Presentation on theme: "Women’s Empowerment Through Gender Budgeting - The Indian Context"— Presentation transcript:
1Women’s Empowerment Through Gender Budgeting - The Indian Context Presentation byAnjali GoyalDirector, Department of Women and Child Development,Ministry of Human Resource DevelopmentGovernment of IndiaNovember 2005
2Gender Budgeting- a definition “Gender budget initiatives analyse how governments raise and spend public money, with the aim of securing gender equality in decision-making about public resource allocation; and gender equality in the distribution of the impact of government budgets, both in their benefits and in their burdens. The impact of government budgets on the most disadvantaged groups of women is a focus of special attention.”
3What is Gender Budgeting ? An exercise to translate stated gender commitments of the Government into budgetary commitments.Strategy for ensuring Gender Sensitive Resource Allocation and a tool for engendering macro economic policyEntails affirmative action for empowering womenCovers assessment of gender differential impact of Government Budgets and policies (Revenue and Expenditure).Enables Tracking and Allocating resources for women empowermentOpportunity to determine real value of resources allocated to women
4What are gender commitments in the Indian context ? Constitutional ProvisionsLegal FrameworkWomen Specific LawsLaws affecting WomenPoliciesPublic Expenditure Programmes
5Women and Legal Framework Women specific LegislationsImmoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956The Maternity Benefit Act 1961The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005
6Women related legislations 41 laws covering various spheres.EconomicFactories Act 1948, Minimum Wages Act 1948,Equal Remuneration Act 1976, The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948, The Plantation Labour Act, 1951, The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976ProtectionRelevant provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Special provisions under IPC, The Legal Practitioners (Women) Act, 1923, The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse ) Act, 1994.
7Women related legislations SocialFamily Courts Act, 1984, The Indian Succession Act, 1925, The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971, The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929, The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, The Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (& amended in 2005), The Indian Divorce Act, 1969
8National Policy for Empowerment of Women Objective – advancement, development and empowerment, elimination of discriminationThemes and issues – Judicial legal system, economic empowerment, social empowerment (health, education, science and technology, drinking water and sanitation, protection from violence) women and decision making, girl childThe Government adopted the National Policy for the empowerment of women on 20 March The policy prescribes action under various themes and issues and stresses on importance of ear-marking allocations under the women’s component plan and priortise is need for gender budteting.
9Institutional Empowering Mechanisms Parliamentary Committee on Empowerment of WomenNational Commission for WomenA Parliament Committee on Empowerment of Women consisting of 30 Members, 20 to be nominated by the Speaker from amongst Members of Lok Sabha and 10 to be nominated by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha from amongst members of Rajya Sabha was constituted in 1997 for considering the reports of the National Commission for Women to examine the measure taken by the Government to secure women’s equality and to report on the working of welfare programmes for women, etc.
10The ChallengeHow do we translate all these commitments into budgetary commitments and administrative action ?How do we engender policies and programmes ?
12Seventh Plan 1985- Ministry of Human Resource Development set up Department for Women and Child Development constituted in HRD Ministry27 major women specific schemes identified for monitoring to assess quantum of funds/benefits flowing to women
13Eighth PlanThe Eighth Plan ( ) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to womenIt commented:“ … special programmes on women should complement the general development programmes. The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity”
14Ninth PlanWomen’s Component Plan- 30% of funds were sought to be ear-marked in all women related sectors – inter-sectoral review and multi-sector approachSpecial vigil to be kept on the flow of the earmarked funds/benefitsQuantifies performance under Women’s Component Plan in Ninth Plan-Approach Paper Tenth Plan indicates 42.9% of gross budgetary support in 15 women related Ministries/Departments has gone to womenThe Planning Commission sent instructions to Ministries and States/UT s to draw up a Women’s Component Plan toIdentify programmes on womenEarmark funds as part of 9th plan /annual plan proposalsThe operational strategies outlined in the National Policy for Empowerment of Women 2001 also envisage introduction of a gender perspective in the budgeting process.National Policy for Empowerment of Women 2001 Themes and issues – Judicial legal system, economic empowerment, social empowerment (health, education, science and technology, drinking water and sanitation, protection from violence) women and decision making, girl childA Parliament Committee on Empowerment of Women consisting of 30 Members, 20 to be nominated by the Speaker from amongst Members of Lok Sabha and 10 to be nominated by the Chairman, Rajya Sabha from amongst members of Rajya Sabha was constituted in 1997 for considering the reports of the National Commission for Women to examine the measure taken by the Government to secure women’s equality and to report on the working of welfare programmes for women, etc.
15Tenth Plan· Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to establish its gender-differential impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments.Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and post-facto action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors.
17Action by the Department for Women & Child Development Issue of checklists / guidelines for gender audit of public expenditureAdoption of Strategic Framework for Gender BudgetingSpecial letters sent to Ministry of Finance and Planning Commission to engender the Annual Plan and Budget exercise forConsultations with select Departments on four priority areasFood and Nutrition Security & Employment guaranteeWater and SanitationAdequate Health facilitiesAsset base for womenWithout such a gender sensitive analysis public investment and public expenditure may unwittingly re-inforce gender inequity.
18Action by the Department for Women & Child Development Capacity Building- Departments in GOI and State GovernmentsMainstreaming Gender Concerns- Watchdog approachInterest SubsidyKerosene OilMicro CreditHealth InsuranceInflation
19Instructions issued by Inter-Departmental Committee, GOI All Departments to open Gender Budget Cells byAll Departments to reflect benefit-incidence analysis of expenditure in Annual ReportsEighteen Departments to reflect gender component of schemes in Performance Budgets of
20New Statement on Gender Budgeting Union BudgetNew Statement on Gender BudgetingNine Departments Identified for focus
23Framework of Gender Budgeting Quantification of allocation of resources for womenGender Audit of policies of the GovernmentImpact assessment of various schemes in the Union and State budgetsAnalyzing schematic and policy initiatives and link with impact on status of women related Macro Indicatorsa)Refining and standardizing methodology and development of tools. Trend Analysisshift in priorities in allocation across clusters of services etc, Variations in allocation of resources and actual expenditure. Adherence to physical targetsb) Research and micro studies to guide macro policies like credit policy, taxes etcIdentification of gender impact of policies/interventions viewed as gender neutralMicro studies to identify need for affirmative action in favour of women towards restoring gender imbalancesc) Micro studies on incidence of benefitsAnalysis of cost of delivery of servicesInvestment in agri- but women don’t own land- get remuneration as casual labour- lowest paid. Instead more invt in dairy
24Framework of Gender Budgeting Institutionalizing the generation and collection of gender dis-aggregated dataConsultations and Capacity buildingPromote gender equity in participation in decision makinga) Developing MIS for feed back from implementing agenciesInclusion of new parameters in data collection in Census and surveys by NSO, CSO etcb)Collation of research and exchange of best practices,Developing Tools for disseminationForums and Partnerships amongst experts and stakeholder.
25Holistic approach to Empowerment Water & San.Health& Nut.PoliticalParticipationEducationAsset baseSkillsMarketingHolistic approach to women’s empowerment:Social (education, health, status in family etc)Economic (asset ownership, share in income, skills, appropriate technology etc)Political (participation in decision making)TechnologyCredit
26Action AreasWomen availing services of public utilities like road transport, power, water and sanitation, telecommunication etc.Training of women as highly skilled workers- top end skillsResearch/Technology for womenWomen in the work forceAsset ownership by womenWomen as Entrepreneurs
27Implementation of Laws like Equal remunerationMinimum WagesFactories ActInfrastructure for women likeWater and sanitation at workplaceCrechesWorking Women HostelsTransport servicesSecurity
28Gender Analysis of State Budgets Research Study – Decadal trend
29Preliminary FindingsHigher percentage share of states in expenditure on womenExpenditure on Health is largest componentBroad trend reflects increase in expenditureWide annual fluctuations in many statesSome states reflect relatively less expenditure compared with population of women
30Path AheadPursue Gender Mainstreaming in the Government through coordination with Gender Budget cellsWidening scope of National Statistical SystemWidening scope from public expenditure to Revenues, Fiscal and Monetary PoliciesPursue gender budgeting by States with help of planning Commission and MOFCapacity Building- Coordinate with training institutes and experts to standardize methodology and tools
31To Conclude“It is more important to create a general awareness’ and understanding of the problems of women’s employment in all the top policy and decision making and executive personnel. There is also the special problem facing women like the preference for male children for social and cultural reasons. This will require awareness, understanding and action. The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking.”(6th Five Year Plan )