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Women’s Equality Day August 26 “Celebrating Women’s Right to Vote”

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1 Women’s Equality Day August 26 “Celebrating Women’s Right to Vote”
U.S. Customs & Border Protection Office of Diversity and Civil Rights Women’s Equality Day – August 26 Presented by the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Office of Diversity and Civil Rights

2 Women’s Equality Day At U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), we believe that our diversity is our strength. The Office of Diversity and Civil Rights is committed to providing high quality diversity and cultural awareness activities and educational information to CBP employees because we believe that through cultural understanding we grow stronger as an organization. We are committed to the equal representation and participation of all CBP employees in the full privileges and benefits of employment. This presentation is designed to provide you with a brief overview of the courageous suffragists and their supporters who through painstaking struggle and hard work made it possible for women to vote and to hold elected office. We hope you find it interesting and informative. Read this Slide to your audience

3 What is Women’s Equality Day?
Women’s Equality Day was instituted by Representative Bella Abzug (D-NY) and was established in The date, August 26 commemorates the passage of the 19th Amendment and the Woman Suffrage Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which gave U.S. women full voting rights in 1920.  What is Women’s Equality Day? On August 26, 1920, after 72 years of meticulous effort and resistance from courageous suffragists who dared to practice civil disobedience, the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was at last ratified. The 19th Amendment not only secured the right to vote for women, but also recognized and affirmed the fundamental principle upon which this great Nation was founded -equality- Instituted by Rep. Bella Abzug and first established in 1971, U.S. Congress designated August 26 as “Women’s Equality Day.” We draw on this day to commemorate both the ratification of the 19th amendment and as a reminder of women’s continuing efforts for equality so that one day we may attain a gender-blind society. Resources:

4 Women’s Rights Movement Timeline
1848: The first women’s rights convention is held in Seneca Falls, New York. After two days of discussion and debate, the Declaration of Sentiments is signed. 1869: Susan B. Anthony & Elizabeth Cady Stanton form the National Women’s Suffrage Association (NWSA). 1869: Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell, and others form the American Women’s Suffrage Association (AWSA). 1890: The National Women’s Suffrage Association (NWSA) and the American Women’s Suffrage Association (AWSA) merge to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA). As the movement’s mainstream organization, the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) wages state-by-state campaigns to obtain voting rights for women. 1903: The National Women’s Trade Union League (WTUL) is established to advocate for improved wages and working conditions for women. 1913: Alice Paul and Lucy Burns form the Congressional Union to work towards the passage of a federal amendment to give women the right to vote. The group is later renamed the National Women’s Party. 1919: The federal woman suffrage amendment, originally written by Susan B. Anthony was introduced to Congress in It was passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate and then sent to the states for ratification. 1920: The 19th Amendment was added to the Constitution, granting women the right to vote, is signed into law. Women’s Rights Movement Timeline We’ll begin by answering the question, “What is Women’s Equality Day”. We will looking at what was going on during the Women’s Suffrage Movement. We’ll talk about the impact of the 19th Amendment. We will also talk about some Notable women, organizations, and legislation that supported women’s right to vote. Resources:

5 Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902)
Elizabeth Stanton was the co-founder with Lucretia Mott of the 1848 Women's Rights Convention that was held in Seneca Falls, New York. Stanton and Susan B. Anthony founded the National Woman Suffrage Association. Stanton served as its president for more than 20 years. Elizabeth Cady Stanton ( ) Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an influential champion of women’s rights for more than half a century. She was introduced to the reform movement by her husband, abolitionist Henry Brewster Stanton. (At their 1840 wedding, they omitted the word “obey” from the vows; for their honeymoon, they went to the World’s Antislavery Convention.) With abolitionist Lucretia Mott, Stanton organized the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention—the first U.S. convention on women’s rights. She drafted the convention’s famed Declaration of Sentiments and, despite controversy, insisted that it assert women’s right to vote. In the 1860s, after her seven children were grown, Stanton became a renowned lecturer on woman suffrage. With Susan B. Anthony she founded the National Woman Suffrage Association and served as its president for more than twenty years (1869–90). Stanton was also a capable writer; she collaborated on three volumes of History of Woman Suffrage (1881–85) with Anthony and Matilda Gage, and wrote the biblical commentary The Woman’s Bible (1895) and an autobiography, Eighty Years and More (1898). Resources:

6 Women’s Rights Convention of 1848
At the Women’s Rights Convention, over 100 attendees signed the Declaration of Sentiments. This document called for the attainment of civil, social, political, and religious rights of women. The Declaration is one of the roots of the suffrage movement that ultimately resulted with the 19th Amendment being added to the Constitution. The Beginning of a Movement The beginning of the women’s suffrage movement is often placed in July of 1848 in Seneca Falls, NY. It was there that Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized the first women's rights convention. Elizabeth Cady Stanton had over 100 attendees sign the Declaration of Sentiments, a document that called for the attainment of civil, social, political, and religious rights of women. The Declaration of Sentiments triggered dialog among many women also interested in equal rights and women's suffrage. The Declaration is one of the roots of the suffrage movement that ultimately resulted the 19th Amendment being added to the Constitution. Resources:

7 The Backlash This was the period in which editors wrote negative articles regarding the women’s call for expanded rights. The articles essentially had a positive impact far beyond anything the organizers could have hoped for. From the backlash, the Women’s Equality Movement began along with numerous organizations to aid in the struggle for equality. The Backlash Only one day after the signing of the Declaration of Sentiments came the backlash from outraged Newspaper editors who were so infuriated by the audacity of the Declaration that they attacked the women by publishing the Declaration, often including the signatures of the attendees. What they hoped would cause embarrassment by their negative articles regarding the women’s call for expanded rights, essentially had a positive impact far beyond anything the organizers could have hoped for. People in cities and isolated towns alike were now alerted to the issues, and joined this heated discussion of women’s rights in great numbers. And from this, the Women’s Equality Movement began along with numerous organizations to aid in the struggle for equality. Resources:

8 Susan B. Anthony ( ) Susan B. Anthony was a 70 year veteran in the fight for women's rights. Anthony lectured widely in the United States and Europe and wrote a three-volume history of the suffrage movement. Susan B. Anthony ( ) For most of her life, Susan B. Anthony fought for women’s rights, especially the right to vote. Her family followed the Quaker religion and held many strong social and political beliefs. They were supporters of the abolitionist and temperance movements. Early in her career, Susan B. Anthony worked as a schoolteacher. But she left education to continue her family’s tradition of activism. Anthony became involved in the antislavery and temperance movements. But as a woman she encountered many obstacles, including being denied the right to speak at a temperance conference in 1852 because of her gender. It was while she was in this movement that she met Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a social reformer. The two women became friends and allies in the fight for women’s rights, especially the right to vote. Not only did Susan B. Anthony speak out on women’s issues, she established a weekly newspaper to promote awareness and provide information on women’s suffrage called Revolution, beginning in The next year she and Stanton founded the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA). In 1872, Anthony made the news by trying to vote the presidential election. When she tried to cast a ballot, she was arrested. Anthony hoped that she would be able to fight for the right to vote in court, but she was unsuccessful. She was eventually just fined for her revolutionary act. Not one to be deterred, Susan B. Anthony continued to fight for women’s suffrage. Besides giving speeches and lectures, she worked with Stanton to record the history of the suffrage movement. This resulted in the multivolume set called History of Woman Suffrage. The first volume was published in Anthony and Stanton worked on the next two volumes, and Anthony edited the fourth volume with assistance from Ida Husted Harper. The final two volumes were produced after Anthony’s death. Resources:

9 National Woman Suffrage Association
The National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) was formed by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1869. The object of the National Woman Suffrage Association are as follows: Secure an amendment to the Constitution in favor of women’s suffrage Work for suffrage on the federal level. Press for more extensive institutional changes. National Women’s Suffrage Association Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton formed the National Women Suffrage Association (NWSA) in 1869. The object of NWSA was to secure an amendment to the Constitution in favor of women’s suffrage, to work for suffrage on the federal level and to press for more extensive institutional changes, such as the granting of property rights to married women. Susan B. Anthony stalwartly lead the American woman suffrage movement for over 50 years and Elizabeth Cady Stanton traveled the country lecturing and organizing for 40 years after the formation of the NWSA. Winning the right to vote emerged as the central issue of her lectures, since the vote would provide the means to achieve the other reforms. Although neither lived to see their dreams realized, Anthony and Stanton’s dedication to the cause of suffrage was largely responsible for the passage of the 19th amendment, giving women the right to vote. Resources:

10 Lucy Stone ( ) Lucy Stone was the first woman from Massachusetts to earn a college degree. She established the “The Women’s Journal” and was co-founder of the American Women’s Suffrage Association. Lucy Stone ( ) Lucy Stone became one of the leading reformers and advocates of women's rights, winning fame especially for persuasive and moving oratory. Born in West Brookfield, Massachusetts, of a family long established in New England, her quest for education led her to Mt. Holyoke Female Seminary where she graduated with honors and became the first Massachusetts woman to be awarded a college degree. Stone later entered Oberlin College, Ohio, noted for the introduction of coeducation. She was much influenced by the anti-slavery writings and ideas of William Lloyd Garrison. She spoke at the first Women's Rights Convention held in Worcester in Lucy Stone established the Woman's Journal and was co-founder of the American Women's Suffrage Association. Resources:

11 American Women’s Suffrage Association
In 1869, the American Women’s Suffrage Association (AWSA) was formed by Lucy Stone, Julia Ward Howe, and Henry Blackwell. In 1890, the American Women’s Suffrage Association and the National Woman Suffrage Association merged to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) American Women’s Suffrage Association The American Women’s Suffrage Association (AWSA) was formed by Lucy Stone, Julia Ward Howe and Henry Blackwell in November 1869. AWSA differed from NWSA in that it was less militant than the National Woman Suffrage Association, the AWSA was primary focused on achieving the vote for women. After more than two decades of independent operation, the AWSA and the NWSA merged in 1890 to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) The leaders of this new organization include Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony and Carrie Chapman Catt. Resources:

12 Men of the Cause At the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, 32 men signed the Declaration of Sentiments including: Fredrick Douglass and James Mott. On August 18,1920, Congressman Harry Burns cast the final vote in Tennessee that was needed to ratify the 19th Amendment, granting women the right to vote. The Men of the Cause During the suffrage era there were a large number of progressive men and men’s organizations working actively for the suffrage movement. At the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848, 32 men signed the Declaration of Sentiments including Fredrick Douglass and James Mott. The AWSA was actually co-founded by Lucy Stone and her husband, Henry Blackwell. When the House of Representatives voted on the suffrage amendment in 1918, pro-suffrage Congressmen made commendable efforts to be there for the vote. Congressman Henry A. Barnhart was unable to walk and had to be carried in on a stretcher. Congressman Thetus W. Sims had broken his shoulder and still made the vote. At her Request, Congressman Frederick C. Hicks left his wife’s deathbed in order to vote for women's suffrage. On August 18, 1920, in Tennessee, the last state needed to ratify the 19th Amendment, Congressman Harry Burns cast the final vote that was needed to ratify the 19th Amendment, granting women the right to vote. Resources:

13 Alice Paul ( ) Alice Paul helped found the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, which later became known as the National Woman's Party . Alice Paul worked for passage of an equal rights amendment after the 19th amendment passed. Paul successfully lobbied for wording on gender equality to be included in the preamble to the United Nations Charter and in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Alice Paul Paul graduated from Swarthmore College in 1905 and studied at the New York School of Social Work. From 1906 to 1909, Paul was a social worker in England. She was also jailed three times for her suffragist efforts. Paul received an MA in 1907, and a Ph.D., in absentia, from the University of Pennsylvania. In 1912, she became head of the National American Woman Suffrage Association's congressional committee. But she left the group a year later to help form the more militant Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage. In 1917 the organization joined the Woman's Party to create the National Woman's Party. Paul was jailed three more times for her militancy. After the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920, she earned a law degree from Washington College of Law, and MA and Ph.D. degrees from American University. In 1923, Paul wrote an equal rights amendment to the Constitution and introduced it in Congress. The measure failed and Paul began supporting the League of Nations. In 1938 she founded the World Party for Equal Rights for Women, known as the World Women's Party. She represented the party at the League of Nations headquarters in Geneva. She was elected to chair the National Woman's Party in 1942, and continued to lobby for an equal rights amendment. Paul successfully lobbied for wording on gender equality to be included in the preamble to the United Nations Charter and in the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Resource:

14 Lucy Burns ( ) Lucy Burns began picketing in Washington D.C. in 1916 and helped form the National Woman’s Party (NWP). As a member of the National Woman’s Party (NWP) she organized campaigns and was editor of the ”The Suffragist.” Lucy Burns was arrested six times, and spent more time in jail than any other suffragist. Lucy Burns ( ) Lucy Burns, co-founded the Congressional Union and the National Woman’s Party (NWP) with Alice Paul, and led the militant wing of American suffrage. A brilliant scholar at Vassar and at the University of Berlin, visits to Britain imbued her with a passion for the vote. She was a paid organizer for the militant British movement, was jailed, hunger struck, and force-fed. Meeting Alice Paul, Burns returned with her to the U. S. to set up an organization to work solely for a constitutional amendment for the vote. She and Paul co-organized the famous 1913 suffrage parade in Washington, D. C. They formed the Congressional Union and, later, the National Woman’s Party. Paul was the strategist, Burns the ultimate organizer. Burns headed the NWP’s lobbying in Congress, edited the NWP’s journal The Suffragist, and spent more time in prison than any other American suffragist. Burns led political campaigns in western states, many of which already had woman suffrage, urging women to vote against Democrats as long as the Party refused to pass suffrage. She organized White House demonstrations against Wilson, was arrested, hunger struck, and force-fed. She managed the publicity tour for the “Prison Special” taking jailed suffragist to speak around the country. Resources:

15 Silent Sentinels The National Women’s Party organized the "Silent Sentinels," which was comprised of suffragists standing outside the White House holding banners inscribed with incendiary phrases directed towards President Wilson. Despite the danger of bodily harm from frequent mob attacks and imprisonment, the suffragists continued their demonstrations for freedom unabated. While imprisoned, the suffragists staged hunger strikes in order for their demand of being treated like political prisoners be recognized. The National Women’s Party The NWP was more radical, organizing "Silent Sentinels," comprising of suffragists standing outside the White House holding banners inscribed with incendiary phrases directed toward President Wilson. Despite the danger of bodily harm from frequent mob attacks and imprisonment, the suffragists continued their demonstrations for freedom unabated. While imprisoned, the suffragists staged hunger strikes in order for their demand of being treated like political prisoners be recognized. Their demands were met with brutality as suffragists, including frail, older women, were beaten, pushed and thrown into cold,  unsanitary, and rat-infested cells. Resources:

16 Silent Sentinels (contd.)
When the news of the prison conditions and hunger strikes became known, the press, politicians, and the public began demanding the women’s release; sympathy for the prisoners brought many to support the cause of women's suffrage.  The National Women’s Party (continued…) Arrests continued and conditions at the prison deteriorated. For staging hunger strikes, Paul and several other suffragists were forcibly fed in a tortuous method.  Prison officials removed Paul to a sanitarium in hopes of getting her declared insane.  When news of the prison conditions and hunger strikes became known, the press, some politicians, and the public began demanding the women’s release; sympathy for the prisoners brought many to support the cause of women's suffrage. 

17 Perseverance Perseverance on the part of National American Woman Suffrage, National Woman’s Party, and thousands of women who continuously fought for their beliefs eventually led to victory and on August 26,1920, the 19th Amendment granted the ballot to American women.

18 Sources Slide 3: & Slide 4: Slide 5: Slide 6: Slide 7: Slide 8: & Slide 9: & Slide 10: Slide 11: & Slide 12: & Slide 13: Slide 14: & Slide 15: Slide 16:

19 This presentation was prepared by the Office of Diversity and Civil Rights as part of the continuing series of Special Emphasis Program Presentations. Thank You For Viewing End of Presentation


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