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Women in Physics in Egypt and The Arab Worlds

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Presentation on theme: "Women in Physics in Egypt and The Arab Worlds"— Presentation transcript:

1 Women in Physics in Egypt and The Arab Worlds
Karimat ElSayed Physics Department, Faculty of Science , Ain-shams University

2 Issues To Be Highlighted
Introduction percentage of physics female students enrolled in Universities. Gender distribution of physics staff members in different universities Women in Physics in the Arab Worlds. Needs suggested by undergraduate female physics students The impact of The Regional Conference on women in physics (Africa & MiddleEast2007 held in Egypt )

3 The First Woman Practicing Science In Egypt
Until the end of the 19th Century Science was not classified into Different disciplines. The first woman named in the history of science was Merit Ptah (2700 Bc.) in Egypt's Valley of the Kings. She held the title "chief physician," making her the first known female physician and the first woman named in the history of science.

4 The First Girls School and the first University In Egypt and Arab Worlds
In the new Egypt the first governmental girl’s school started in Cairo in 1873 Before 1873 rich girls used to have private teaching at home, or to go to Missionary girls Schools or to be sent to have their education in France or England. The first University in Egypt Started in (only 7 girls) attended the University at that time , mainly studying the humanitarian subjects.

5 The first Woman In Physics In Egypt and The Arab Worlds
The first woman in physics was Samira Mousa who was graduated in 1940 and had her PhD degree from the USA in Nuclear physics, but she died in Car accident in 1951 in USA Now a day the number of women in Physics are increasing and they are practicing all field of physics some of them have highly managerial post some have been decorated with various orders of merit for their scientific achievements

6 Percentage of Science Students Enrolled In Universities In Egypt
In The percentage of the students (boys and Girls) who finished the secondary Schools in the science section were 30% and 30% out of this numbers were girls. After 2002 a decline in the number of students in Science section Were taking place The total number of Physics graduates (males& females) are decreasing by time, but on the other hands the ratios of female relative to male students are increasing

7 Students Enrolled in The first Year National Universities 2005 / 2006



10 Gender Staff Members Distribution In Physics Dept
Gender Staff Members Distribution In Physics Dept. Assuit University in 2002 and 2008

11 Double major programs exhibit an obvious increase in students enrollment especially females.

12 Case Studies From Egypt
The number of female students enrolled in Science and Technology field, usually have demand for disciplines like medicine, pharmacy and dentistry. In basic science the demand is for life science and chemistry Pricilla Laws of Dickinson College Pointed out in her article(4) in 1993that (About 23%of the physics department of Aim-Shams University including the chair person Karimat El-Sayed were women.) She pointed out also that Bob Erlich from George Mason University wrote that; he didn’t know of any American University Physics Department with this high percentage of women. (4 )

13 Special Case We have in Egypt a faculty only for girls affiliated to Ain-Shams University. It has a science section which include only physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics It was established in in response to the demand of the community, that the girls get their education without mixing with boys. The dean of this faculty is always a female and she is at present a Biologist

14 Women in Physics Today Few women physicists reached to highly professional, managerial and decision making positions in Universities and Institutions Some are also active in nongovernmental organizations. Some married women who encounter great difficulties in balancing scientific activities with family duties prefer to leave their careers totally The number of Egyptian women and men Physicists are decreasing due to the lack of jobs. There is indirect discrimination considering the higher rank positions such as the head of the Universities.

15 The Out Come of an Interview With Female students From Different Universities:
Girls believe that physics, mathematics and technology are tough and therefore are usually male subjects.. A misconception that males usually prefer spouses of non scientific background Stable marriage come as a priority over a career in our society. The role model that are presented in the physics books in the secondary school are not encouraging ( they are unmarried, with thick glasses and of grim faces).

16 The Need of Female Physics Students
More advanced experiments to support their course Their rightful need for creating suitable jobs for physics graduates Obtain more opportunities in the “exchange of students” programs with other advanced countries. More exposure to research activities related to advanced technology

17 Women in Physics in The Arab Worlds
The Egyptians played good roles in teaching Schools children and also University students of both sex in most of the Arab countries: Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Kuwait, Yemen, the Golf states, Libya, Lebanon, Syria, Jordon Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, our help to them started after the independence of these countries in the fifties and sixties of the twenties Century. All the Arab Worlds now have good Universities , Some of them have mixed Education( the countries located in the west of Egypt and others have none mixed education( the Golf states, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

18 In Saudi Arabia the first Girls School started in 1964
Before this years rich girls get private education at home and some get it at Schools in Egypt The first college for Girls (a section of King Abdul-Aziz University where education is not mixed) started in I my self established the four years of the Physics Department of this girl section Now a day there are about 10 PhD Saudi women working in the Physics department in this girls college

19 Women in Physics in Saudi Arabia and Yemen
In Saudi Arabia there are some other colleges of girls belonging to the Ministry of education ( the girls Section). The graduates of these colleges work as teachers The first girls School in Yemen started in 1973. Yemen Has now two PhD women in Physics. They got their PhD degree from Cairo University. There is a university in Lebanon affiliated to Alexandria university and other in Sudan affiliated to Cairo University , most of the lecturers are Egyptian

20 My Experience In Overcoming Difficulties in My Career
I had to overcome institutional, academic, and technical challenges. I was born in village situated in the north of Delta Our mother believed that girls are only brought to be good wives and good mothers With the help of my father together with my full determination, I was able to be a student at the higher School. At high school I was overwhelmed by the glorious ‎biography of Marie Curie, the scientist, the wife and the mother. I Graduated with honor degree in physics and I had to choose between marriage and career, at that time, marriage means the end of any woman career.

21 My Experience In Overcoming Difficulties in My Career
I was able to get My PhD degree from London University under the Supervision of Another Distinguished lady (Kathleen Lonsdale) She told me from her experience that a woman who is a good scientist is also a ‎good mother When I got My PhD I was appointed a lecturers at the Physics Department, Ain-Shams University I was the first Physics staff members (men and women) who is specialized in my subject and I found ( no equipments, no books, no one to help me and nothing at all to start with. I had to struggle for all of these difficulties alone.

22 My Experience In Overcoming Difficulties in My Career
Now I have a good and well equipped lab which is now helping other researchers and industries to solve their problems I am always organizing Workshops, Schools, and conferences, Inviting very eminent professors from over all the World to teach the most new subjects in Physics. I tried very hard to convince the parents of the young girls to attend the Conferences and workshops

23 Topics Of Regional Workshop on women in Physics For Africa and Middle East(2007) Held in Cairo
Women physicists and continuous education. The needs of women physicists to overcome their difficulties (education and research) Women physicists and society challenges. Teaching physics for girls Quality control and assurance in physics education. The role of the developed countries towards women physicists in developing countries. Personal experience in balancing family and career.



26 Impact of The Regional Conference (Africa & Middle East 2007)
several recommendations were directed towards the promotion & advancement of women in Africa & the Middle East improving the public image & awareness of the importance of women in physics. References 1-Central Agency for Public Mobilization & Statistics (CAPMAS) 2007 2-Women in Physics conferences Proceedings in Paris & in Brazil 2005 3- Ain-Shams University, Cairo University, Assuit University & Alexandria University Statistics 2007 4-Parcilla Laws, From Her Article(Physics and Spices In (Cairo) 1993.during her Participation in the Fourth Arab conference on physics teaching, Organized by the Physics Department of Ain Shams Universities

27 Thank you

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