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Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3)

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Presentation on theme: "Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3)

2 NFHS-3, India, Why Measure Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment in NFHS-3? Important public health consequences for women and children Important public health consequences for women and children Strategic theme of NPP 2000 Strategic theme of NPP 2000 Theme: Empowering women for improved health and nutrition Millennium Development Goals 3 & 4 Millennium Development Goals 3 & 4 MDG3: Promote gender equality and empower women MDG4: Eliminate gender disparity in education

3 NFHS-3, India, Why Measure Gender Inequality and Women’s Empowerment in NFHS-3? MDG 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015 Four specific indicators: Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education Ratio of girls to boys in primary, secondary, and tertiary education Ratio of literate women to men years old Ratio of literate women to men years old Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments Proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments

4 NFHS-3, India, Content of Presentation Selected indicators of gender disparity Selected indicators of gender disparity Access and control over resources Access and control over resources Women’s decision making role Women’s decision making role Freedom of movement Freedom of movement Acceptance of gender unequal norms Acceptance of gender unequal norms

5 NFHS-3, India, Gender Disparity in Literacy Age Age Sex Sex Literacy rate (%) Gender Disparity Gender Disparity 15-49MaleFemale785529% 20-24MaleFemale846423% 15-19MaleFemale897417%

6 NFHS-3, India, Gender Disparity in Higher Secondary School Completion Age Sex Sex % with 12+ years of schooling Gender Disparity 15-49MaleFemale201239% 25-29MaleFemale231536% 20-24MaleFemale271929%

7 NFHS-3, India, Gender Disparity in Media Exposure Not only are fewer women than men literate but fewer are also regularly exposed to media Percentage of men and women age regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema Percentage of men and women age regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema Men 88% Men 88% Women 71% Women 71% Gender Disparity19% Gender Disparity19%

8 NFHS-3, India, Employment: Another Area of Gender Disparity Among the population age Men are 2 times as likely to be employed Men are 2.7 times as likely to be employed for cash Among the employed, 64% of women vs. 91% of men earn cash Female share of population employed for cash in non- agricultural occupations is 22% Percent

9 NFHS-3, India, The majority of employed women are engaged in agricultural work Type of worker Occupational Distribution (%) WomenMen Professional77 Sales414 Service75 Production2237 Agricultural5933 Other24

10 NFHS-3, India, Does employment empower women financially? NFHS-3 asked married employed women and men who controlled their own earnings and who controlled the spouse’s earnings (if relevant) NFHS-3 asked married employed women and men who controlled their own earnings and who controlled the spouse’s earnings (if relevant) 20% of employed married women said they earned at least as much as their husband 20% of employed married women said they earned at least as much as their husband 24% of men with an employed wife said that their wife earned at least as much as them 24% of men with an employed wife said that their wife earned at least as much as them

11 NFHS-3, India, Control over Women’s Earnings as Reported by Currently Married Women and Men Women’s report about their own earnings Men’s report about their wife’s earnings Mainly wife Husband & wife jointly Mainly husband Percent

12 NFHS-3, India, Are some women more likely than others to NOT participate in the use of their earnings? Percent of currently married women Residence Wealth IndexEducation Age

13 NFHS-3, India, Do married women have access to any other financial resources? Percentage of women who:

14 NFHS-3, India, Education, employment, or wealth do not ensure that women have money that they control Percentage of women age who have money which they can decide how to use

15 NFHS-3, India, Do married women participate in other household decision making? Decisions Make decision alone or jointly with husband Own health care 62 Making major household purchases 53 Making purchases for daily household needs 60 Visits to her family or relatives 61 All four 37 None of above 21

16 NFHS-3, India, Older women are much more likely than younger women to participate in household decisionsOlder women are much more likely than younger women to participate in household decisions Differentials by other characteristics are smallDifferentials by other characteristics are small However, less than half of even the oldest, urban, more educated, employed or wealthier women participate in all four decisionsHowever, less than half of even the oldest, urban, more educated, employed or wealthier women participate in all four decisions

17 NFHS-3, India, What are some of the other hurdles that prevent women from attaining gender equality ? Limited freedom of movement Limited freedom of movement Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. NFHS-3 asked women and men questions about norms regarding Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. NFHS-3 asked women and men questions about norms regarding Wife beating Wife beating A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes

18 NFHS-3, India, Percentage of women age who are allowed to go alone to: The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community.

19 NFHS-3, India, Percentage who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she:

20 NFHS-3, India, Percentage who agree with at least one reason for wife beating WomenMen Age Urban years education 3134 Employed for cash 5962 Wealthiest 3735 Delhi: A highly urbanized state 3228 Although urban, educated, employed and wealthier persons are less likely to agree with wife beating, these characteristics are not sufficient to supplant beliefs in gender inegalitarian norms

21 NFHS-3, India, Attitude towards refusing sex with husband by Situation, Women and Men Percentage who agree that a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband when she:

22 NFHS-3, India, Percentage of men age who consider that, when a woman refuses to have sex with him when he wants, he has the right to: Get angry and reprimand her - 20% Get angry and reprimand her - 20% Refuse her financial support - 6% Refuse her financial support - 6% Use force to have sex - 6% Use force to have sex - 6% Have sex with another woman - 4% Have sex with another woman - 4%

23 NFHS-3, India, Key Findings Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash. Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash. The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about. The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about. Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched. Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched.

24 NFHS-3, India, Thank You


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