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In the Underworld: Women in Crime by Jackie Galvez, Katie Meyer, and Whitney Sholl by Jackie Galvez, Katie Meyer, and Whitney Sholl.

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Presentation on theme: "In the Underworld: Women in Crime by Jackie Galvez, Katie Meyer, and Whitney Sholl by Jackie Galvez, Katie Meyer, and Whitney Sholl."— Presentation transcript:

1 In the Underworld: Women in Crime by Jackie Galvez, Katie Meyer, and Whitney Sholl by Jackie Galvez, Katie Meyer, and Whitney Sholl

2 In the Underworld: Women in Crime »Chapter 7 »A Mind of Her Own: The Evolutionary Psychology of Women »by Anne Campbell »Chapter 7 »A Mind of Her Own: The Evolutionary Psychology of Women »by Anne Campbell

3 Theorists »Cesare Lombroso »W.I. Thomas »Otto Pollack »Freda Adler »Cesare Lombroso »W.I. Thomas »Otto Pollack »Freda Adler

4 Cesare Lombroso »“Such a woman is a ‘monster’ who ‘belongs more to the male than female sex” (208). »Female criminals were pseudo-males or inadequate personalities »“Such a woman is a ‘monster’ who ‘belongs more to the male than female sex” (208). »Female criminals were pseudo-males or inadequate personalities

5 W.I. Thomas »Humans driven by: »New Experience »Security »Response »Recognition »Delinquent women lack these ambitions

6 Otto Pollack »Women appear to commit less crime »Less reported »Less detected by police »Women are devious and manipulative because of menstruation and their nature of sexuality »Women appear to commit less crime »Less reported »Less detected by police »Women are devious and manipulative because of menstruation and their nature of sexuality

7 Freda Adler »Rise in female crime due to women’s liberation »Seeking greater criminal opportunities just as they were seeking more legitimate opportunities »Highly controversial »Led to a backlash, denouncing Adler’s position »Rise in female crime due to women’s liberation »Seeking greater criminal opportunities just as they were seeking more legitimate opportunities »Highly controversial »Led to a backlash, denouncing Adler’s position

8 Three Reasons for Contradictory Images of Women Criminals »1) Academics are asking different questions »2) Most explanations given are from feminist ideology and practice »3) New feminist epistemology says agendas cannot be objective and can only offer descriptions »1) Academics are asking different questions »2) Most explanations given are from feminist ideology and practice »3) New feminist epistemology says agendas cannot be objective and can only offer descriptions

9 Women, like men, must secure resources they require for survival (211)

10 Well Known Facts »1) Men commit more crime than women »2) In places and times where male crime rises, female crime rises as well (213) »3) Female property and violent crime rise and fall together, just as male crime does »1) Men commit more crime than women »2) In places and times where male crime rises, female crime rises as well (213) »3) Female property and violent crime rise and fall together, just as male crime does

11 How likely are women to commit violent crime? »Criminal Analyst Jonathan Alston talks about gender differences and violent crime »http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=zucIocuW4eohttp://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=zucIocuW4eo »Criminal Analyst Jonathan Alston talks about gender differences and violent crime »http://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=zucIocuW4eohttp://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=zucIocuW4eo

12 Female Crimes »Seen as a desperate competition for access to scarce resources »Women need resources as a result of “extra calories required to sustain ovulation and support pregnancy, lactation and the additional need required of a growing, dependent child” (217) »Can attach themselves to men or get her own through independent efforts »Common factor is resource scarcity »Seen as a desperate competition for access to scarce resources »Women need resources as a result of “extra calories required to sustain ovulation and support pregnancy, lactation and the additional need required of a growing, dependent child” (217) »Can attach themselves to men or get her own through independent efforts »Common factor is resource scarcity

13 Difference between Male and Female Crimes »Male: »Achieving lavish & ostentatious lifestyle »Male: »Achieving lavish & ostentatious lifestyle »Female: »Motivated by emotional responsibility to family & economic need »Less conspicuous »Conceal rather than advertise

14 Drugs & Prostitution »Partake in drug business & prostitution »Physiological as well as financial need »Selling drugs & prostitution support female drug habit

15 Predictors of Crime »Family processes »Come from impoverished single-parent or parentally-conflicted families »Two part: »1) May be indirect through the parents’ reaction to deprivation »2) Children read into their local ecology & witness parental arguments over money

16 Women in Crime »Women do not need a separate explanation of crime from men »Need some mechanism that explains why they are less likely than men to commit crimes »Perhaps, due to the differences in fear and risk-taking »Women do not need a separate explanation of crime from men »Need some mechanism that explains why they are less likely than men to commit crimes »Perhaps, due to the differences in fear and risk-taking

17 Three Interesting Points »1) Men commit more crime than women and the size of this sex difference varies with the dangerousness of the crime »2) Social bonding is a crucial part to understanding the criminal mind »3) There are two kinds of crime: property crime and violent crime »1) Men commit more crime than women and the size of this sex difference varies with the dangerousness of the crime »2) Social bonding is a crucial part to understanding the criminal mind »3) There are two kinds of crime: property crime and violent crime

18 Three Weak Arguments »1) Pollak’s view on crime was based on the theory that women commit more crime than we realize »2) Two of the three facts discussed in the beginning were based on empirical research, but the N values were very low »3) Women are more motivated by resources fueled by family or personal obligations while men are motivated towards crime more for reputation purposes »1) Pollak’s view on crime was based on the theory that women commit more crime than we realize »2) Two of the three facts discussed in the beginning were based on empirical research, but the N values were very low »3) Women are more motivated by resources fueled by family or personal obligations while men are motivated towards crime more for reputation purposes

19 Out of the theorists, who is quoted as saying, “such a woman is a ‘monster’ who ‘belongs more to the male than female sex?” »A) Cesare Lombroso »B) W.I Thomas »C) Otto Pollack »D) Freda Adler »E) None of the above »A) Cesare Lombroso »B) W.I Thomas »C) Otto Pollack »D) Freda Adler »E) None of the above

20 Evolutionists theorize that male control of sexuality has been present throughout history stemming from which of the following? »A) Concealed ovulation »B) Uncertainty of paternity »C) Males’ monopoly of resources »D) Rise of patriarchy »E) All of the above »A) Concealed ovulation »B) Uncertainty of paternity »C) Males’ monopoly of resources »D) Rise of patriarchy »E) All of the above

21 What is a difference between male and female crime? »A) Men use their crimes to achieve lavish lifestyles »B) Women are more conspicuous »C) Women conceal rather than advertise »D) Women continue committing crime for long periods of time »E) All of the above »A) Men use their crimes to achieve lavish lifestyles »B) Women are more conspicuous »C) Women conceal rather than advertise »D) Women continue committing crime for long periods of time »E) All of the above

22 Everywhere in the world men commit more crime than women. »A) True »B) False »A) True »B) False

23 Female crime can be seen as a desperate competition for access to scarce resources. »A) True »B) False »A) True »B) False

24 Drug dealing and prostitution help support female drug habits. »A) True »B) False »A) True »B) False

25 References »Campbell, A. (2002). In the Underworld: Women in Crime. A Mind of Her Own: The Evolutionary Psychology of Women. (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press »Campbell, A. (2002). In the Underworld: Women in Crime. A Mind of Her Own: The Evolutionary Psychology of Women. (pp ). New York: Oxford University Press


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