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The multimedia presentation contains visual materials used in the book “Voices of Memory, part 5”. All volumes are available at the Auschwitz Museum’s.

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Presentation on theme: "The multimedia presentation contains visual materials used in the book “Voices of Memory, part 5”. All volumes are available at the Auschwitz Museum’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 The multimedia presentation contains visual materials used in the book “Voices of Memory, part 5”. All volumes are available at the Auschwitz Museum’s online bookshop at International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en

2 Documents and photographs International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en

3 Documents and photographs A page from the main record book (Hauptbuch) of the Roma camp for men, featuring boys born in the “Gypsy family camp,” the Zigeunerfamilienlager. “Birkenau” is entered in the column for place of birth. Source: APMA-B, Main record book of the Roma camp for men, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en

4 A page from the main record book (Hauptbuch) of the Roma camp for women, featuring girls born in the “Gypsy family camp,” the Zigeunerfamilienlager. “Birkenau b. Auschwitz” is entered in the column for place of birth. Source: APMA-B, Main record book of the Roma camp for women, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

5 Report of September 11, 1944 from the commandant of Stutthof Concentration Camp informing the WVHA (SS Main Economic and Administrative Office) about the transfer the previous day from Stutthof to Auschwitz of 573 Jewish prisoners (youths and mothers with children), as well as mothers with children and pregnant women of non-Jewish (arisch) origins. Source: APMA-B, Transport lists from Stutthof to Auschwitz, microfilm no. 1764/35. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

6 Document reporting the daily count of women prisoners in the Birkenau women’s camp on December 25, The number of newly born children is listed (Neugeborene Kinder – 3). Source: APMA-B, Stärkemeldung, AuII – FKL, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

7 Receipt for foodstuffs obtained from camp food storage for pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers in the women’s camp in Birkenau, January 10, Starting in 1944, pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers obtained “dietetic” food. Instead of a portion of bread and a herbal infusion, they received half a roll baked from white flour and half a liter of soup (oatmeal or gruel) made with skim milk, morning and evening. Source: APMA-B, D-AuI – 4/20, vol. 1, p. 12. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

8 Stanisława Leszczyńska, born in Łódź on May 8, 1896, trained as a midwife. Arrested together with her daughter and two sons in February 1943 for aiding persons wanted by the Gestapo. Sent to Auschwitz on April 17, 1943 and given number (Her daughter Sylwia, also deported to Auschwitz, was number ) After several weeks in quarantine, she was assigned to work in the women’s hospital, the so-called Revier, as a midwife. She held this job until the end, when the camp was liberated on January 27, She died in photograph (APMA-B, negative no ). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

9 Camp letter written by Stanisława Leszczyńska, dated December 3, On the form is information that prisoner Stanisława Leszczyńska, born May 8, 1896, prisoner number 41335, was quartered in block no. 28 in sector BIIe. Source: APMA-B, Camp letters, vol. 35, p. 17. In connection with plans for the evacuation and liquidation of the camp, the SS authorities decided in November 1944 to move all the prisoners in Birkenau to sector BII. The hospital for women prisoners was moved from sector BIa to BIIe, where the Zigeunerlager had previously been located. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

10 Anna Fefferling (named Gomez after the war), a Polish Jewish woman from Warsaw, was sent to Auschwitz on February 12, 1943 from the prison in Radom. Unrecognized, she was registered as a Pole under her maiden name Katz and obtained number She was in the advanced stages of pregnancy when she arrived in Auschwitz, and gave birth to her son Józef in the camp on April 28, For several months, the child was concealed from the camp authorities. At a later period, he was registered and received number Mother and son were liberated from Auschwitz on January 27, (APMA-B). See her account on p. 39. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

11 Józef, the son of Anna Fefferling. Photograph taken soon after liberation. (APMA-B, neg. no. 2348). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

12 Stefania Homik, born November 5, 1918 in Krzeczowice (Podkarpackie province, Poland). Arrested in Laubendorf, Germany, where she had been transported as a slave laborer, she was sent to Auschwitz in a mass transport on January 19, 1943 and registered as prisoner no She was then in the third or fourth month of pregnancy. She gave birth to her son Jerzy in the camp on June 27, Her child was taken from her several months later and she never saw him again. She remained in Auschwitz until liberation. (APMA-B; see her account on p. 41). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

13 Międzynarodowe Centrum Edukacji o Auschwitz i Holokauście ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.pl Personal file card for prisoner no , Jerzy Homik, born in the camp on June 27, He was taken from his mother and departed Auschwitz for an unknown destination on January 19, Source: APMA-B, D-AuI-3a/ , vol. 4, p Documents and photographs

14 Official birth certificate (Geburtsurkunde) for Auschwitz prisoner Ryszard Kulpa, born in the camp on August 6, The document was issued by the camp Civil Registry Office (Standesamt II). The mother, Zofia Kulpa, was born in Kłobukowice on January 8, 1920 and arrested as a hostage in place of her husband Franciszek, who belonged to the resistance movement. Her parents and her threeyear- old daughter Irena were arrested along with her. After the initial investigation, Irena and her grandparents were sent to the Polenlager in Racibórz; Zofia was placed in block 2a in Auschwitz at the disposition of the investigative jail in Mysłowice. She was arrested as a result of the Oderberg Aktion, directed against Polish families in Silesia and the Dąbrowa Basin. On March 5, 1943, Zofia was designated political prisoner and transferred to the women’s camp in Birkenau in spite of the fact that she was pregnant. After she gave birth, the determined intervention of her relatives led to her being released from Auschwitz together with her son. Her husband Franciszek was later arrested and executed in Mysłowice. The Germans confiscated all the couple’s belongings, including their house. Source: APMA-B, Geburtsurkunde Fond, D-AuI-2/1, vol. 1, p. 1. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

15 Official notification of the release of prisoner no , Zofia Kulpa, issued by the office of the commandant of Auschwitz and dated August 20, In the lower left-hand corner is an annotation placing her under an obligation to report daily to the police in Sosnowiec. Source: APMA-B, D-AuI-I/68, vol. 2, p. 4. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

16 Józefa Alf, born February 1, 1911 and sent to Auschwitz in a transport of women from Radom on January 22, 1943, at which time she was pregnant. Registered under number 30558, she gave birth on August 16 to a son, Józef, who was taken from her and transferred out of the camp. Józefa never saw her son again. She was in Auschwitz until January 1945, when she was transferred to Ravensbrück. She was liberated at the Neustadt-Glewe camp. (APMA-B). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

17 Personal file card for prisoner , Marek Józef Alf, born in Auschwitz on August 16, He was taken from his mother and transferred on October 11, 1944, probably to the camp for children from the east (Ost Jugendverwahrlager der Sicherheitspolizei in Tuchingen) in Konstantynów near Łódź. His mother’s efforts to locatehim after the war failed. Source: APMA-B, A-AuI-3a/88-407, vol. 3, p. 19. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

18 Stanisława Galek, Auschwitz prisoner number 34349, sent to the camp on February 5, 1943 in a transport of Poles and Jews expelled from the Zamość region. She was in the early months of pregnancy. She gave birth to her son Tadeusz in the camp on September 6, The child was taken from her and transferred to the UWZ (Umwandererzentrale) resettlement center in Potulice (UWZ Lager Lebrechtsdorf- Potulitz). Stanisława survived Auschwitz but never managed to trace her son. (APMA-B). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

19 Tadeusz Galek. The boy was taken from his mother and transferred for Germanization to the camp in Potulice on October 11, After liberation, he was one of a group of orphans taken to Będzin, where he was adopted by a Polish family. Only after his mother’s death did Stanisław discover his true family. Photograph taken after the war. (APMA-B, neg. no /3). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

20 Personal file card for child prisoner Tadeusz Galek, born in Auschwitz on September 6, 1943 and registered as prisoner number Source: APMA-B, D-Au I – 3a/ , vol. 4, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

21 Official death certificate for Vladimir Karpeniuk, son of Natalia Karpeniuk. He was born in Auschwitz on September 19, 1943 and died there on November 14, The listed cause of death is “complications of gastroenteritis.” Source: APMA-B, Sterbebuch, vol. 22/2/43, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

22 Official death certificate for Natalia Karpeniuk, born December 31, 1921 in Antonov, USSR. In Auschwitz, she gave birth to a son, Vladimir, on September 19, She died in Auschwitz on December 22, The listed cause of death is “pulmonary inflammation.” Source: APMA-B, Sterbebuch, vol. 25/2/43, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

23 Official death certificate for the child Anton Juratovic, born in Auschwitz on December 14, 1943, son of a Yugoslavian Auschwitz prisoner, Marica Juratovic. Anton died in Auschwitz on December 29, at the age of fifteen days. Source: APMA-B, Sterbebuch, D-AuI-2/47, vol. 25, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

24 Vera Moskaleva (after the war: Yuzhenko) with her daughter Galina, who was born in Auschwitz. Vera was deported to Auschwitz from Vitebsk on October 22, 1943 and designated number She was pregnant at the time. She gave birth to her daughter on January 28, Galina was tattooed with number two days after birth. Mother and daughter were liberated on January 27, Postwar photograph. (APMA-B, neg. no ). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

25 Leokadia Stawska, sent to Auschwitz from Lublin on October 3, 1943 and designated number (APMA-B, neg. no. 2455/1). Teresa Stawska, born March 7, 1944 in Auschwitz and registered with a number above 75000; the tattooed number is illegible. Teresa and her mother were liberated in Auschwitz on January 27, Photograph taken soon after liberation in (APMA-B, neg. no ). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

26 A child born in Auschwitz with her adoptive mother Bronisława Wesołowska. The child is probably Katia Kulik, born April 27, 1944 and probably registered as number The girl’s mother, Fiedora Ustinovna Kulik, number 61985, was sent to Auschwitz from Vitebsk on September 9, 1943 together with other civilians from Byelorussia following pacification operations there in reprisal for partisan attacks. The mother probably died in Auschwitz after giving birth to twins. One of the twins, a boy, also died. The girl, given the name Basia, was deported in October to the camp in Potulice (UWZ Lager Lebrechtsdorf-Potulitz). After the liberation of that camp, she was one of a group of orphans taken to Będzin. There, she was adopted by Wesołowska and her husband. Photograph taken in Będzin in (APMA-B, neg. no. 4712). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

27 Stanisława Perończyk with her daughter Barbara. The mother was in the third month of pregnancy when she was deported to Auschwitz on November 13, 1943 along with her husband Stefan. She was registered as prisoner number 67849, and Stefan as number Stanisława gave birth to a daughter in Auschwitz on May 17, During registration, the girl had the number tattooed on her left thigh. Mother and child were liberated in Auschwitz. Stefan died during the evacuation of Mauthausen Concentration Camp, to which he was transferred from Auschwitz on December 4, Photograph taken in Chrzanów in (APMA-B, neg. no /1). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

28 Ilona Pal, a Jewish woman from Hungary, born 1910 and arrested in Budapest by the Hungarian police in May She and her parents family were deported to Auschwitz at the end of June. She was in the sixth month of pregnancy at the time of deportation. An experimental surgical abortion was performed on her in the camp. (APMA-B, microfilm no ). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

29 Nadezhda Dorofeyevna Feshchenko-Katsayeva, prisoner number 73892, of Russian origin, with her son Nikolai. Born in Auschwitz on July 23, 1944, Nikolai’s camp number was probably (the number tattooed on his left arm is partially illegible). Nadezhda was deported to Auschwitz in a mass transport on December 22, She and her son were liberated in Auschwitz on January 27, Photograph from the 1960s. (APMA-B, neg. no /1). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

30 Photograph showing the tattooed numbers on the arms of mother and son. (APMA-B, neg. no /2). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

31 Anna Polshchikova, born September 1, 1919, Auschwitz prisoner number 75560, with her son Viktor. Born in Auschwitz on October 15, 1944, Viktor was registered as prisoner number Anna was sent to Auschwitz on February 22, 1944 in a mass transport from a prison in Vienna, where she had been sent as a slave laborer. Mother and son were in Auschwitz until liberation on January 27, See Anna’s memoir on p. 48. Photograph taken in Yalta after returning from the camp. (APMA-B, neg. no /5). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

32 Original prisoner tag with the camp number of the child Viktor. His mother, Anna Polshchikova, was required to sew it on the infant’s nightshirt. (APMA-B, neg. no /4). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

33 A kilim rug that prisoner Anna Polshchikova salvaged from Auschwitz at liberation. She wrapped her son Viktor in it when leaving the camp. She donated the kilim to the Auschwitz-Birkenau Museum in (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Collections). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

34 Certificate issued by the Soviet military repatriation point in Cracow on February 27, 1945 to former Auschwitz prisoner Anna Polshchikova, who was returning to her home in Yalta, together with her son Viktor, born in the camp. Source: APMA-B, Mat./1784, vol. 255, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

35 Kazimiera Bogdańska with her daughter Anna, who was born in Auschwitz. The mother was deported there in a transport of civilians following the start of the Warsaw Uprising and registered as number She was in the seventh month of pregnancy at the time, and gave birth to Anna on October 26, Mother and daughter were in Auschwitz until liberation on January 27, Photograph taken in Włochy, outside Warsaw, in the autumn of (APMA-B, neg. no /2). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

36 Original prisoner tags stamped with the numbers of Kazimiera Bogdańska and her daughter Anna. Donated to the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum by Anna Bogdańska in (Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum Collections). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

37 Official birth certificate (Geburtsurkunde) of Auschwitz prisoner Anna Bogdańska, born October 26, 1944, issued by the camp Civil Registry Office (Standesamt II). The document is deliberately misleading as to the place of birth. Instead of the camp, it lists the name of the city and the street address, “Auschwitz, Kasernenstrasse.” Similar deception measures appear on death certificates. Source: APMA-B, Geburtsurkunde Fond, D-AuI – 2/3, vol. 1, p. 3. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

38 Wanda Dramińska, born April 18, She was sent to Auschwitz along with her husband and other relatives in a civilian transport from Warsaw on August 12, 1944, following the start of the Warsaw Uprising. She was registered as number She was in the third month of pregnancy when she arrived at the camp. She was liberated at Auschwitz and subsequently taken to Cracow, where she gave birth to her daughter Ewa. Her husband Jerzy died on January 19, 1945 in Flossenbürg Concentration Camp, where he was transferred from Auschwitz. Photograph taken after the war. (APMA-B, neg. no /3). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

39 Ewa Dramińska, born February 16, 1945 in the St. Lazarus Hospital in Cracow, where her mother, an Auschwitz prisoner, was taken immediately after the liberation of the camp. Photograph taken after the war. (APMA-B, neg. no /4). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

40 Alina Cielemięcka-Naciążek, born September 9, On September 4, 1944, while in the fourth month of pregnancy, she was sent to Auschwitz in a transport of civilians from Warsaw following the start of the Uprising. Her camp number was During the evacuation march, she escaped on January 20 in the vicinity of Jastrzębie, where local residents concealed her and three other pregnant prisoners until the liberation of the area on March 28, In the meantime, on March 19, 1945, she gave birth to her daughter Lidia. Photograph taken in (APMA-B, neg. no /2). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

41 List of former Auschwitz prisoners liberated on January 27, 1945 and moved in February to the Polish Red Cross Hospital in Brzeszcze. Mothers with children born in the camp figure on the list. Krystyna Zambrzycka-Stempkowska’s name can be seen at number 14. See the account on p. 59. Source: APMA-B, PCK/12, folder 6, p. 20. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

42 Death certificate of the Russian infant Vladimir Yakovenko, a former Auschwitz prisoner born in the camp, who died in the Polish Red Cross Hospital set up after liberation on the grounds of the Auschwitz I camp. Source: APMA-B, PCK/8, vol. 2, p International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

43 Hans Nierzwicki – SS Unterscharführer, born January 18, 1905, a member of the Auschwitz garrison from July 17, 1942 to January 18, His posts included SS orderly in the Birkenau camp. At the camp hospital outpatient clinic in the women’s camp, he administered lethal injections of phenol to pregnant women, new mothers, and newborn infants. After the war, because of poor health, he was not included among those charged in the Auschwitz Trials at Frankfurt am Main in (APMA-B, neg. no /14). International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs

44 From left: Richard Baer (camp commandant from May 1944 to January 1945), Josef Mengele, Rudolf Höss (camp commandant from May 1940 to November 1943). This photograph was taken in the summer of 1944 at Międzybrodzie (a rest center for the Auschwitz garrison, not far from Oświęcim) and comes from the collections of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C. International Center for Education about Auschwitz and the Holocaust ul. Więźniów Oświęcimia 20, Oświęcim tel , fax www. auschwitz.org.en Documents and photographs


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