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Gender Issues in Leadership Presented by Dean F. Frear.

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1 Gender Issues in Leadership Presented by Dean F. Frear

2 Introduction Topics Gender-based discrimination Socialization Gender Neutrality Women in the workforce

3 Emergent topics Gender bias Lack of opportunity Equal pay Gendered occupations Under representation in upper management

4 Barriers / Topics Glass ceiling Slow promotions Male-centered leadership model Early socialization process of boys and girls

5 Sex Discrimination - Discriminatory Practices Right to vote for women -Article 19 of the U. S. Constitution, August 26 th, 1920 Equal Rights Amendment - Congress passed it in 1972, but the amendment has never been ratified

6 History of ERA The 28 th Article reads: “SECTION 1. Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”

7 History of ERA In the 108th Congress ( ), the Equal Rights Amendment has been introduced as (Sen. Edward Kennedy, MA, chief sponsor) and (Rep. Carolyn Maloney, NY, chief sponsor).

8 ERA Ratification The ERA remains unratified by many southern and western states. Article 28 has no power to defend women’s rights.

9 Civil Rights Act of 1964 Protection for all discrimination in employment on the basis of race, ethnicity, or sex has been explicitly prohibited by law

10 Socialization Traced to ---habits learned in early childhood socialization Promotion of managers often depends on skill in negotiating authority and Whether or not others support of undercut their efforts Lower self-efficacy expectations than men

11 Socialization Men speak up, and women do not. Women are less likely to blow their own horn, and therefore are less likely to be recognized Girls are often taught to play quietly, and act in ways that will not attract attention Men more often than women engage in behaviors that get them recognized with those in power

12 Socialization Women should be the primary caretakers of young children and relatives Differences in labor-force attachment arise from a form of indirect discrimination

13 Female language Polite and insecure Conversational style – cooperative Use fewer abstract words A smaller vocabulary A simpler structure Women use more adjectives, modal verbs, interjections, tag questions

14 Male language Assertive and direct Conversational style - competitive

15 Other characteristics of language Differences according to - the status and age of the speaker relative to the status of the person spoken to

16 Gender Neutrality Women are diminished by a discourse of gender neutrality that renders women's distinctive circumstances --- invisible, irrelevant, or inappropriate Expectation of being more like the masculine model for leadership required by many corporations, puts women at odds with gender neutrality theory

17 Gender Neutrality Hierarchical-bureaucratic model was not built on a gender integrated or a gender-in-common base of experience Girls and women develop a sense of connection based on their original relationship with the (similar) mother While boys' (men's) original issue is to separate from their (different) mothers and to become autonomous

18 Gender Neutrality Boys are taught to play war games or cowboys and indians While girls play with dolls Weaklings play with dolls Therefore, girls are weaklings The inference is --- weaklings are not good leaders, this is generalized towards females at the workplace

19 Leadership and Dependency Only the strong survive –in general males are stronger than females The meaning symbolically in the workplace is the strong male leadership model will survive, While the weaker female leadership model will not survive

20 Leadership and Dependency Followers tend to follow strength Strength viewed as a masculine trait The implication -if a female leads the corporation, the weaker sex, the company will be weak

21 Workforce Nonprofit sector labor force - women make up the majority --- men are over represented in management positions Wages menan average of $37,685 Wages women an average of $31,125 Conclusion, a glass ceiling exists resulting in lower salaries and lower managerial representation for women

22 Glass Ceiling – Legitimate Power An invisible barrier, the ‘glass ceiling,’ which prevents their rising further The glass ceiling applies to women as a group who are kept from advancing higher because they are women

23 Glass Ceiling – Legitimate Power Keep women from rising above a certain level in organizations Discrimination which increases women's probability of failure Denying them access to developmental opportunities Presenting only stereotypical challenges based on sex stereotypes

24 Glass Ceiling – Pay Exists for both promotions and pay raises and other organizational bonuses Women are paid less Receive less perks and time off for training and education Disparities exist in the pay rates of male and female employees even when tenure, education, and skills are equated

25 Glass Ceiling – Pay Reaches all the way to the senior officer and CEO positions female senior officers and 1772 male senior officers of fortune 500 companies, the average cash compensation for men - $ Women - $ Females - median of 68 cents for every dollar earned by their male counterparts

26 Glass Ceiling – Legitimate Power Women who are viewed as incompetent and doubt their own leadership abilities may be passed over A recent study reported that 40% of the women had been denied a raise or promotion because of being a women

27 Glass Ceiling – Legitimate Power Attractive female managerial candidates received lower ratings of their performance, lower starting salaries, and fewer promotions than did unattractive females or attractive males

28 Glass Ceiling – Legitimate Power The most successful attractive males were rated as more capable than unattractive males With women, the least attractive females were often seen as the most capable

29 Workplace The sex ratios, the ratio of men to women or women to men, exerts a great deal of influence on group behavior in organizations Women are still often viewed as less effective leaders Beliefs that women lack leadership abilities may lead to resistance to women in managerial positions

30 Workplace women are still often viewed as less effective leaders Beliefs that women lack leadership abilities may lead to resistance to women in managerial positions


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