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The Lady Edisons: Machine Specialists

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1 The Lady Edisons: Machine Specialists
Beulah Louise Henry: Mother Edison Margaret Knight: Paper Bag Queen Madame C.J. Walker: First female African-American millionaire. Mary Walton: Reduced Train Pollution

2 Mary Pennington: The Refrigerated Train
Mary Anderson: The Windshield Wiper Hedy Lamarr: Frequency Hopping Ruth Handler: Barbie

3 20th CENTURY: Women Inventors of Tools and Machines
By: Aisy Naidu Spring 2006 EWS425H

4 In the 20th Century, machines and mechanical inventions patented by women grew at an exponential rate.

5 The Changing Role of Women
During World War I the rapidly expanding war industries dipped heavily into the labor force of women. In 1918 nearly three million new women workers were employed in food, textile and war industries. Many taboos and restrictions thrown up to keep women out of large-scale productions industry were broken down. Women worked as streetcar conductors, radio operators, and in steel mills and logging camps during the war. Reference:

6 Chemists Versus Mechanics
The most prolific women patentees tended to be chemists, and therefore they received more recognition. Dr. Ruth Benerito- works for the Department of Agriculture and has over 55 patents that deal mainly with wash and wear fabrics Dr. Giuliana Tesoro- a textile chemist who worked with a private industry and had over 125 patents

7 Obstacles Faced By Women Mechanics
Professional: Women were hired for consultancy on household machines but were not given the opportunity to be innovators within corporations Marketing/ Social Stigma: Women with good inventions were often overlooked or not taken seriously by corporations because of their gender Submerged in Teams: Provided valuable input in inventions but the credit often went to the team leader, typically males

8 Machines That Made an Impact
SEWING MACHINE DISHWASHER WASHING MACHINE TYPEWRITER

9 Sewing Machine The Number of Women’s Sewing-Machine Patents by 1894 Beulah Louise Henry ( ) Born in Memphis Tennessee Invented the first bobbin less sewing machine (1940) Such a prolific inventor that she was coined “Lady Edison” Created about 110 inventions and held 49 patents 150

10 Sewing Machine Continued…
Dorothy Young Kirby ( ) Authored the Dot Young Sewing Guide Enabled sewer to give clothes perfectly straight seams and professional looking top-stitching Six mail-order catalogues which sold over 250,000 copies Rosa Csudor-de Valerio ( ) Entertainer and Skating Champion from Romania Invented Ro Ri Ro(1975) at age 81 A new embroidery technique and sewing attachment

11 The Dishwasher Josephine Cochrane
Invented the first automatic dishwasher in 1887 She unveiled her invention at the 1893 World's Fair in Chicago, and won its highest award. She began manufacturing her invention, and it was used heavily in all major hotels. Her company has evolved today into the well known Kitchen-Aid.

12 The Dishwasher Cont… Anna Dunder Frances GABe Alma T. McHargue
Patented an early dishwasher in 1903 Frances GABe Invented the Self-Cleaning house which included dishwashing cupboards (aesthetically pleasing) Alma T. McHargue Patented a dishwasher that included a drainer in 1911

13 The Washing Machine Jessie Whitney Cartwright (1897-1977)
Director of Norge’s Home Institute Had at least four important inventions concerning washing machines, among them… Ripplette (1954): a small agitator which would replace a large agitator of a washing machine for protecting delicate items Stop Cycle in dryers Delicate cycle Metal backed panels for washing machines which made them quieter and reduced shock

14 The Washing Machine Cont…
Ethel R. Blake, Bertha Moe (along with husband) Patented washing machines in 1925 Agatha K. Bremer Patented a washing machine in 1940 Belle Tucker Invented lint trap for washing machine in 1970 Frances GABe Created a combination closet and clothes-washer as part of her self-cleaning house

15 The Typewriter No one person can be said to have invented the typewriter, but it may have been created as early as 1700’s.

16 The Typewriter Cont… Lily Pavey Lillian Malt Evelyn Berezin
Invented the Musikriter in 1961 Musical typewriter for which this British inventor won many accolades Eventually manufactured and sold widely Lillian Malt Owner of Lillian Malt Training Services Invented the Maltron Keyboard in 1978 Was designed to fit different finger lengths and had vowels spaced further apart as to reduce errors Evelyn Berezin Word Processing Pioneer Helped invent the Data Secretary which had far more capabilities than IBM. She made huge financial profit for selling her Redactron, the company that produced the Data Secretary

17 The Typewriter Cont… Sarah M. Hawley Emma D. Mills Martha F. Cooke
Patented a paper-feeding mechanism for typewriting machines (1907) Emma D. Mills Devised her own typewriter with several innovative mechanisms Martha F. Cooke Typewriter key-locking attachment (1940) Beulah Henry (at least 14 related patents) Supplemental Ribbon Attachment Duplicating Attachment Silent Typewriter Key operated machines

18 Women & Agriculture Some Patentees in this Field:
Of all agricultural patents granted to women between , about 45% of them were machines or mechanical devices. Most of these inventions were made by farm women, and not urban inventors or corporate workers. As Agriculture became more professionalized, the “Takeover Theory” comes into play, and women granted patents for farm machinery drastically reduced. Some Patentees in this Field: Marie Huschka Patented the fowl-dressing appliance Dora E. Warfel Patented a poultry feeding appliance

19 Women & Architecture Some Patentees in this Field
As the population grew and houses became smaller, the need for space efficient furniture increased; it is about this time that women began patenting house furniture; building and construction, and mechanical devices. Some Patentees in this Field Alice Parker Invented the heating furnace Lillian Gilbreth Designed appliances and whole kitchens for the handicapped veterans of World War I Frances GABe Self-Cleaning House Alice Austin Built in furniture and roll-away beds

20 Women & Art Some Devices Patented by Women
Women have played a significant role in mechanical devices used in the Arts; not limited to the areas of photography, artist devices, and sculpting devices. Some Devices Patented by Women Adjustable artist’s desk and easel Drawing Table Etching Apparatus Reproducing Outlines of a Form Camera Automatic controller for camera shutters

21 Women & Commercial and Retail Trade
Some Patentees in this Field Edith L Boyer Patented the Labeling Machine in 1907 Alice M. Argles Inventor from England who patented a coin-freed mechanism for good-delivery machine in 1901 Florence Anderson Patented the Coinbox which was heavily used in parking meters n 1952 Barbara Brown Printing mechanism for cash registers in 1979

22 Women & Education Society enforced the caretaker role upon women and teaching children was one of the few jobs that was considered acceptable for them in the 20th Century. Some Devices Patented by Women Means of teaching the Alphabet Appliance for teaching reading Means of aiding the teaching of spelling Inflatable globe for geography teaching

23 Women & Electrics Some Patentees in this Field
CONTINUED… Chien-Shiung Wu Well known physicist who improved instruments to detect radiation Hedy Lamarr Frequency hopping, a secret communication system used in cell phone industry today Harriet Stern Invented the portable hair dryer in 1962 Mary Spaeth Tunable dye laser used in check-out technology today Mabel MacFerran Rockwell Only woman involved in design for Hoover Dam Dr. Beatrice Hicks Co-Founder and first president of Society of Women Engineers Dr. Alla Masevich Invented the first satellite tracking technology Women have held an extensive role in the advancement of technology in the field of Electrics. The following is a less than exhaustive list of some of the key players. Some Patentees in this Field Delma E. Lee Patented the electric switch in 1910 Angelica E. Post Invented the Dry Cell battery in 1906 Hertha Ayrton First woman member of the Institution of Electrical Engineers Invented the Pulsemeter and Carbon Arc Light for Movie Projection Maude Adams Improved capability for showing full color film in daylight Edith Clarke Patented a calculator (1925), electric power transmission (1927), and electric circuit (1944) Jessie Pope Invented the thermostatically controlled curling iron (1946)

24 Women & Health/Medical
Some Patentees in this Field Dr. Jessie Wright Rocking bed for patients needing help with breathing Dr. Anne Chamney Oxygen tent Doreen Kennedy-Way Battery Operated Go Cart for Spina Bifida children Julia Butcher Invalid Exercising bed

25 Women & the Labor Saving and Domestic Field
Some Patentees in this Field Ethel A. Cooper Folding ironing board Corinne Dufour May have invented a portable vacuum cleaner around 1910 Dorothy Rodgers At least 7 household inventions among them the Jonny Mop in 1946 for cleaning toilet bowls Leonara Hafen Invented a cleaning brush for small crevices and a rug shampooer with less spattering Buelah Louise Henry Can Opener in 1956

26 Women in Manufacturing/Industrial
Some Patentees in this Field Catherine Evans Pioneered the tufting technique which led to the manufacturing of chenille, a fabric used in bedspreads (around 1905) Alida Marcoux Patented eight looms or loom mechanisms between Lydia B. Koch Held over 19 patents related to the manufacturing of paper bottles Hazel Hook Wolz Invented the bobby pin used by millions today for pinning hair Wei Feng-ying Had over 400 technical innovations to her credit

27 Women & The Office Some Patentees in this Field Marie Heilbron
Patented a letter opener machine that was useful for stores with heavy mail volume. It opened 400 letters per minute as opposed to 30 by hand. Verena Holmes Patented a safety paper cutter in Britain Emily Duncan Patented two banking related calculators

28 Women & Theatre Patentee in this Field
Acting in theatre and stage production was an acceptable career choice for women, and they readily began going about ways to enhance their work environment through developing technologies. Patentee in this Field Raye Coplan Invented the Marionette, which simplified the operation of puppets Devices Patented by Women Device for producing stage rain Fire illusion device

29 Women & Toys Some Patentees in this Field
This is an extensive field, and the list could go on and on; but the following are just a few of the women who made mechanical toys for children. Some Patentees in this Field Beulah Henry Eating toy animal in 1953 Movable lip for toy figures in 1951 A toy cow that gives “milk” in 1951 Helen L. Borza Windmill Toy Ruth Handler Barbie (doll with movable arms and legs)

30 Women & Transportation
Women have invented significant and advanced technologies in the areas of transportation, and improved upon models already in place. Some Patentees in this Field Jean Aimes Invented the first commercial child seat in1962 Lillian Todd Uncovered a glider-type aircraft in 1906 Vera C. Hodges Introduced the starter for engines in 1935

31 The End Questions/Comments???


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