Presentation on theme: "Semantic Field Presentation"— Presentation transcript:
1Semantic Field Presentation Words used to describe females
2Etymology of “Female”Middle English femelle (14th c.), adjective (old French) femelle, n. Latin femella, diminutive of femina womanIn Latin, fmella=little woman; but in popular Lat. it appears as the German weibchen (denotes lower female animals); denotes sex in generalIn 14th c. the ending was confused with the adj. suffix -el, -al; the present form female arises from association with male.
3Definitions of “Female” A. adj. I. Belonging to the sex which bears offspring.b. of animals2. transf. of plants, trees a. When the sex is attributed only from some accident of habit, color, etc.II. Of or pertaining to those of this sex.III. Applied to various material and immaterial things, denoting simplicity, inferiority, weakness or the likeIV. A distinctive term for that part of an instrument or contrivance which is adapted to receive the corresponding or male part.
4Etymology of “Woman”The word “Woman is derived from the old English “w断mon”, a noun which quite literally meant wife-man. The use of the term can be traced from 1200 to about 1500.1200: wi- to wu late 14th:pl. ”wommen”Late 13th c.: “womman”From 1400: Woman and Women become preferred spellingsPronunciation variation lies solely in first vowel sound
5Definitions of “Woman” I. i. a. An adult female human beingb. The female human being; the female part of the human race, the female sex “Of all the domestic animals invented for the service of man in South Africa, the most useful is woman.”c. pl. in pregnant use with reference to (irregular) intercourse with women. “His vice is women.” “If only he could avoid women.”d. As a mode of address. Now used chiefly derogatorily or jocularly. “Hold your tongue, woman!”e. With allusion to qualities conventionally attributed to the female sex, as mutability, capriciousness, proneness to tears; also to their traditional consignment to a position of inferiority or subjection. “We conquered you-we made women of you!” “Men must work and women must weep.”
6Definitions of “Woman” 2. A female servant, esp. a lady's maid or personal attendant.3. A lady-love, a mistress.4. A wife.5. The reverse of a coin “If it’s heads, we’ll go. If it’s woman we stay.” woman=tailsAdditions since 1993:* domestic cleaning woman* “women and children first”
7Etymology of “Lady”Old English roots; hlaf (bread)+dig (to knead) : hlaefdigeLike the corresponding masculine designation hl�ord, lord, the word is not found outside English.The claim that lady comes from bread+the root, to knead is difficult to explain
8Definitions of “Lady” I. As a designation for woman 1. A mistress in relation to servants or slaves; the female head of a household2. a. A woman who rules over subjects, or to whom obedience or feudal homage is due; the feminine designation corresponding to lord.3. a. The Virgin Mary.4. a. A woman of superior position in society, or to whom such a position is conventionally or by courtesy attributed.
9“Mother” Oxford English Dictionary mother, n.1 (and int.) 1. a. The female parent of a human being; a woman in relation to a child or children to whom she has given birth3. A woman who exercises control over an institution, etc., and similar uses.d. A woman who runs a brothel, a madamf. colloq. A female owner of a pet, esp. of a dog.g. U.S. slang. An effeminate homosexual man; spec. one who acts as a mentor to a younger man.b. orig. and chiefly U.S. slang (derogatory). your mother! and variants: used as a retort expressing extreme derision.7. Slang org. and chiefly US, =Motherfucker
10“Dame” Old French dame (11th c.) 1. A female ruler 2. a. The “lady” of the housec. A girl; a woman. Slang6. b. The legal title prefixed to the name and surname of the wife of a knight or baronet
11“Girl” Of obscure etymology 1. A child or young person of either sex 2. a. A female child; commonly applied to all young unmarried womenb. A maid-servantc. A sweetheart, lady-loved. (a girl about the town, a girl of ease): a prostitute(the) girl next door, the girl in a conventional romance; a trusting, sweet, and faithful but usually unimaginative young woman
12“Chick”1. A chicken; esp. a young chicken; sometimes, the young of any bird.2. esp. The young bird still in the egg or only just hatched.3. a. Applied to human offspringb. A girl; a young woman. Slangchick flick, a film predominantly based around female characters; (a) a film designed to appeal to male sexual fantasy in its exploitative portrayal of female characters; (b) a film perceived, or marketed, as appealing particularly to women, typically featuring strong female characters and themes of romance, personal relationships, and female solidarity
13“Babe”Superceded in use by its own diminutive “baby” (Babe, and not baby, was used in the Bible.)1. An infant, a young child2. A doll, a puppet3. a. fig. a childish personb. a girl or woman (often as a form of address)
14“Doll” 1. A pet form of the name Dorothy 2. a. An image of a human being (commonly of a child or lady) used as a playthingb. A dummy used by a ventriloquist3. transf. A pretty, but unintelligent or empty person, especially when dressed up; a pretty, but silly or frivolous woman. Also in more general sense: a woman; a girl; especially a very beautiful or attractive woman
15“Slut” Of doubtful origin 1. a. A woman of dirty, slovenly, or untidy habits or appearanceb. A kitchen-maidc. A troublesome or awkward creature2. a. A woman of a low or loose characterb. In playful use, or without serious imputation of bad qualities “Nanny, thou art a sweet slut.”