Presentation on theme: "Status of Women, Treatment of Minorities, and Religious Groups"— Presentation transcript:
1Status of Women, Treatment of Minorities, and Religious Groups
2Role of Women in the Third Reich Women played a vital role in Hitler's plan to create an ideal German Community (Volksgemeinschaft)Hitler believed a larger, racially purer population would enhance Germany's military strength and provide settlers to colonize conquered territory in eastern EuropeThe Third Reich's aggressive population policy encouraged "racially pure" women to bear as many "Aryan" children as possible
3Role of Women in the Third Reich This policy took its most radical form in 1936 when SS leaders created the state-directed program known as Lebensborn (Fount of Life)In an extension of the SS Marriage Order of 1932, the 1936 Lebensborn ordinance prescribed that every SS member should father four children, in or out of wedlockLebensborn homes sheltered illegitimate offspring and their mothers, provided birth documents and financial support, and recruited adoptive parents for the children
4Role of Women in the Third Reich The state encouraged births, whether through wedlock or not:Restrictions on entry into certain jobsMarriage loansFamily income supplements for each new childBestowed the Cross of Honor of the German Mother on women bearing four or more babiesIncreased punishments for abortionIn the end, women were needed in the workplace, while men were needed at the front
5Role of Women in the Third Reich The National Socialist Women's Union and German Women's Agency used Nazi propaganda to encourage women to focus on their roles as wives and mothersBesides increasing the population, the regime also sought to enhance its "racial purity" through “species upgrading”Laws prohibited marriage between "Aryans" and "non-Aryans" while preventing those with handicaps and certain diseases from marrying at all; some deemed unfit were sterilized
6Role of Women in the Third Reich Girls were taught to embrace the role of mother and obedient wife in school and through compulsory membership in the League of German MaidensHowever, rearmament followed by total war obliged the Nazis to abandon the domestic ideal for womenThe need for labor prompted the state to prod women into the workforce (there was a compulsory-service plan for all women) and even into the military (the number of females in the German armed forces approached 500,000 by 1945)
7The Reichskonkordat (Reich Concordat) Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious GroupsThe Reichskonkordat (Reich Concordat)Treaty between the Holy See and Germany negotiated during its transition into Nazi Germany. It was signed on 20 July 1933 by Secretary of State Eugenio Pacelli (who later became Pope Pius XII) on behalf of Pope Pius XI and Vice Chancellor Franz von Papen and President Paul von Hindenburg on behalf of the German government respectively.Priests giving the Hitler salute at aCatholic youth rally in the Berlin-Neuköllnstadium in August 1933.Since when can one make a pact with Christ and Satan at the same time?“Albert Einstein referencing the Reich Concordat
8The treaty sthe political activity of German Catholic clergy The treaty sthe political activity of German Catholic clergy. This contributed to a decrease in the previously vocal criticism of Nazism by the hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Germany, after September of 1933 when the treaty was ratified. From a Roman Catholic church perspective it has been argued that the concordat prevented even greater evils being unleashed against the Church. Though some German bishops were unenthusiastic, and the Allies at the end of World War II felt it inappropriate, Pope Pius XII successfully argued to keep the concordat in force. It is still in force to this day.
9The Fate of Catholic Clergy and Resisters Almost immediately after signing the Concordat, the Nazis promulgated their sterilization law - the Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring - an offensive policy in the eyes of the Catholic Church. Days later, Nazis began to dissolve the Catholic Youth League. Clergy, nuns and lay leaders began to be targeted, leading to thousands of arrests over the ensuing years, often on trumped up charges of currency smuggling or "immorality". Priests were watched closely and frequently denounced, arrested and sent to concentration camps.Otto NeururerAustrian Roman Catholic priest and martyr. He was the first priest to die in a Nazi Concentration Camp and was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1996He advised a girl not to marry a divorced man of questionable morality. The man was a personal friend of the Nazi Gauleiter (party leader) of Tirol. Neururer was arrested on the charge of "slander to the detriment of German marriage" and sent to Dachau Concentration Camp and later to Buchenwald
10Saint Maximilian Kolbe's (1894-1941) story, although well known, bears repeating. He was a Franciscan, a seminary professor and a publisher of religious materials. When the Nazis invaded Poland, he sheltered 1,500 Jewish refugees in iepokatanow, a community he had established twelve years before. Early in 1941, Fr. Kolbe was arrested and sent to Auschwitz.To deter potential escapees, whenever a prisoner escaped the camp commandant would select ten prisoners at random and sentence them to death. Franciszek Gajowniczek, who had a wife and children, was one of ten prisoners so condemned. Father Kolbe volunteered to take Gajowniczek's place. Kolbe endured two weeks in a punishment cell without food or water until he was killed by lethal injection on August 14, Gajowniczek survived Auschwitzand lived to attend Fr. Kolbe's canonization in Rome in 1982.
11Poland The Catholic Church in Poland was especially hard hit by the Nazis. In 1939, 80 percent of the Catholic clergy and five of the bishops of the Warthegau region had been deported to concentration camps. In Wroclaw, 49.2 percentof the clergy were dead; in Chelmno, 47.8 percent; in Lodz, 36.8 percent; in Poznan, In the Warsaw diocese, 212 priests were killed; 92were murdered in Wilno, 81 in Lwow, 30 in Cracow, thirteen in Kielce. Seminarians who were not killed were shipped off to Germany as forced labor.Of 690 priests in the Polish province of West Prussia, at least 460 were arrested. The remaining priests of the region fled their parishes. Of the arrested priests, 214 were executed, including the entire cathedral chapter of Pelplin. The rest were deported to the newly created General Government district in Central Poland. By 1940, only 20 priests were still serving their parishes in West Prussia.
12Mass meeting of the German Christian Movement 13 Nov.1933 A radical wing of German Lutheranism and the main Protestant branchsupporting Nazi ideology, the German Christian Movement reconciled Christiandoctrine with German nationalism and anti-Semitism
13Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups Believed that Jews’:Blood was tainted and therefore subhumanDidn’t work, but lived off the countryEvaded military serviceEgoisticAre corrupting Germany morallyAre corrupt in businessUsed people to achieve their ends (to make a life)Wanted to dominate the globe
14Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups Germany was a police state where political opponents were arrested and imprisoned by the SS or the GestapoUnder the command of Heinrich Himmler, the SS were responsible for suppressing hostility to the regime at home and organizing concentration campsThe Jews were a particular target of SS hostility
15Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups Jews were the long-standing targets of Hitler’s hatred and an obstacle in his design for a new GermanyAs early as April 1933, Jews were excluded from:Holding public officeJoining the civil service (Career Civil Service Act)Being a teacher, doctor, journalist, being an officer in the armed forces
16Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups The Nazis also set up the first concentration camp at Dachau to hold 200 CommunistsIn 1934, Jewish newspapers could no longer be sold in the streetsIn 1935, Jews were deprived of their citizenship and other basic rights (Nuremburg Laws)Jews were also prevented from marriage with Germans (Blood Protection Act)
17Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups In 1936, the Nazis boycotted Jewish-owned businessesJews no longer had the right to vote in GermanyIn 1938, on Kristallnacht (“The Night of Broken Glass”) Nazis terrorized Jews throughout Germany and Austria30,000 Jews were arrested
18Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups Jews:Were forced to carry identification cards and Jewish passports were marked with a “J”Had to wear the Star of DavidCould no longer head businessesCould not attend plays or concertsWere moved to Jewish schoolsWere forced to hand over drivers’ licenses and car registrations
19Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups In 1940, Goring ordered Heydrich to begin the enslavement of all Jews in the German occupied territoriesIn 1941, corps of SS men known as Einsatzgruppen accompanied the Wehrmacht (unified armed forces of Germany) into the USSR to eliminate Jews and other “undesirables”
20List of Jewish populations by country used at the In January 1942 at the WannseeConference, the “Final Solution tothe Jewish Question” was considered.The primary goal of the meeting wasto:1. Place the Final Solution in thehands of the SS totallyoutside the purview of anyother agency.2. Determine the scope of thedeportations and arrive atdefinitions of who was Jewish,who was Mischling, and who(if anybody) should be sparedList of Jewish populationsby country used at theWannsee Conference in 1942.
22Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups Shortly afterward, the first gassings began by use of carsLater, gas chambers were built at Death Camps (Auschwitz-Birkenau), Belzec, Chelmo, Maidenek, Sobibor, and Treblinka)In 1944, the camps were threatened by the advance of the Red Army. The Germans forced the prisoners to march to the interior of GermanySix million Jews died in the HolocaustJews also died of hunger in ghettos
25Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups The T-4 or euthanasia program was set up to oversee the identification and elimination of defectives and the sterilization of those weaker members of society who might pass on hereditary diseasesHandicapped, mentally disabled, homeless were includedIt was responsible for 70,000 deaths
26Nazi Treatment of Minorities and Religious Groups 5 million others were killed besides the Jews, including:Sinti and Roma (gypsies)PolesSoviet POWsMentally or physically disabledHomosexualsBlacksJehovah’s WitnessesPolitical dissidentsTrade unionistsPriests and clergy
27MemorialsHarrisburg, PAMiami, FLSan Francisco, CA
28Baltimore’s Holocaust Memorial was built to resemble a train which is how Jews were taken to the concentration camps. It was built in response to a teacher who told the Baltimore Jewish Council that his class didn’t believe in the Holocaust
29This flame, memorializing Kristallnacht, is also at the Baltimore Holocaust Memorial. It’s located on the corner of Water and Gay Streets
32TranslationWhy is a Catholic obliged to vote forthe parliamentary list of Adolf Hitler?Because in the National Socialist stateintrinsically and through theReichskonkordat1. The Faith is protected,2. Peace with the Church is assured, 3. Public morality is preserved, 4. Sunday is hallowed, 5. Catholic schools are maintained, 6. The Catholic conscience is no longerburdened, 7. A Catholic has equal rights beforethe law and in the life of the nation, 8. Catholic organisations andassociations, insofar as they exclusively serve religious, charitable and culturalpurposes, can operate freely.Therefore a Catholic is obliged on12 November  to vote thus: Referendum: yes Parliamentary election: Adolf Hitler