Presentation on theme: "Sarah Scott Hanover College"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sarah Scott Hanover College Influence of Cosmetics on the Confidence of College Women: An Exploratory StudySarah ScottHanover College
2 BackgroundHistorically, research on women’s self-esteem has been focused on body image“A number of experimental studies have found that exposure to images of physically attractive women may indeed have detrimental effects on self-evaluation.” (Trampe, Stapel, & Siero, 2007)Women’s confidence linked to their feelings about physical appearance
3 General issuesSelf is invoked through appearance practices (LaBelle, 1988)Mark of womanhood and femininity (Beausoleil, 1992; Peiss, 1990)Enhances social interactions (Miller & Cox, 1982)Illusion; looks can be altered per situationMedia influence and societal/cultural standards of beauty (Kelson, Kearney-Cooke, & Lansky, 1990)
4 “Women who are beautiful or who achieve beauty according to the imposed standards are rewarded; those who cannot or choose not to be beautiful are punished, economically and socially.” –Naomi Wolf
5 How it makes them feelWearing more makeup has been positively correlated with women’s public self-consciousness (Miller & Cox, 1982)Cosmetics allow women to feel better about themselves (Cash, 1987, 1988)Self-esteem increases (Wright et al., 1970)
6 Research QuestionDoes the presence of makeup and the extent to which it is applied affect a woman’s confidence in a given situation?Specifically, do women match their make-up to situations?
7 Participants 4 women attending a small Midwestern liberal arts college 2 freshmen and 2 juniorsAges 19-20All Caucasian
8 Materials Consent and debriefing form Revised version of Cash Cosmetics use Inventory (CCUI) (Cash, 1985)
9 Materials Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety survey I felt nervous. Not at all (+0)Somewhat (+1)Moderately so (+2)Very much so (+3)10 out of 20 were reverse-scored according to standard proceduresParticipants completed one after each situation
10 Materials Use survey developed by researcher Used to record the situation and style of makeup worn, as well as a series of before questionse.g. “How do you think your makeup will make you feel today while (circle one) at class/out with friends?”and questions responded to after the situatione.g. “Did you receive any comments/reactions from others? If so, please list any you can recall.”
11 ProcedureParticipants wore makeup in 3 different ways in 2 actual situations
12 Procedure At the beginning of each week, participants were given: 3 state-trait anxiety surveys3 before/after surveysWeek 1=classWeek 2=out with girlfriends
13 Influence on AnxietyCan you add error bars with the std dev or the range? That would help show the variation within each condition.
14 Results Participants felt the need to offset their makeup usage “I thought that I would feel overdone so I kind of dressed up to compensate.”Anxiety levels may be due to awareness of action“I put eyeshadow on which I don’t usually waste my time with.”
15 ConclusionsNo significant relationship found between makeup and situationAnxiety levels may be due to extra thought given to makeupParticipants were made self-aware of actions“Because I was wearing more makeup, I thought I would attract more attention considering I normally wear minimal makeup”Put last bullet on new slide and call it future research, you might expand it a bit and also now that you have more room give more to the self-aware – use a quote again, if possible a new one.
16 Future Research This topic deserves further attention Significant results may be obtained with:Greater number of participantsDiffering method, such as picture study or open-ended surveyMore control over amount/type of cosmetics usedRevised cosmetic survey – more specific