Presentation on theme: "Sonia McKay. Increasing feminisation of migration – Belgium 54%, Italy 55%; UK 50% (UWT) Feminisation of poverty 70% of world’s poor are women or."— Presentation transcript:
Increasing feminisation of migration – Belgium 54%, Italy 55%; UK 50% (UWT) Feminisation of poverty 70% of world’s poor are women or children Higher levels of female participation in the labour market Female labour as an export commodity Old stereotypes unchallenged
Family reunion Economic reasons To escape oppression To provide for their families Some opportunities Many constraints
Women more likely to state that they choose migration – ◦ 1. For the good of their children; ◦ 2. For the good of the whole family Men more likely to state that they choose migration – ◦ 1. For political, economic or emotional reasons In the UWT project almost no men declared they were working below qualifications to benefit their children, while a majority of women did so.
Out of 101 interviews: ◦ 43 were married; ◦ 5 lived in partnerships; ◦ 15 were divorced; ◦ 6 were widows ◦ 2 in ‘sham’ marriages ◦ More likely to be older than male migrants ◦ ‘My situation is more or less characteristic for some women from my own country. First we get married, then some things happen, we get divorced, we cannot go back to our country, because we lose face, and then we stay on here.’ (Female migrant in Denmark)
Educational levelFemaleMale Minimum24 (23%)13 (18%) Secondary41 (42%)15 (21%) Post secondary34 (35%)44 (61%) One study of 186 women found that more than half had at least secondary; more than 20% had technical/vocational training; 20% had secondary education; 10% had primary.
Proportion females and males working below qualifications
Cleaners – gendered work Housekeepers – gendered work Carers – gendered work Hospitality – gendered work Agriculture – existing skills Why is gender segregation replicated? ◦ ‘Those sectors that are most open to female labour and where there is the greatest demand for their services are worse regulated and most likely to fall within the shadow economy’ (Female migrants – the new nomads in Old Europe, UWT thematic report)
Significant section of flexible labour – growth in temporary and insecure employment; Growth in the informal economy Growth in sub-contracting In sectors less likely to be union-organised Domestic work – long hours, low wages, stress Permit system restricts entry to jobs.
Opportunities to challenge sex segregation narrowed Immigration law - forces into informal work Inability to leave employer – domestic work Changing work limits previous opportunities eg. factory work I thought about it hundreds of times. If I was a man I could easily work on a construction site and earn normally, like other people do. But my documents and my curriculum says “I am a woman”’ (Domestic worker in Austria)