as combination birth control pills. Administered monthly. Side Effects Side Effects: weight gain, nausea, breakthrough bleeding, acne, headache, change in sexual desire, depression and breast tenderness. Depo-Provera Depo-Provera Contains only progestin. Administered every 12 weeks. Side Effects Side Effects: decreased libido, depression, headaches, dizziness, weight gain, frequent urination, and allergic reactions. Long term use may lead to significantly reduced bone density.

13 Intrauterine Contraceptives Mirena Copper T

14 Mirena Releases a continuous of progestin and provides 5 years of protection from pregnancy. Side Effects: Breakthrough bleeding, acne, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness, mood changes, and an increased risk for benign ovarian cysts. Not Recommended For: Women who have not had children, women with more than one sexual partner, and women who have had an ectopic pregnancy.

15 Copper T (ParaGard) Contains copper, which reduces the sperm’s ability to reach the egg and interferes with the growth of a fertilized egg. Remains effective for 10 years. Risky for women that intend to become pregnant. Risk of miscarriage is high if pregnancy occurs when an IUD is in place and therapeutic abortions are often advised.

16 Barrier Contraceptives Prescription Barrier Methods Diaphragm Cervical Cap FemCapCondom Nonprescription Barrier Methods Male and Female Condom Vaginal Spermicides Contraceptive Sponge Vaginal Contraceptive Film

17 Prescription Barrier Contraceptives The Diaphragm Advantages Few potential side effects unlike the pill. Few potential side effects unlike the pill.Disadvantages Inconvenient and interferes with sexual spontaneity. Potential for discomfort during sex, bladder discomfort, urethral irritation, or recurrent cystitis.

18 Prescription Barrier Contraceptives The Cervical Cap Advantages Can often be used by women who cannot use a diaphragm. Less messy. Does not require multiple spermicide applications.Disadvantages More difficult to insert and remove, and may damage the cervix. May lead to abnormal pap smears.

19 Prescription Barrier Contraceptives The FemCap Advantages Each FemCap lasts 2 years. Each FemCap lasts 2 years. It can be inserted several hours prior to sexual intimacy. It can be inserted several hours prior to sexual intimacy.Disadvantages Less effective than hormonal contraception. Data on efficacy and problems are limited because the product is new.

20 Nonprescription Barrier Contraceptives Male Condoms Advantages Can help reduce the risk of certain STIs. Lower a woman’s risk of pelvic inflammatory disease. Best available defense against HIV infection. Disadvantages Not 100% effective in preventing pregnancy or STIs. Manufacturing defects.

21 Condoms On Campus

22 Nonprescription Barrier Contraceptives Female Condoms Advantages Gives women more control in reducing their risk of pregnancy and STIs. One size fits all. Disadvantages Higher failure rate than other forms of contraception. Does not use a spermicide. Expensive. Difficult to use.

23 Nonprescription Barrier Contraceptives Vaginal Spermicides Advantages Use of a spermicide together with another method of contraception can provide safe and effective birth control and reduce the risk of some vaginal infections, pelvic inflammatory disease, and STIs.Disadvantages Interfere with sexual spontaneity. Can be messy and gritty. Failure rates are as high as 10-25%.

24 Nonprescription Barrier Contraceptives Contraceptive Sponge Advantages Can be inserted several hours prior to intercourse. Can be left in place for 12 hours. Disadvantages Less effective in women who have had children. May cause vaginal irritation and allergic reactions. Do not protect against HIV infection and other STIs.

25 Nonprescription Barrier Contraceptives Contraceptive Sponge Advantages Can be used by people who are allergic to foams and jellies. It dissolves gradually without notice. Disadvantages Insertion may interrupt sexual spontaneity.

26 Periodic Abstinence and Fertility Awareness Methods Calendar Method Basal-BodyTemperatureMethod The Standard Days Method Cervical Mucus Method

27 Safe and Unsafe Days

28 The Standard Days Method

29 Basal-Body Temperature Method

30 Male Sterilization Vasectomy

31 Female Sterilization Tubal Ligation

32 Abortion Rate Decline

33 Medical Abortion

34 Suction Curettage

35 Physiological Changes of Pregnancy

36 The Placenta

37 Why Is Prenatal Care Important? Age Risks to the fetus rise when mothers are older than 35. Nutrition Goal: lb weight gain. Maximum weight gain: 35 lbs. Substance Use Risks of smoking and drinking.

38 Prenatal Testing Alpha-FetoproteinScreening Chorionic Villi Sampling(CVS) Amniocentesis Ultra-sonography

39 Prenatal Testing

40 Complications of Pregnancy MiscarriageEctopicPregnancy InfectionsPrematureLabor

41 Birth

42 Three Stages of Labor First Stage First Stage Effacement (thinning) Effacement (thinning) Dilation (opening up) Dilation (opening up) Second Stage Second Stage The baby moves into the birth canal and out of the mother’s body. Third Stage Third Stage Expulsion of the placenta.

43 Babies At Risk Genetic Cystic Fibrosis GeneticSickle-cellAnemia Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)GeneticPhenylketonuria(PKU) Genetic Down Syndrome GeneticTay-SachsDisease

44 Babies At Risk Genetic Disorders CysticFibrosis Tay-SachsDisease Phenylketonuria(PKU) DownSyndrome Sickle-cellAnemia

45 OptionsForInfertileCouples ArtificialInsemination Adoption AssistedReproductiveTechnology

46 Reproductive Health Abstain Limit sexual intercourse to “outercourse” Talk about birth control with your partner Know what doesn’t work – and don’t rely on it Talk with a health-care professional Consider long term implications Resist having sex without contraceptive protection Use back-up methods Inform yourself about emergency contraception


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