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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 9 WORKING FOR REFORM Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities Section 2: Movements for.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 9 WORKING FOR REFORM Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities Section 2: Movements for."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 9 WORKING FOR REFORM Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities Section 2: Movements for Social Reform Section 3: The Crusade for Abolition Section 4: The Cause of Women’s Rights

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 2 Objectives: Who participated in the Second Great Awakening? Who participated in the Second Great Awakening? What were the main characteristics of the Shakers and Mormons? What were the main characteristics of the Shakers and Mormons? What ideas did transcendentalism promote? What ideas did transcendentalism promote? Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 3 Participants in the Second Great Awakening people living on the frontier people living on the frontier people living in the cities of the Northeast people living in the cities of the Northeast African Americans African Americans middle-class women middle-class women Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 4 Shaker beliefs separate yet relatively equal roles for men and women; no marriage separate yet relatively equal roles for men and women; no marriage property jointly owned by the community property jointly owned by the community Christ would soon return to rule Earth Christ would soon return to rule Earth Utopian community Utopian community Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 5 Mormon beliefs Utopian community Utopian community plural marriage for men plural marriage for men Divine assistance had given new religious teachings. Divine assistance had given new religious teachings. Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 6 Transcendentalist ideas People could attain perfection through knowledge about God, the self, and the universe. People could attain perfection through knowledge about God, the self, and the universe. importance of the individual importance of the individual natural simplicity natural simplicity spiritual renewal spiritual renewal Section 1: Religious Zeal and New Communities

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 7 Objectives: What motivated temperance reformers? What motivated temperance reformers? Why did some women believe it was important to become involved in reform movements? Why did some women believe it was important to become involved in reform movements? How did educational opportunities change in the early 1800s? How did educational opportunities change in the early 1800s? How and why did reformers work to improve prisons and other institutions? How and why did reformers work to improve prisons and other institutions? Section 2: Movements for Social Reform

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 8 Temperance reformers wanted to reduce criminal behavior, family violence, and poverty wanted to reduce criminal behavior, family violence, and poverty desired a more disciplined workforce desired a more disciplined workforce wanted to preserve the family wanted to preserve the family Section 2: Movements for Social Reform

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 9 Women and reform Many women believed that they had a duty to become involved in reform since they were expected to instill values of good citizenship in their children and serve as the moral voice in their household. Section 2: Movements for Social Reform

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 10 Education in the early 1800s expansion of public education expansion of public education opening of first public high school opening of first public high school expansion of opportunities for women and African Americans to receive a college education expansion of opportunities for women and African Americans to receive a college education Section 2: Movements for Social Reform

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 11 Jails and prisons Reformers created the penitentiary system, built more prisons, and established reform schools to deal with the imprisonment of juveniles with adult offenders. Section 2: Movements for Social Reform

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 12 Poorhouses Reformers established a network of poorhouses, where the able-bodied poor would be required to work and where poor children could be educated. Section 2: Movements for Social Reform

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 13 Mental hospitals Rehabilitation hospitals were established to get mentally ill people out of jails and poorhouses. Section 2: Movements for Social Reform

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 14 Objectives: How did African Americans change the focus of antislavery efforts? How did African Americans change the focus of antislavery efforts? What sparked the call for immediate abolition? What sparked the call for immediate abolition? How did the Anti-Slavery Society spread its message? How did the Anti-Slavery Society spread its message? What obstacles did the abolitionist movement face? What obstacles did the abolitionist movement face? Section 3: The Crusade for Abolition

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 15 Focus of antislavery efforts African Americans changed the focus of antislavery efforts through their opposition to plans for colonization. Section 3: The Crusade for Abolition

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 16 The call for immediate abolition Impatience with the abolition movement’s lack of progress led some leaders such as David Walker and William Lloyd Garrison to call for immediate abolition. Section 3: The Crusade for Abolition

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 17 Obstacles to the abolition movement violence violence fear and prejudice against free African Americans fear and prejudice against free African Americans internal conflict internal conflict Section 3: The Crusade for Abolition

18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 18 Objectives: How did the women’s rights movement grow out of the abolitionist movement, and what opposition did it face? How did the women’s rights movement grow out of the abolitionist movement, and what opposition did it face? What did early women’s rights activists demand? What did early women’s rights activists demand? What did the early women’s rights movement achieve, and what issues remained unresolved? What did the early women’s rights movement achieve, and what issues remained unresolved? Section 4: The Cause of Women’s Rights

19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 19 Women’s rights movement grew out of abolition movement The women’s rights movement grew out of the abolition movement because many women who worked for abolition began comparing their situation to that of the slaves. Section 4: The Cause of Women’s Rights

20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 20 Opposition to women’s rights movement The women’s rights movement faced opposition from men who believed that a woman’s place was in the home. Section 4: The Cause of Women’s Rights

21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 21 Early demands Married women should have the right to control property and earnings. Married women should have the right to control property and earnings. Divorced women should gain custody of their children. Divorced women should gain custody of their children. Women should have the right to vote. Women should have the right to vote. Section 4: The Cause of Women’s Rights

22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 22 Achievements New York’s Married Women’s Property Act New York’s Married Women’s Property Act Some states revised laws to permit married women to own property, file lawsuits, and retain earnings. Some states revised laws to permit married women to own property, file lawsuits, and retain earnings. Section 4: The Cause of Women’s Rights

23 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 23 Unresolved issues right to vote right to vote needs of African American women and white, working-class women needs of African American women and white, working-class women Section 4: The Cause of Women’s Rights


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