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Arousal and Response Lighting the fire, Stoking the flame.

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Presentation on theme: "Arousal and Response Lighting the fire, Stoking the flame."— Presentation transcript:

1 Arousal and Response Lighting the fire, Stoking the flame

2 The Essential Hormones Two basic types – Steroid & Neuropeptide Two basic types – Steroid & Neuropeptide Steroid Hormones – secreted by the gonads and adrenal glands Steroid Hormones – secreted by the gonads and adrenal glands Examples: testosterone, estrogen, etc. Examples: testosterone, estrogen, etc. Not simply male or female – both sexes produce each, but in varying amounts Not simply male or female – both sexes produce each, but in varying amounts

3 Neuropeptide Hormones Produced in the brain, they influence sexuality and behavior Produced in the brain, they influence sexuality and behavior Perhaps the most significant: Perhaps the most significant: Oxytocin – the “love hormone”, it influences our erotic and emotional bonds Oxytocin – the “love hormone”, it influences our erotic and emotional bonds

4 Testosterone – “the motivator” Men have 20 to 40 times more Men have 20 to 40 times more Effects desire (libido) more than function Effects desire (libido) more than function But deficiencies do decrease sensitivity and desire But deficiencies do decrease sensitivity and desire Castration – the surgical removal of the testes causes dramatic reductions in sexual interest and desire Castration – the surgical removal of the testes causes dramatic reductions in sexual interest and desire

5 Testosterone uses

6 Less Testosterone Antiandrogens – drugs which reduce testosterone levels Antiandrogens – drugs which reduce testosterone levels Occasionally given to sex offenders Occasionally given to sex offenders Usually decreases sexual interest and activity Usually decreases sexual interest and activity But sometimes offenders assault for other reasons, such as anger, power and control But sometimes offenders assault for other reasons, such as anger, power and control

7 Hypogonadism – testosterone deficiency due to diseases of the endocrine system Hypogonadism – testosterone deficiency due to diseases of the endocrine system If it begins before puberty, development is slowed If it begins before puberty, development is slowed If it starts after puberty, a marked decrease in desire follows If it starts after puberty, a marked decrease in desire follows

8 Estrogens and Desire Their influence is undeniable but exact role is unclear Their influence is undeniable but exact role is unclear Research findings differ as to whether they increase desire Research findings differ as to whether they increase desire

9 Females & Testosterone Testosterone clearly increases female sexual desire, sensitivity and activity Testosterone clearly increases female sexual desire, sensitivity and activity True even for women after menopause or removal of the ovaries True even for women after menopause or removal of the ovaries

10 Women with “normal” levels of sexual activity and hormones who receive additional testosterone show significant increases in sexual arousal, sensation and even lust Women with “normal” levels of sexual activity and hormones who receive additional testosterone show significant increases in sexual arousal, sensation and even lust Theresa Crenshaw “…. when a woman’s testosterone dwindles, so does her sex life.” Theresa Crenshaw “…. when a woman’s testosterone dwindles, so does her sex life.”

11 More On Testosterone Women have much less testosterone, but are much more sensitive to its effects Women have much less testosterone, but are much more sensitive to its effects For women, too much testosterone causes problems, such as “unwelcome” changes to secondary sexual characteristics For women, too much testosterone causes problems, such as “unwelcome” changes to secondary sexual characteristics Women see levels fall more rapidly after menopause than male’s more gradual decline Women see levels fall more rapidly after menopause than male’s more gradual decline

12 If measured, it is “free” (unattached) testosterone that matters, not “total” If measured, it is “free” (unattached) testosterone that matters, not “total” Testosterone Replacement Therapy Testosterone Replacement Therapy commonly available for men commonly available for men now, slowly becoming an option for women now, slowly becoming an option for women

13 Marketing Testosterone

14 oxytocin A neuropeptide from the hypothalamus that effects sexual response and attraction A neuropeptide from the hypothalamus that effects sexual response and attraction Bonding occurs through its release Bonding occurs through its release mother/child – breast feeding mother/child – breast feeding sexual partners – arousal and response sexual partners – arousal and response Autistic children have low levels and corresponding difficulties forming bonds and expressing love Autistic children have low levels and corresponding difficulties forming bonds and expressing love

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16 Oxytocin and Love Release is triggered by touch Release is triggered by touch Its circulation increases the skins sensitivity to touch Its circulation increases the skins sensitivity to touch Levels increase within us as we go through the cycle of arousal to orgasm Levels increase within us as we go through the cycle of arousal to orgasm Presence remains in blood stream after orgasm facilitating pair bonding Presence remains in blood stream after orgasm facilitating pair bonding

17 The Brain – Our Most Sexual Organ? Our cerebral cortex stores memories and images producing powerful fantasies Our cerebral cortex stores memories and images producing powerful fantasies Our culture has conditioned us to have certain preferences for what we consider physically attractive Our culture has conditioned us to have certain preferences for what we consider physically attractive World-wide prototypes? World-wide prototypes?

18 Exemplars of Beauty A 2005 poll of plastic surgeons revealed the following as possessing the most desired: A 2005 poll of plastic surgeons revealed the following as possessing the most desired: Nose – Nicole Kidman Nose – Nicole Kidman Eyes – Catherine Zeta Jones Eyes – Catherine Zeta Jones Lips – Angelina Jolie Lips – Angelina Jolie

19 Nose

20 Eyes

21 Lips

22 The Limbic System A subcortical brain system of several related structures that impact sexual behavior A subcortical brain system of several related structures that impact sexual behavior Investigated through a number of studies Investigated through a number of studies

23 Olds (1950’s) Implanted electrodes in rat’s limbic system Implanted electrodes in rat’s limbic system Allowed them to control stimulation Allowed them to control stimulation When given the chance, rats will “dial their own number” until they reach exhaustion, even up to several thousand times an hour When given the chance, rats will “dial their own number” until they reach exhaustion, even up to several thousand times an hour “pleasure centers” “pleasure centers”

24 Heath (1972) Humans with a variety of disorders were allowed to self-stimulate their limbic system Humans with a variety of disorders were allowed to self-stimulate their limbic system One man pushed his button over 1500/hr, described intense sexual pleasure, and complained whenever a “session” ended One man pushed his button over 1500/hr, described intense sexual pleasure, and complained whenever a “session” ended A woman reported similar experiences, even multiple orgasmic responses A woman reported similar experiences, even multiple orgasmic responses

25 The Hypothalamus Stimulation greatly arouses rats Stimulation greatly arouses rats Its destruction crushes response Its destruction crushes response Apparently, the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is especially sensitive Apparently, the medial preoptic area (MPOA) is especially sensitive Heroin, morphine and other opiates suppress activity of the MPOA Heroin, morphine and other opiates suppress activity of the MPOA Dopamine and testosterone excite it Dopamine and testosterone excite it

26 Serotonin’s Influence Presence inhibits sexual activity Presence inhibits sexual activity Seems to have the opposite effects of dopamine Seems to have the opposite effects of dopamine Released after males ejaculate and blocks or dampens sensitivity to dopamine and oxytocin Released after males ejaculate and blocks or dampens sensitivity to dopamine and oxytocin SSRI’s have many negative effects on sexuality SSRI’s have many negative effects on sexuality

27 The Senses Many sources of erotic stimulation Many sources of erotic stimulation Their influence leads to tremendous variety and amazing sexual complexity Their influence leads to tremendous variety and amazing sexual complexity

28 Touch Our nerve endings are unevenly distributed, locations which are most sexually responsive are called our Our nerve endings are unevenly distributed, locations which are most sexually responsive are called our Primary Erogenous Zones, which include our genitals, lips, buttocks, inner thighs, neck, mouth, perineum Primary Erogenous Zones, which include our genitals, lips, buttocks, inner thighs, neck, mouth, perineum But we find tremendous variability But we find tremendous variability

29 Secondary Erogenous Zones Secondary Erogenous Zones other areas touched within the context of sexual intimacy other areas touched within the context of sexual intimacy Could be anywhere on the body Could be anywhere on the body Established through classical conditioning? Established through classical conditioning?

30 Vision Very important in our society Very important in our society Emphasis on physical attractiveness, grooming, clothes and cosmetics Emphasis on physical attractiveness, grooming, clothes and cosmetics Are males more aroused by visual stimuli? Are males more aroused by visual stimuli?

31 Kinsey’s survey said, “YES!” Kinsey’s survey said, “YES!” But once women were presented with the: But once women were presented with the: 1) right stimuli, 1) right stimuli, 2) in the right settings, and 2) in the right settings, and 3) measured the right way, 3) measured the right way, STRONG similarities between men and women were found STRONG similarities between men and women were found though women’s self-reports say no though women’s self-reports say no

32 Smell Are genitals smells arousing or awful? Are genitals smells arousing or awful? Depends largely on where you live and your acceptance or rejection of fragrance claims. Depends largely on where you live and your acceptance or rejection of fragrance claims.

33 Pheromones Odors secreted by the body which relate to reproduction Odors secreted by the body which relate to reproduction Common for mammals Common for mammals The vomeronasal system relates to their use The vomeronasal system relates to their use Present in humans, Present in humans, But is it functional? But is it functional?

34 What Works Smells that arouse Smells that arouse Women – licorice, banana nut bread, cucumbers Women – licorice, banana nut bread, cucumbers Men – lavender, pumpkin pie, doughnuts Men – lavender, pumpkin pie, doughnuts

35 What Doesn’t Women – barbecued meat, men’s cologne’s Women – barbecued meat, men’s cologne’s Men – Nothing Men – Nothing

36 Aphrodisiacs Substances that supposedly increase sexual desire and capacity Substances that supposedly increase sexual desire and capacity

37 Do They Deliver? Many claims – little evidence Many claims – little evidence Alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine and marijuana reduce inhibitions but also sexual response Alcohol, amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine and marijuana reduce inhibitions but also sexual response The power of suggestion seems key The power of suggestion seems key

38 Hope on the Horizon? One substance, yohimbine hydrochloride (sap of the tropical evergreen) does increase desire and performance One substance, yohimbine hydrochloride (sap of the tropical evergreen) does increase desire and performance

39 Anaphrodisiacs Substances which inhibit sexual desire and performance Substances which inhibit sexual desire and performance Many things “work” Many things “work” Drugs such as opiates, tranquilizers, and antidepressants inhibit ejaculation and cause erectile problems in males and decrease orgasmic capacity for females Drugs such as opiates, tranquilizers, and antidepressants inhibit ejaculation and cause erectile problems in males and decrease orgasmic capacity for females

40 Other Anaphrodisiacs Birth control pills decrease free testosterone levels Birth control pills decrease free testosterone levels Nicotine both decreases vasocongestion and reduces testosterone levels Nicotine both decreases vasocongestion and reduces testosterone levels

41 Sexual Response A highly individualized process A highly individualized process Research has revealed common patterns of physiological changes Research has revealed common patterns of physiological changes

42 Kaplan’s Three Stages Desire – a prelude to physical sexual response, ignored by Masters and Johnson Desire – a prelude to physical sexual response, ignored by Masters and Johnson Excitement Excitement Organism Organism

43 Masters and Johnson Masters and Johnson Sexology Trailblazers Sexology Trailblazers Direct Observation Direct Observation

44 Masters and Johnson’s Four Phases Excitement Excitement both men and women: both men and women: muscle tension, anatonia muscle tension, anatonia increased heart rate/blood pressure increased heart rate/blood pressure engorgement engorgement sex flush sex flush

45 More Excitement Women: Women: engorgement engorgement lubrication lubrication enlargement enlargement Men: Men: erection erection enlargement/elevation enlargement/elevation

46 Stage II - Plateau The acceleration of processes begun in the excitement phase The acceleration of processes begun in the excitement phase Females Females the orgasmic platform – the significantly engorged outer 1/3 of the vagina the orgasmic platform – the significantly engorged outer 1/3 of the vagina Lasts from a few seconds to a few minutes Lasts from a few seconds to a few minutes

47 Phase III - Orgasm Involuntary muscle spasms Involuntary muscle spasms Blood pressure, respirations, heart rate peaks Blood pressure, respirations, heart rate peaks Males – emission then expulsion Males – emission then expulsion

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49 Are the males’ and females’ experiences different ? Are the males’ and females’ experiences different ? Descriptions are indistinguishable. Descriptions are indistinguishable.

50 Are some Orgasms superior ? Freud thought so, claiming that vaginal orgasms are more “mature” than clitoral Freud thought so, claiming that vaginal orgasms are more “mature” than clitoral This view, influential for decades, has been abandoned This view, influential for decades, has been abandoned Masters and Johnson established that there is just one kind of female orgasm, though most arise from clitoral stimulation Masters and Johnson established that there is just one kind of female orgasm, though most arise from clitoral stimulation

51 Return to the “G” Spot Once found, manual stimulation produces variable sensations Once found, manual stimulation produces variable sensations Intense pleasure and orgasm usually follows Intense pleasure and orgasm usually follows Some women even experience ejaculation Some women even experience ejaculation But the source of the fluid is uncertain But the source of the fluid is uncertain

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53 Finally, Resolution Process through which sexual systems return to a nonexcited state Process through which sexual systems return to a nonexcited state While in most respects the sexes experience this process similarly, men go through a refractory period during which they cannot experience another orgasm While in most respects the sexes experience this process similarly, men go through a refractory period during which they cannot experience another orgasm

54 Aging and the Response Cycle Function continues but intensity declines Function continues but intensity declines Older women – longer for lubrication Older women – longer for lubrication Occasional decreases in desire, sensitivity, and capacity Occasional decreases in desire, sensitivity, and capacity Older men – longer for erection/orgasm Older men – longer for erection/orgasm greater control greater control longer refractory period longer refractory period

55 Where the Sexes Differ Despite surprising similarities, some distinctions remain Despite surprising similarities, some distinctions remain Variability Variability Women have three patterns within the sexual response cycle Women have three patterns within the sexual response cycle Men just one Men just one

56 The Male Refractory Period Why? Why? Evolution based ? Give another guy a chance ? Evolution based ? Give another guy a chance ? Dependent on midbrain- hypothalamus pathway ? Dependent on midbrain- hypothalamus pathway ?

57 Multiple Orgasms Women can have several, in succession Women can have several, in succession But just 14 to 16% ? But just 14 to 16% ? Masters and Johnson say most can have 5-6 ! Masters and Johnson say most can have 5-6 ! Men can too ?!? Men can too ?!?

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