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Women’s Political Participation in Oman Roadblocks to Progress Rafiah Al-Talei Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow National Endowment for Democracy December.

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Presentation on theme: "Women’s Political Participation in Oman Roadblocks to Progress Rafiah Al-Talei Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow National Endowment for Democracy December."— Presentation transcript:

1 Women’s Political Participation in Oman Roadblocks to Progress Rafiah Al-Talei Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow National Endowment for Democracy December 13, 2006 Please note that the views expressed in this presentation represent the opinions and analysis of the speaker and do not necessarily reflect those of the National Endowment for Democracy

2 Outline of Presentation I. Introduction II. Women and Elections: Majlis al-Shura III. Women and Political Appointments: Majlis al-Dawla and Ministries IV. Women and NGOs V. Recommendations

3 Maps of the Sultanate of Oman

4 I. Introduction: General Facts Oman is a Sultanate Oman is a Sultanate Population: 3 million (577,000 non-nationals) Population: 3 million (577,000 non-nationals) 49.5% of the population is female 49.5% of the population is female Literacy: Male 82.0 %; Female 65.4% Literacy: Male 82.0 %; Female 65.4% GDP Per Capita (PPP): $13,100 GDP Per Capita (PPP): $13,100 75% of Omanis are Ibadi Muslims 75% of Omanis are Ibadi Muslims Freedom House Rating, 2005: Not Free Freedom House Rating, 2005: Not Free Universal Suffrage since 2003 for adults over 21 (previously had 25% suffrage, by selection) Universal Suffrage since 2003 for adults over 21 (previously had 25% suffrage, by selection) Political parties are illegal Political parties are illegal

5 State Institutions Three Branches of Government: Executive, Legislative, Judiciary Three Branches of Government: Executive, Legislative, Judiciary Executive: Sultan, Prime Minister (an office held by the Sultan), & Council of Ministers Executive: Sultan, Prime Minister (an office held by the Sultan), & Council of Ministers Legislative: Consultative Council (Majlis as- Shura) and Council of State (Majlis as-Dawla) Legislative: Consultative Council (Majlis as- Shura) and Council of State (Majlis as-Dawla) Judiciary: Shari’a courts and regular courts Judiciary: Shari’a courts and regular courts

6 The Sultan As head of state, the Sultan: As head of state, the Sultan: serves as President of Council of Ministers; serves as President of Council of Ministers; appoints & dismisses ministers, governors, judges appoints & dismisses ministers, governors, judges issues & ratifies laws, declares war and peace issues & ratifies laws, declares war and peace is Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces is Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces is the governor of Oman’s central bank is the governor of Oman’s central bank is “inviolable.” His orders must be obeyed (Article 41) is “inviolable.” His orders must be obeyed (Article 41) has served as prime minister since 1972 has served as prime minister since 1972

7 Sultan Qaboos (in power since July 23, 1970)

8 The Legislature Council of State (Majlis al-Dawla): an appointed body of 58 members, picked by the Sultan, established in 1997 Council of State (Majlis al-Dawla): an appointed body of 58 members, picked by the Sultan, established in 1997 Consultative Council (Majlis as-Shura): an elected body of 83 members, established in 1991 Consultative Council (Majlis as-Shura): an elected body of 83 members, established in 1991 Both bodies advise the Sultan on all matters of state Both bodies advise the Sultan on all matters of state

9 Women Women have been able to run in Majlis as-Shura since 1994 Women have been able to run in Majlis as-Shura since Shura elections: 15 of 509 candidates were women 2004 Shura elections: 15 of 509 candidates were women 2004: 2.4% of Shura members were women 2004: 2.4% of Shura members were women No. of women candidates has decreased from 27 (1997) to 21 (2000) to 15 (2003) No. of women candidates has decreased from 27 (1997) to 21 (2000) to 15 (2003) 9 of 58 (15.5%) members of Majlis al-Dawla are women 9 of 58 (15.5%) members of Majlis al-Dawla are women Women need a male relative to obtain a passport initially Women need a male relative to obtain a passport initially Men, but not women, are eligible to get state land. Men, but not women, are eligible to get state land. Women married to non-Omanis cannot confer citizenship to their children Women married to non-Omanis cannot confer citizenship to their children 20% of women participate in work force 20% of women participate in work force Women have unequal access to state universities Women have unequal access to state universities

10 II. Women and Majlis as-Shura Elections A. Background B. Obstacles for Candidates C. Obstacles for Voters D. Obstacles Within the Majlis al-Dawla

11 Taiba al-Mawali (Imprisoned Sep – Feb. 2006) Shukoor al-Ghammari (Now a member of Majlis al-Dawla) 1994: First Women Elected in Oman

12 Lujaina Darwish Rahaila al-Riyami 2001–Present: Two New Women Elected

13 Background on Majlis as-Shura Advisory body with limited powers to propose legislation Advisory body with limited powers to propose legislation Reviews economic & social legislation prepared by ministries. Also examines drafts proposed by Sultan Reviews economic & social legislation prepared by ministries. Also examines drafts proposed by Sultan Does not express its views on defence, foreign policy or any other sensitive topic Does not express its views on defence, foreign policy or any other sensitive topic May call ministers for questioning; is not permitted to respond to their answers May call ministers for questioning; is not permitted to respond to their answers Has 83 members elected by universal suffrage for 4- year renewable terms Has 83 members elected by universal suffrage for 4- year renewable terms Its president is appointed; its 2 vice presidents are elected by the 83 members Its president is appointed; its 2 vice presidents are elected by the 83 members

14 Women as Candidates: Social and Cultural Obstacles Tribalism (male domination) Tribalism (male domination) Religion Religion Economic dependence Economic dependence Lack of awareness and confidence Lack of awareness and confidence Lack of public exposure & political knowledge Lack of public exposure & political knowledge Women & men are encouraged to occupy separate spaces in both public & private life Women & men are encouraged to occupy separate spaces in both public & private life Women are expected to uphold family honor Reputation of families is very important Women are expected to uphold family honor Reputation of families is very important

15 Al-Sablah (a public place where men gather)

16 Mosque in Oman

17 Women as Candidates: Political and Legal Obstacles Limited freedoms of expression, e.g. criticism of government Limited freedoms of expression, e.g. criticism of government Limitations on campaigning (especially in rural areas) e.g. travel Limitations on campaigning (especially in rural areas) e.g. travel Limited freedom of association Limited freedom of association All apply to men, but affect women candidates more

18 Rural Oman : Al-Sharqiya

19 Sociocultural obstacles include: - lack of education - lack of awareness - family relations - tribalism - religion - economic dependence Media insufficiently covers elections 2003 elections: 95,000 women registered to vote out of 262,000 total registrations (36.3%) Total voter turnout: 75% Obstacles to Women as Voters

20 A woman votingA Bedouin woman

21 Obstacles Within the Majlis Little power to criticize Little power to criticize No power to rebut ministers No power to rebut ministers No power to propose legislation No power to propose legislation No financial support except small salary No financial support except small salary No trust from the people that the elected member can change No trust from the people that the elected member can change Most members behave as part of the government. This discourages voting and new candidates from running Most members behave as part of the government. This discourages voting and new candidates from running

22 III. Women & Political Appointments: Majlis al-Dawla and Ministries Background Background Political obstacles: criteria for selection Political obstacles: criteria for selection Majlis al-Dawla

23 Majlis al-Dawla ( Council of State) established in 1997 Majlis al-Dawla ( Council of State) established in 1997 Presents proposals and prepares studies that help in executing development plans Presents proposals and prepares studies that help in executing development plans Charged with finding solutions to financial, social, economic problems Charged with finding solutions to financial, social, economic problems Reviews draft laws proposed by government, presents opinions to Sultan and ministers in cooperation with the Consultative Council Reviews draft laws proposed by government, presents opinions to Sultan and ministers in cooperation with the Consultative Council

24 Ministers 4 of the 50+ ministers are women (tourism, higher education, social development, plus 1 without a portfolio) 4 of the 50+ ministers are women (tourism, higher education, social development, plus 1 without a portfolio) 13% of high administrative positions within government are women 13% of high administrative positions within government are women 20% of all government employees are women 20% of all government employees are women

25 Rajiha Abdel Amir: TourismRawiya al-Busaidi: Higher Education Sharifa al-Yahyai: Social DevelopmentAisha as-Siyabi: Crafts The Four Women Ministers of Oman

26 Criteria for Political Appointments Official Criteria: Official Criteria: Appointee has provided great services for the state Appointee has provided great services for the state Has long experience in the field of interest Has long experience in the field of interest Has served as a high executive in government Has served as a high executive in government As perceived by the people: As perceived by the people: Appointee is not politically oriented Appointee is not politically oriented Was potential opponent, now co-opted into silence Was potential opponent, now co-opted into silence Appointment maintains a tribal balance Appointment maintains a tribal balance Appointees never know in advance that they are being considered for appointment. Once appointed, they cannot refuse the honor Appointees never know in advance that they are being considered for appointment. Once appointed, they cannot refuse the honor

27 The newly appointed minister swears loyalty to the Sultan and to Oman

28 IV. Women and NGOs The Omani Women’s Association (OWA) has 45 branches across the country The Omani Women’s Association (OWA) has 45 branches across the country 3,000 members belong to the OWA 3,000 members belong to the OWA There are no specialized Women’s NGOs There are no specialized Women’s NGOs Many women work in charity associations and associations for the disabled Many women work in charity associations and associations for the disabled One women’s NGO, Women in Focus, failed: deemed illegal One women’s NGO, Women in Focus, failed: deemed illegal

29 Women and NGOs: Political Obstacles NGOs dealing with politics or human rights are not allowed NGOs dealing with politics or human rights are not allowed Exisiting NGOs may not engage in political activity Exisiting NGOs may not engage in political activity All or most activities need an official approval from the ministry of social development All or most activities need an official approval from the ministry of social development Transparency in NGO-related laws is absent Transparency in NGO-related laws is absent All NGOs need official approval to work with, or receive funding from, non-Omani organizations All NGOs need official approval to work with, or receive funding from, non-Omani organizations

30 Typical Activities in Women NGOs

31 People are not encouraged to work in NGOs— considered useless, ineffective People are not encouraged to work in NGOs— considered useless, ineffective No considerations for familial duties and constraints (e.g. NGOs don’t provide child care) No considerations for familial duties and constraints (e.g. NGOs don’t provide child care) Women in families aren’t encouraged to participate in social work voluntarily, especially if they will be working with men Women in families aren’t encouraged to participate in social work voluntarily, especially if they will be working with men Government employees tend not to risk defying government officials Government employees tend not to risk defying government officials Women and NGOs: Social Obstacles

32 V. Recommendations Create independent body to oversee elections Within this body, have several committees -one to provide education on electoral process -one to address women voters in particular Create government program to educate women in particular regarding political rights and electoral process Involve women’s NGOs from the start to help design and implement voter and civic education campaigns Provide skills training and consultation for women candidates Encourage media to start covering elections early and in-depth Should there be women quotas? Majlis as-Shura

33 Recommendations : Women’s issues should be a priority (for 10 years no action has been taken on Omani Women Strategy) Women’s issues should be a priority (for 10 years no action has been taken on Omani Women Strategy) Collaborate with women NGOs and qualified individuals to develop a strategy for how best to effect change Collaborate with women NGOs and qualified individuals to develop a strategy for how best to effect change Cooperate with Majlis as-Shura to emphasize women’s rights and issues Cooperate with Majlis as-Shura to emphasize women’s rights and issues Majlis al-Dawla and Ministers

34 NGOs and Civil Society More political liberalization is necessary to permit more discussion and practice of activism: More political liberalization is necessary to permit more discussion and practice of activism: Freedom of association Freedom of association Freedom of expression to discuss political/cultural/other issues Freedom of expression to discuss political/cultural/other issues Willingness from the government to allow people to be active citizens Willingness from the government to allow people to be active citizens Freedom to cooperate with foreign NGOs Freedom to cooperate with foreign NGOs Give NGOs autonomy, so they can freely choose to work with or criticize/challenge the government Give NGOs autonomy, so they can freely choose to work with or criticize/challenge the government Allow NGOs and individuals to lobby for their interests Allow NGOs and individuals to lobby for their interests NGOs should write independent assessments, to complement national annual reviews, for certain international treaties NGOs should write independent assessments, to complement national annual reviews, for certain international treaties Recommendations :

35 Women’s Education

36 General Recommendations Create independent high council for women’s affairs Create independent high council for women’s affairs Raise awareness about existing rights, as well as international treaties, such as CEDAW (ratified by Oman) that relate to women Raise awareness about existing rights, as well as international treaties, such as CEDAW (ratified by Oman) that relate to women Initiate Oman-specific gender-sensitive programs to overcome male-dominated system Initiate Oman-specific gender-sensitive programs to overcome male-dominated system Shura and Dawla should have more independence to propose legislation Shura and Dawla should have more independence to propose legislation Reduce constraints on freedoms of association & expression Reduce constraints on freedoms of association & expression Make sure all awareness programs reach out to Omanis who live in rural areas, with less access to information Make sure all awareness programs reach out to Omanis who live in rural areas, with less access to information

37 What International Community Can Do Help form new institutions to focus on women’s affairs Help form new institutions to focus on women’s affairs Strengthen existing institutions dealing with women’s affairs Strengthen existing institutions dealing with women’s affairs Assist with gender analysis of legal framework on elections to provide advice & identify indirect discrimination Assist with gender analysis of legal framework on elections to provide advice & identify indirect discrimination Support civic-education campaigns that include information about what democracy and democratic values are Support civic-education campaigns that include information about what democracy and democratic values are Encourage the exchange of information and best practices to advance women’s participation in elections Encourage the exchange of information and best practices to advance women’s participation in elections Monitor Omani government’s compliance with standards and treaties regarding electoral and women’s rights, using media to highlight the application of these norms Monitor Omani government’s compliance with standards and treaties regarding electoral and women’s rights, using media to highlight the application of these norms Galvanize support among international NGOs & multilateral institutions (e.g. women’s groups and human rights organizations) to pressure Oman to liberalize Galvanize support among international NGOs & multilateral institutions (e.g. women’s groups and human rights organizations) to pressure Oman to liberalize

38 Women’s Political Participation in Oman Roadblocks to Progress Rafiah Al-Talei Reagan-Fascell Democracy Fellow National Endowment for Democracy December 13, 2006


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