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Leila Hessini Director, Community Engagement and Mobilization Ipas December 14, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Leila Hessini Director, Community Engagement and Mobilization Ipas December 14, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Leila Hessini Director, Community Engagement and Mobilization Ipas December 14, 2010

2 21 2 million unsafe ach year – affecting >100 million women during their reproductive lifetimes deaths per year, 93% in Africa and South-central Asia Over half of deaths are young women <24 Source: WHO, 2008

3 Estimated annual numbers of unsafe abortions (2008 Total = 21.2 million Latin America andCaribbean 4.2 million Africa 6.1 million Asia 10.8 million Europe 0.3 million (Source: WHO, 2008

4  Close to 40% of pregnancies are unplanned  80 million unintended pregnancies each year (27 million as a result of method failure or ineffective use)  Preventing unintended is critical to reducing unsafe abortions

5  14 million unintended in Africa  Various factors: sexual violence, pregnancy outside of marriage, lack of knowledge, access to or use of contraception  1/3 rd of all unintended end of aborted  Age pattern of unintended pregnancies is changing – many more young women

6 In addition to death, unsafe abortion can lead to: 1.7 million hospitalized annually Significant short- and long-term illness and injury to women Infertility Negative impacts on women, families, children, and communities Increased likelihood of death among children whose mother has died

7 Without Restriction as to Reason Socioeconomic Grounds To Preserve Mental Health To Preserve Physical Health Legally Permitted to Save a Woman's Life

8  Treatment for unsafe abortion costs health systems up to $1 billion per year  OB/GYN hospital capacity often overwhelmed by post-abortion patients  Post-abortion care significantly more expensive than safe abortion (or contraception)  Unsafe abortion can also reflect the overall quality of health systems. WHO; Guttmacher

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11  Analysis of medieval Arabic texts  Compiling supportive fatwas  Supporting women religious leaders  Legal and policy reform  Health system change  Networking across regions

12  Coitus interruptus encouraged others as long as there was mutual consent.  Abortion: debates regarding pregnant women’s circumstances; fetal age and analysis of if more harm would be caused by continuing or by ending the pregnancy.  Maternal life carried precedence over that of the foetus at least until “ensoulment” defined as occurring anywhere between 40, 90 or 120 days.

13  Abortions after ensoulment were prohibited unless there was “just cause” – usually defined as saving a women’s life or their health  The lives of existing children were also considered more important than that of the fetus; breast-feeding women or mothers who could not afford another child were allowed to terminate a pregnancy.

14  Algeria (1998) rape victims of Islamist violence  Egypt (1998) for unmarried women who had been raped  Saudi Arabia (1991) and Iran (2005) in cases of fetal abnormalities  Indonesia (2004) rape and incest

15  Training women - mourshidat – Islamic scholars and spiritual guides  Working through the pesantren, - Muslim boarding schools – to incorporate information on SRHR into school curricula  Building global networks – musawah - gender equality in Islam

16  Islam is a strong presence in women’s lives, but it does not necessarily govern women’s everyday reproductive and sexual choices  Women often rely on their belief in God’s compassion rather than on the opinions of religious authorities.  Women may simultaneously believe that abortion is “harem” but yet necessary and even justified  Young and unmarried women experience much more shame and stigma  Women’s social networks are an important source of information, transportation and resources for women seeking abortion care.

17  Tunisia: and Tunisia: 1973 and 1982  Algeria (1985) and Benin (2003)  Burkina Faso (1996) and Chad (2002)  Djibouti (1995) and Guinea (2000)  Indonesia (1992) Iran (1991), Kuwait (1981), Mali (2002) Niger (2006),  Pakistan (1990), Saudi Arabia (1990) Sudan (1993) and Togo (2007).

18  Menstrual regulation  Medical abortion  Training midlevel providers and midwives  Ensuring that women have knowledge, skills and ability to obtain safe abortion services  Ensuring that women have safe abortion information and care in their communities

19  Compile existing resources into a database and toolkit  Develop training and capacity-building curricula for community education  Engender awareness and support from religious leaders and individuals at community level  Share experiences across countries (study tours)

20 About Law and Policy Gender & Rights Country – Specific Related Sites Tabs SEARCH Welcome! Intro Drop- Down Lists maybe We could use these side tabs to reorganize the resources in another conceptual manner, if need be, for example: Abortion, FP, Contraceptives, ETC. Standard contact links at the bottom SRH and Islam


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