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Oral contraceptives Epidemiological aspects Øjvind Lidegaard Professor Gynaecological Clinic Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University.

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Presentation on theme: "Oral contraceptives Epidemiological aspects Øjvind Lidegaard Professor Gynaecological Clinic Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Oral contraceptives Epidemiological aspects Øjvind Lidegaard Professor Gynaecological Clinic Rigshospitalet Copenhagen University

3 OC: Epidemiological aspects OC use OC and thrombosis - venous thromboembolism - cerebral thrombosis - AMI OC and cancer OC and women at risk Li/05

4 OC use in Denmark Li/05 Calculated from total sale in DDD/fem pop years. Per cent

5 OC generations according to estrogen dose and progestagen type Li/05 Progestagen generation 12 ”2” Estrans Levonor-Norges- Deso- Gesto- Dros- NETA gestrel timate gestrel dene pirenon st nd th rd + - POP Low dose = 20-40ug EE

6 OC types in DK according to estrogen dose during the period Li/02 Sale statistics. Dansk Lægemiddelstatistik 30-40ug EE 50ug EE 20ug EE POP

7 Progestagen types in combined OC in Denmark (%) Li/05 Levonorgestrel Norethisterone Desogestrel 20ug Norgestimate Gestodene 30ug Desogestrel 30ug Gest. 20ug Sale statistics.

8 Use of oral contraceptives in DK 2003 DDD/100 women/day at different ages Li/05

9 OC: Epidemiological aspects OC use OC and thrombosis - venous thromboembolism - cerebral thrombosis - AMI OC and cancer OC and women at risk Li/05

10 CTA, AMI and VTE in DK Pregnant and puerperal women excluded Li/04 Incidence per 100,000 per year Lidegaard Ø. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: S62-7. DVT PE VTE AMI CTA CTA+ AMI Arterial diseases Venous diseases

11 Thrombotic diseases in young women Quantitative and qualitative impact Incidence rate of disease Mortality/case-fatality rate Disability among survivors Long-term survival Age differentiation Li/05

12 Thrombotic diseases in young women Per 1 million per yearCTA AMIVTE Incidence Non pregnant Mortality Non pregnant Case-fatality rate 2.3% 25% 1.3% Significant disability 30% 30% 5% Long-term survival   Li/04 Lidegaard. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179: s62-7

13 Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in women of reproductive age Lidegaard, Nordisk Medicin 1998; 113: CTAAMIVTE High age+++ Smoking++- Hypertension++- Diabetes++- Family VTE-–+ Family AMI ++- Family CTA++- BMI >30-++ Migraine+–- Varicose veins-–+ Leiden fact V-–+

14 OC: Epidemiological aspects OC use OC and thrombosis - venous thromboembolism - cerebral thrombosis - AMI OC and cancer OC and women at risk Li/05

15 VTE: Genetic risk factors Risk factorPrevalenceRR Leiden fact V hetero5% 8 Leiden fact V homoz0.2%64 Protein C insufficiency0.2%15 Protein S insufficiency 10 Antithrombin III insuff.0.02%50 Prothrombin 20210A 2% 3 Hyperhomocysteinaemia 3% 3 Li/04 Høibraaten E. HRT and risk of VTE. Diss. Oslo 2001

16 VTE: Acquired risk factors Prevalence RR Age ≥30 vs <3050% 2.5 Pregnancy 4% 8 Adiposity (BMI>25)30% 2 Varicose veins 8% 2 Immobilisation/trauma ? 2-10 Oral contraceptives 30% 3-4 Medical diseases 5%? 2-5 Li/04

17 Incidence rate of VTE among pregnant and puerperal women, DK N=265 Li/04 Incidence of VTE per 10,000 exposure years Pregnancy (n=162) Puerperium (n=103) Delivery

18 Adiposity in Danish women and men in 1994 and N=16,000 Li/04 Inge Lissau. Statens Institut for Folkesundhed Adiposity: BMI >25

19 OCs and VTE studies PDS cas/con2nd3rd Blomenkamp / WHO, Eur / Jick, UK /cohortref1.8 Spitzer / Lewis / Farmer /cohort Todd /cohortref1.4 Blomenkamp / Lidegaard / Li/04 Lidegaard et al, Contraception 2002; 65:

20 OC: Epidemiological aspects OC use OC and thrombosis - venous thromboembolism - cerebral thrombosis - AMI OC and cancer OC and women at risk Li/05

21 OCs and AMI studies Study PDS cas/con2nd 3rd WHO, Eur / % CI: Lewis (97) / % CI: MICA (99) / % CI: Lidegaard / % CI: Li/03 Dunn et al. BMJ 1999; 318:

22 OCs and thrombotic stroke Lidegaard et al. Contraception 2002; 65:

23 OCs and thrombosis Current status November 2006* CTA AMI VTE 2nd gen: rd gen: Li/06

24 OC: Epidemiological aspects OC use OC and thrombosis - venous thromboembolism - cerebral thrombosis - AMI OC and cancer OC and women at risk Li/05

25 OCs and cancer risk Relative risk Breast cancer:1,1 Endometrial cancer: 0,5 Ovarian cancer: 0,5 Cervical cancer: 1,2 All cancers: No change All cause mortality: No change Conclusion: No change in risk of cancer in general in ever-users of OCs

26 Clinical guidelines When OCs are prescribed Careful clinical history including risk factors and family disposition Previous VTE: No OCs Genetic predisposition VTE risk factor ≥5: No OCs VTE risk factor <5: Careful inf, 2 nd gen No risk factors: Any low dose pill Arterial risk factors: 3 rd gen. pill Li/04

27 OC: Epidemiological aspects OC use OC and thrombosis - venous thromboembolism - cerebral thrombosis - AMI OC and cancer OC and women at risk Li/05

28 Migraine and OCs Risk of cerebral thrombosis: RR Migraine in general3 Migraine with aura6 Migraine without aura2 2. Gen. OCs 2,5 3. Gen. OCs 1,5 Migraine + 2. Gen OCs 7,5 Migraine + 3. Gen OCs 4,5 Conclusion: No OCs to women with migraine with aura. Otherwise 3. gen.

29 Smoking and OCs Risk of thrombosis: BrainHeart Smoking <10/day Smoking 10-20/day Smoking >20/day Gen. OCs Gen. OCs Conclusion: No OCs to women smoking ≥20 cigarettes/day and who are >35 yrs.

30 History when OCs are prescribed Previous thrombosis? Smoking, diabetes, hypertension Migraine, with or without aura Family thrombosis? Previous compliance with OCs Menstrual bleedings Actual liver disease Sexual practice

31 Clinical examination when OCs are prescribed Women >25 years: BP Women with risk factors: BP BMI (=weight / height 2 ) Varicose veins Time for a control after three months where BP is measured on all women.

32 Routine information when OCs are prescribed How to manage a forgotten pill. Warning signs: New migraine, dizziness, visual disturbances Adaptation take few months Increased risk of venous thrombosis, the absolute risk however very low Common not serious side effects Common non-contraceptive benefits Presentation on


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