5Amnesty International’s answer AI has used a human rights framework to guide its campaigning work to stop violence against women. By using a human rights framework to oppose violence against women, we help to change the perception of violence against women from a private matter to a public concern that requires action from recognized authorities. Use of the framework also enables Amnesty International to use international human rights standards and laws to cut across national boundaries, cultures and religions to protest violence against women in all its forms. And perhaps most importantly, it makes it possible to use international remedies to hold governments accountable if they fail to meet their obligations to protect women from violence, regardless of who commits it or where it's committed.
6Outline of the lecture Legal sources CEDAW -GC 19 -State reports/committee's response-Optional Protocol- Individual complaints
7Outline of the lectureDeclaration on the elimination of violence against womenThe International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights- GC no. 16Regional instruments
8Outline of the lecture 2. Work in groups - Fatma Yildirim (deceased) v. Austria, 6/20053. SummaryWomen’s rights of freedom from violence.State accountability-The private and the public sphere-Due diligence
9CEDAWThe Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW)Adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly.
10CEDAWThe topic of violence against women in the text of the convention?
11GEN.REC no. 19, VaW. Background: 1. Gender-based violence is a form of discrimination that seriously inhibits women's ability to enjoy rights and freedoms on a basis of equality with men.
12GC 19, para. 66. The Convention in article 1 defines discrimination against women. The definition of discrimination includes gender-based violence, that is, violence that is directed against a woman because she is a woman or that affects women disproportionately. It includes acts that inflict physical, mental or sexual harm or suffering, threats of such acts, coercion and other deprivations of liberty. Gender-based violence may breach specific provisions of the Convention, regardless of whether those provisions expressly mention violence.
13GC19, para. 77. Gender-based violence, which impairs or nullifies the enjoyment by women of human rights and fundamental freedoms under general international law or under human rights conventions, is discrimination within the meaning of article 1 of the Convention. These rights and freedoms include:(a) The right to life;(b) The right not to be subject to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment;(c) The right to equal protection according to humanitarian norms in time of international or internal armed conflict;(d) The right to liberty and security of person;(e) The right to equal protection under the law;(f) The right to equality in the family;(g) The right to the highest standard attainable of physical and mental health;(h) The right to just and favourable conditions of work.
14Paras. 8 and 98. The Convention applies to violence perpetrated by public authorities. Such acts of violence may breach that State's obligations under general international human rights law and under other conventions, in addition to breaching this Convention.9. It is emphasized, however, that discrimination under the Convention is not restricted to action by or on behalf of Governments (see articles 2(e), 2(f) and 5). For example, under article 2(e) the Convention calls on States parties to take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women by any person, organization or enterprise. Under general international law and specific human rights covenants, States may also be responsible for private acts if they fail to act with due diligence to prevent violations of rights or to investigate and punish acts of violence, and for providing compensation.
15GC19, para.11 Articles 2(f), 5 and 10(c) 11. Traditional attitudes by which women are regarded as subordinate to men or as having stereotyped roles perpetuate widespread practices involving violence or coercion, such as family violence and abuse, forced marriage, dowry deaths, acid attacks and female circumcision. Such prejudices and practices may justify gender-based violence as a form of protection or control of women. The effect of such violence on the physical and mental integrity of women is to deprive them the equal enjoyment, exercise and knowledge of human rights and fundamental freedoms. While this comment addresses mainly actual or threatened violence the underlying consequences of these forms of gender-based violence help to maintain women in subordinate roles and contribute to the low level of political participation and to their lower level of education, skills and work opportunities.
16GC 19, para 22 Article 16 (and article 5) 22. Compulsory sterilization or abortion adversely affects women's physical and mental health, and infringes the right of women to decide on the number and spacing of their children.
17CEDAW article 171. For the purpose of considering the progress made in the implementation of the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (hereinafter referred to as the Committee) consisting, at the time of entry into force of the Convention, of eighteen and, after ratification of or accession to the Convention by the thirty-fifth State Party, of twenty-three experts of high moral standing and competence in the field covered by the Convention. The experts shall be elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution and to the representation of the different forms of civilization as well as the principal legal systems.
18CEDAW art. 18Article States Parties undertake to submit to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, for consideration by the Committee, a report on the legislative, judicial, administrative or other measures which they have adopted to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention and on the progress made in this respect:(a) Within one year after the entry into force for the State concerned;(b) Thereafter at least every four years and further whenever the Committee so requests.2. Reports may indicate factors and difficulties affecting the degree of fulfilment of obligations under the present Convention.
19CEDAW art. 201. The Committee shall normally meet for a period of not more than two weeks annually in order to consider the reports submitted in accordance with article 18 of the present Convention.
20CEDAW, Article 211. The Committee shall, through the Economic and Social Council, report annually to the General Assembly of the United Nations on its activities and may make suggestions and general recommendations based on the examination of reports and information received from the States Parties. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be included in the report of the Committee together with comments, if any, from States Parties.
21UN Doc. A/51/38, para. 245, 246 (Iceland) 245. While noting that the State party has taken a positive legal and welfare approach towards preventing violence against women, including domestic violence, the Committee expresses concern at the light penalties for crimes of sexual violence, including rape.246. The Committee urges the State party to continue its efforts to implement and strengthen current laws, policies and programmes aimed at combating violence against women, and to increase its awareness-raising activities and work with male perpetrators. It also urges the State party to reconsider the current penal provisions which impose light sentences on perpetrators of sexual violence, including rape. It also encourages the State party to consider the issue of violence against women under the provisions of the Convention and the Committee’s general recommendation 19 on violence against women. The Committee requests the State party to provide more information in the next report on efforts to combat violence against women, including measures taken to provide training of the police and the judiciary
22UN Doc. A/58/38 (part I), para 370 (Canada) 370. The Committee urges the State party to step up its efforts to combatviolence against women and girls and increase its funding for women’s crisiscentres and shelters in order to address the needs of women victims of violenceunder all governments.UN Doc. A/58/38 (part I), para. 119 (Switzerland)
23UN Doc. A/58/38 (part I), para. 119 (Switzerland) 119. The Committee recommends that the State party urgently take allappropriate measures, including legislation, to eradicate the harmfultraditional practice of female genital mutilation.
24UN Doc. A/58/38 (part I), para. 212 (Kenya) 212. The Committee urges the State party to accord priority attention to theadoption of comprehensive measures to address violence against women andgirls, taking into account its general recommendation 19 on violence againstwomen. The Committee calls on the State party to enact or review, asappropriate, legislation on all forms of violence against women, includingdomestic violence, as well as legislation concerning all forms of sexualharassment, in order to ensure that women and girls who are victims ofviolence and sexual harassment have access to protection and effective redress and that perpetrators of such acts are prosecuted and punished. TheCommittee also recommends gender-sensitive training for public officials,particularly law enforcement personnel, the judiciary and health servicesproviders. It also recommends the establishment of shelters and counsellingservices for victims of violence and sexual harassment.
25Entered into Force on 22 December 2000 Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenEntered into Force on 22 December 2000Allows either individuals or groups of individuals to submit individual complaints to the Committee.
26Individual complaints: A.T. v. Hungary, 2/2003A.S v. Hungary, 4/2004Şahide Goekce (deceased) v. Austria, 5/2005Fatma Yildirim (deceased) v. Austria, 6/2005
27Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women. article 1-2: Definition and contentArticle 1For the purposes of this Declaration, the term "violence against women" means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life.
28DEVAWArticle 2Violence against women shall be understood to encompass, but not be limited to, the following:(a) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring in the family, including battering, sexual abuse of female children in the household, dowry-related violence, marital rape, female genital mutilation and other traditional practices harmful to women, non-spousal violence and violence related to exploitation;(b) Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution;(c) Physical, sexual and psychological violence perpetrated or condoned by the State, wherever it occurs.
29DEVAW Discrimination Article 3 Women are entitled to the equal enjoyment and protection of all human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. These rights include, inter alia:(a) The right to life; 6/(b) The right to equality; 7/(c) The right to liberty and security of person; 8/(d) The right to equal protection under the law; 7/(e) The right to be free from all forms of discrimination; 7/(f) The right to the highest standard attainable of physical and mental health; 9/(g) The right to just and favourable conditions of work; 10/(h) The right not to be subjected to torture, or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. 11/
30DEVAWArticle 4States should condemn violence against women and should not invoke any custom, tradition or religious consideration to avoid their obligations with respect to its elimination. States should pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating violence against women and, to this end, should:a-q.
31DEVAW article 4 c(c) Exercise due diligence to prevent, investigate and, in accordance with national legislation, punish acts of violence against women, whether those acts are perpetrated by the State or by private persons;
32The International Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1966
33General comment No. 16The equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights (art. 3 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights).
34ICESCR article 3 Article 3 The States Parties to the present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal right of men and women to the enjoyment of all economic, social and cultural rights set forth in the present Covenant.
35General comment No. 16, para. 27 27. Article 10, paragraph 1, of the Covenant requires that States parties recognize that the widest possible protection and assistance should be accorded to the family, and that marriage must be entered into with the free consent of the intending spouses. Implementing article 3, in relation to article 10, requires States parties, inter alia, to provide victims of domestic violence, who are primarily female, with access to safe housing, remedies and redress for physical, mental and emotional damage; to ensure that men and women have an equal right to choose if, whom and when to marry - in particular, the legal age of marriage for men and women should be the same, and boys and girls should be protected equally from practices that promote child marriage, marriage by proxy, or coercion; and to ensure that women have equal rights to marital property and inheritance upon their husband’s death. Gender-based violence is a form of discrimination that inhibits the ability to enjoy rights and freedoms, including economic, social and cultural rights, on a basis of equality. States parties must take appropriate measures to eliminate violence against men and women and act with due diligence to prevent, investigate, mediate, punish and redress acts of violence against them by private actors.
36Regional instruments The European Convention on Human Rights The American Convention on Human RightsInter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women (Convention of Belem do Para)AFRICAN (BANJUL) CHARTER ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES' RIGHTSPROTOCOL TO THE AFRICAN CHARTER ON HUMAN AND PEOPLES' RIGHTS ON THE RIGHTS OF WOMEN IN AFRICA
37Group Work, VaW Individual complaint, CEDAW committee: Fatma Yildirim (deceased) v. Austria, 6/2005Read paragraphs (facts of the case) and (Consideration of the merits).Discuss in groups:1. Find the legal sources2. How does the committee apply the legal standards on the facts of the case?3. What is said about due diligence and state obligations for violations in the private sphere?4. What recommendations does the committee give Austria?
38Individual complaints AT, Fatma Yildirim, Sahide Goecke:Domestic violence in all cases and subsequent murders in F and SArticle 2 a and c-f (read together with other provisions of the convention.)GR 19 para. 9(A.T v. Hungary: Also violation of article 5.)
39Individual complaints A.S v. HungaryArt 16 paragraph 1 e and GR 19 paragraph 22.
40Summary The concept of VaW in human rights law The distinction between the public and the private sphereThe concept of due diligence
41The Concept of Due Diligence -minimum acceptable level of effort which a state must undertake to fulfil its responsibility to protect individuals from abuses of their rights.