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Women’s Empowerment Through Gender Budgeting - The Indian Context Presentation by Anjali Goyal Director, Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry.

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Presentation on theme: "Women’s Empowerment Through Gender Budgeting - The Indian Context Presentation by Anjali Goyal Director, Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry."— Presentation transcript:

1 Women’s Empowerment Through Gender Budgeting - The Indian Context Presentation by Anjali Goyal Director, Department of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Human Resource Development Government of India November 2005

2 Gender Budgeting- a definition “Gender budget initiatives analyse how governments raise and spend public money, with the aim of securing gender equality in decision-making about public resource allocation; and gender equality in the distribution of the impact of government budgets, both in their benefits and in their burdens. The impact of government budgets on the most disadvantaged groups of women is a focus of special attention.”

3 What is Gender Budgeting ? An exercise to translate stated gender commitments of the Government into budgetary commitments. –Strategy for ensuring Gender Sensitive Resource Allocation and a tool for engendering macro economic policy Entails affirmative action for empowering women Covers assessment of gender differential impact of Government Budgets and policies (Revenue and Expenditure). –Enables Tracking and Allocating resources for women empowerment –Opportunity to determine real value of resources allocated to women

4 What are gender commitments in the Indian context ? Constitutional Provisions Legal Framework –Women Specific Laws –Laws affecting Women Policies Public Expenditure Programmes

5 Women and Legal Framework Women specific Legislations Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 The Maternity Benefit Act 1961 The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987 Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005

6 Women related legislations 41 laws covering various spheres. Economic Factories Act 1948, Minimum Wages Act 1948, Equal Remuneration Act 1976, The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948, The Plantation Labour Act, 1951, The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act 1976 Protection Relevant provisions of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973; Special provisions under IPC, The Legal Practitioners (Women) Act, 1923, The Pre-Natal Diagnostic Technique (Regulation and Prevention of Misuse ) Act, 1994.

7 Women related legislations Social Family Courts Act, 1984, The Indian Succession Act, 1925, The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act 1971, The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929, The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, The Hindu Succession Act, 1956 (& amended in 2005), The Indian Divorce Act, 1969

8 National Policy for Empowerment of Women Objective – advancement, development and empowerment, elimination of discrimination Themes and issues – Judicial legal system, economic empowerment, social empowerment (health, education, science and technology, drinking water and sanitation, protection from violence) women and decision making, girl child

9 Institutional Empowering Mechanisms Parliamentary Committee on Empowerment of Women National Commission for Women

10 The Challenge How do we translate all these commitments into budgetary commitments and administrative action ? How do we engender policies and programmes ?

11 Evolution of Indian Initiatives

12 Seventh Plan Ministry of Human Resource Development set up Department for Women and Child Development constituted in HRD Ministry 27 major women specific schemes identified for monitoring to assess quantum of funds/benefits flowing to women

13 Eighth Plan The Eighth Plan ( ) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women It commented: “ … special programmes on women should complement the general development programmes. The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity”

14 Ninth Plan Women’s Component Plan- 30% of funds were sought to be ear-marked in all women related sectors – inter-sectoral review and multi-sector approach Special vigil to be kept on the flow of the earmarked funds/benefits Quantifies performance under Women’s Component Plan in Ninth Plan-Approach Paper Tenth Plan indicates 42.9% of gross budgetary support in 15 women related Ministries/Departments has gone to women

15 Tenth Plan  Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to establish its gender-differential impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and post-facto action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors.

16 Indian Experience Women’s Component Plan-Earmarking resources for women Implementing Women Specific Schemes Monitoring macro indicators like MMR Literacy rates, work participation Quantum and Trend analysis of resources allocated and spent on women Gender Audit of schemes and programmes- implementation and impact analysis Anjali Goyal 2005 ©opyright

17 Action by the Department for Women & Child Development Issue of checklists / guidelines for gender audit of public expenditure Adoption of Strategic Framework for Gender Budgeting Special letters sent to Ministry of Finance and Planning Commission to engender the Annual Plan and Budget exercise for Consultations with select Departments on four priority areas –Food and Nutrition Security & Employment guarantee –Water and Sanitation –Adequate Health facilities –Asset base for women

18 Action by the Department for Women & Child Development Capacity Building- Departments in GOI and State Governments Mainstreaming Gender Concerns- Watchdog approach –Interest Subsidy –Kerosene Oil –Micro Credit –Health Insurance –Inflation

19 Instructions issued by Inter- Departmental Committee, GOI All Departments to open Gender Budget Cells by All Departments to reflect benefit- incidence analysis of expenditure in Annual Reports Eighteen Departments to reflect gender component of schemes in Performance Budgets of

20 Union Budget New Statement on Gender Budgeting Nine Departments Identified for focus

21 Gender Mainstreaming- our new Mantra for “Women’s Development” Women as a beneficiary segment –Need for Gender mainstreaming –Fiscal and Monetary Policies, Legislations Need to Change Programme formulations and implementation processes –More gender friendly –Optimize Participation of Voluntary Sector Gender budgeting – not an end in itself Anjali Goyal 2005 ©opyright

22 Rationale of Alternative Strategy Empowerment has to be –Holistic (Political, Social and Economic) –Universal (equal opportunity and level playing field) –Participative and Inclusive An jali Goyal 2005 ©opyright

23 Framework of Gender Budgeting Quantification of allocation of resources for women Gender Audit of policies of the Government Impact assessment of various schemes in the Union and State budgets Analyzing schematic and policy initiatives and link with impact on status of women related Macro Indicators

24 Framework of Gender Budgeting Institutionalizing the generation and collection of gender dis-aggregated data Consultations and Capacity building Promote gender equity in participation in decision making

25 Holistic approach to Empowerment Health & Nut. Education Water & San. Skills Technology Credit Political Participation Marketing Asset base

26 Action Areas Women availing services of public utilities like road transport, power, water and sanitation, telecommunication etc. Training of women as highly skilled workers- top end skills Research/Technology for women Women in the work force Asset ownership by women Women as Entrepreneurs

27 Implementation of Laws like –Equal remuneration –Minimum Wages –Factories Act Infrastructure for women like –Water and sanitation at workplace –Creches –Working Women Hostels –Transport services –Security

28 Gender Analysis of State Budgets Research Study – Decadal trend

29 Preliminary Findings Higher percentage share of states in expenditure on women Expenditure on Health is largest component Broad trend reflects increase in expenditure Wide annual fluctuations in many states Some states reflect relatively less expenditure compared with population of women

30 Path Ahead Pursue Gender Mainstreaming in the Government through coordination with Gender Budget cells Widening scope of National Statistical System Widening scope from public expenditure to Revenues, Fiscal and Monetary Policies Pursue gender budgeting by States with help of planning Commission and MOF Capacity Building- Coordinate with training institutes and experts to standardize methodology and tools

31 To Conclude “It is more important to create a general awareness’ and understanding of the problems of women’s employment in all the top policy and decision making and executive personnel. There is also the special problem facing women like the preference for male children for social and cultural reasons. This will require awareness, understanding and action. The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking.” (6 th Five Year Plan )

32 Thank you


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