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©Learning ZoneXpress 1 by Judy Jennings
©Learning ZoneXpress 2 What is Fashion? Clothes express who you are and what you value. Definition of Fashion: Style of clothing, hair and personal appearance. Dress, behavior, way of living or other personal expressions that are popular at present. A particular type or variety.
©Learning ZoneXpress 3 Fashion Influences Culture War Trade Entertainment Lifestyle Climate Work Leisure Communication Marital Status Social Status Religious Affiliation Technology Inventions Production Science
©Learning ZoneXpress 4 Early Civilizations Cultural Influences Early man is a hunter and gatherer. Other primitives turn to farming and herding. Empires rise and fall. Fashion Influences Needle invention makes sewing possible. Spinning and weaving produce textiles. Silk industry begins in China. Fashion Trends The loincloth is the first fashion statement. Linen drapes into tunics and togas. Barbarians favor trousers and fur.
©Learning ZoneXpress 5 The Middle Ages Cultural Influences Small kingdoms replace empires. Crusaders go to the Middle East. Fashion Influences Crusades open trade routes. Scissors improve cutting. New buttons are decorative only. Fashion Trends Surcoats cover long narrow dresses called cotehardies. Women hide their hair under wimples and headdresses. Men pad their clothing under armor.
©Learning ZoneXpress 6 The Renaissance Cultural Influences Exploration and trade grow. New ideas in science and art flourish. Fashion Influences Traders promote beautiful textiles. Knitting is introduced. Jewelry becomes popular. Fashion Trends Embroidery and jewels embellish garments. Men and women wear ruff collar. The farthingale widens women's skirts. 1450-1600
©Learning ZoneXpress 7 1600s Cultural Influences Settlers colonize the new world. New thinkers tackle math, chemistry, philosophy and anatomy. War is almost a permanent state. Fashion Influences Politics divide fashion into plain and fancy. Louis XIV likes over-the-top court fashions. Fashion Trends Necklines plunge and sleeves go short. Lace, ruffles, ribbons and bows trim garments. Doublets lengthen into coats.
©Learning ZoneXpress 8 1700s Cultural Influences Americans gain independence. French overthrow king. The middle class emerges. Fashion Influences Democracy urges simplicity. Inventions aid textile production. Fashion Trends Hooped skirts make a comeback. Trendsetters powder their hair and wigs. New sack dress hangs loosely. High-waisted gowns reflect ancient look.
©Learning ZoneXpress 9 1800s Cultural Influences Civil War temporarily divides the nation. Industrial Revolution brings sweeping changes. Fashion Influences The cotton gin and sewing machine modernize apparel production. New retail department stores open. Mail-order catalogs bring fashion to rural customers. Mechanization spawns ready-to-wear market. Fashion Trends Hoop skirts and bustles enlarge fashions. Gibson Girl reflects shirtwaist separates style. Levi Strauss introduces denim work pants. Men adopt business suits.
©Learning ZoneXpress 10 1900-1920 Cultural Influences Automobiles hit the road. Suffragettes fight for voting rights. Women go to war and work. Fashion Influences Modern fashion shows begin. Art, ballet and film impact designers. Fashion Trends Hemlines reveal ankles. Narrow Hobble skirts restrict walking. Special motoring clothes catch on. Wartime requires more practical clothing.
©Learning ZoneXpress 11 1920s Cultural Influences Post-war optimism spreads. Women gain the vote. Radio connects the country. Fashion Influences New factories mass produce affordable clothes. New sizing system helps shoppers. Exercise craze opens sportswear market. Fashion Trends Loose "boy" silhouette dominates female styles. Hemlines go very short. Waistlines drop.
©Learning ZoneXpress 12 1930s Cultural Influences Great Depression brings financial collapse and unemployment. Improved sound quality makes "talking movies" a popular escape. Fashion Influences Movies glamorize evening clothes. Rayon and nylon widen fabric options. Garment manufacturers open specialty markets. Zippers become clothing fastener. Fashion Trends Hemlines drop. Silhouette narrows. Elegant styles mirror Hollywood glamour. Soft dressing revives feminine look.
©Learning ZoneXpress 13 1940s Cultural Influences America enters World War II. Women go to work. Fashion Influences Fabric shortages restrict styles. American designers expand the sportswear industry. Fashion Trends Hemlines go shorter. Skirt silhouette narrows. Working women adopt pants. Consumers mix and match separates.
©Learning ZoneXpress 14 1950s Cultural Influences America settles into post-war stability. Families move to suburbs. Youth culture emerges. Fashion Influences Wartime fabric restrictions lifted. Television becomes mainstream entertainment. Rock 'n roll music and movies inspire clothing choices. Polyester is the hot new fabric. Fashion Trends Hemlines drop. Skirts become fuller. Pencil skirts are also "in”. Men buy more suits and sportswear.
©Learning ZoneXpress 15 1960s Cultural Influences Youth culture grows. The Beatles invade the United States. Vietnam war polarizes the country. Space race begins. Fashion Influences Twiggy popularizes thinness. New pantyhose frees hemlines. Shopping malls and boutiques expand shopping options. Fashion Trends Mini skirts revolutionize fashion. Hippies wear unisex jeans and T-shirts. Ethnic styles include Nehru jackets. Designers introduce futuristic styles.
©Learning ZoneXpress 16 1970s Cultural Influences The women's movement gains strength. Protest groups find their voice. People take up jogging and aerobics. Fashion Influences Disco fever sweeps the country. Television shows Charlie's Angels and Wonder Woman capture viewers. Discount stores offer lower prices. Technology advances the textile industry. Fashion Trends Hemlines go mini, midi and maxi. Fitness clothing debuts. Disco inspires flashy fashions. Women wear pantsuits. Men wear leisure suits.
©Learning ZoneXpress 17 1980s Cultural Influences Women flood the workplace. London has a royal wedding. AIDS becomes an epidemic. Fashion Influences Madonna makes a splash. Designer labels snag shoppers. Book urges power dressing. MTV goes on the air. Lycra and latex change fitness. Fashion Trends Women wear tailored suits. Romantic clothing returns. Jeans are acid washed. Fitness clothing goes tight.
©Learning ZoneXpress 18 1990s Cultural Influences Global boundaries change. The internet is the information highway. Americans "cocoon" at home. Fashion Influences American brands sell overseas. Super models are celebrities. TV and internet shopping catches on. Fleece, water repellent and stain resistant fabrics are new. Fashion Trends Mismatched styles work. Pantsuits return. Street clothing sets style. Skimpy clothes reveal skin.
©Learning ZoneXpress 19 Millennium Decade Cultural Influences The world welcomes the new century. Terrorism keeps America on edge. Patriotic spirit spreads. Fashion Influences Apparel manufacturing goes overseas. Many leather and silk fabrics are now washable. Stretch fabrics are in demand. Fashion Trends Work wardrobe turns to business casual. Denim pieces are mismatched. Shoppers quickly accept cropped pants. Clothing has pockets for computer devices.
©Learning ZoneXpress 20 The Future Cultural Influences Technology makes rapid advances. The over-50 and ethnic populations increase. Fashion Influences Technology marries fabrics and computers. Designers target older fashion- conscious shoppers. Fashion Trends People wear computerized clothing. Shoppers like retro styles.
©Learning ZoneXpress 21 You’re the Expert Select one of the following activities: Design a garment or accessory for a particular time period, and explain why it fits the fashion of the time. OR - design a garment for the future and describe what influenced the design. Create a fashion poster. Cut pictures from magazines or print them off the internet to show current or future fashion trends. Select a decade of fashion to research. Write about styles that are of interest to you, and include photos or drawings of the ones you like best.
©Learning ZoneXpress 22 Fashion Quiz 1. Name three things that influence fashion. 2. During the Renaissance Period exploration and trade growth brought which of the following to fashion: a. Gold & silver embroidery and jewel embellishments. b. Elegant gowns adorned with lace. c. Farthingales widen the women’s skirt. d. All of the above. 3. Name two inventions of the Industrial Revolution in the 1800s that brought change to fashion.
©Learning ZoneXpress 23 Fashion Quiz 4. Post-War optimism spread in the 1920s and women gained the right to vote. How did this influence women’s fashion during that era? 5. What influenced women to wear pants in the 1940s? 6. The 1960s was a decade of youth. Which of the following became popular in this decade: a. Bobbie Socks b. Mini Skirts c..Men’s Leisure Suits d. Tights & Legwarmers
©Learning ZoneXpress 24 Web Resources Costumes.org (go to History sorted by Period) www.costumes.org Vogue Online www.style.com/voque The International Vocabulary of Fashion www.fashiondex.com The Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising www.fidm.com Teacher Oz - Fashion History www.teacheroz.com/fashionhistory.htm Fabrics: The Complete Source for Everything Textiles www.fabrics.com Please note that web addresses are constantly changing and being updated. You may need to revise this list.
©Learning ZoneXpress 1 by Judy Jennings. ©Learning ZoneXpress 2 What is Fashion? Clothes express who you are and what you value. Definition of Fashion:
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