Presentation on theme: "Mobilizing Women in World War II"— Presentation transcript:
1Mobilizing Women in World War II Rosie the Riveter vs. the Mutter des Volkes
2Mobilizing Women – Different Answers WW2: Labor shortage, women neededboth countries trying to reverse similar depression policiesexisting public image of women incompatible with war jobspossible steps: civilian conscription and/or massive propaganda campaigns to change the public imagedifferent approach during warGermany: unenforced conscription law-FAILURE-US: large media campaigns-SUCCESS-See Graphs I-II.
3US – Institutional Framework 1942 War Manpower CommissionPolicy forum, no enforcement methodsOrganizer of campaigns1942 Office of War Information (OWI)US ‘propaganda’ agency‘information’ & ‘the strategy of truth’aim of campaigns: sell the war to women by changing the public image of the American Woman, the white middle-class housewife
4OWI Propaganda – Use of the Media sponsoring materials published by other agenciespublishing limited circulation pamphlets for the use of the media of advertisers,coordinating promotional campaignsmonthly guides to magazine writers and editors, and radio commentators, suggesting approaches to allocating time and space so that the various media might emphasize the same themes at the same time
5OWI Propaganda – Media Campaigns promotional campaigns designed to convince women to take war jobscampaigns included both a national and intensive local campaignssimilar media techniques:radio shows, spot announcements, special featuresprofessionally prepared announcements and recordings made by famous radio personalities.special womanpower short filmsmagazines picture women workers on their front coverscalendar for retailers with suggested advertising techniquesadvertisers of all kinds of products tie in the war themes with their ads.posters & billboards urged women to take jobsWMC: special pamphlet for the use of government officials in areas of labor shortage.stencils for use by the boy scouts in painting sidewalks.
6Altering The Public Image of Women 1. Three major campaignsEach campaign featuring a different tacticsFirst plan (Baltimore 1942) called for an appeal on the basis of good wages, equal to men’s, and suggested that women be told that war work is was pleasant and as easy as using a vacuum cleaner.
7Altering The Public Image of Women 2. March 1943 (2nd) campaign, under the slogan “The more women at work, the sooner we’ll win”introduced the idea that women could save lives by taking a job and thus helping to end the war sooner.positive appeal on patriotism sometimes turned negative: “Every idle machine may mean a dead soldier”
8Altering The Public Image of Women 3. big campaign in September 1943: standard appeal to patriotism and the lure of money,still threatened women without jobs with responsibility for prolonging the war, but also accused them of being slackers.special appeals to husbands, telling them it would be no reflection on their ability to support their families for their wives to take war jobs.it even argued that it was entirely natural for women to take jobs.many of these approaches were also used to encourage women to join the armed forces, serving as auxiliary forces.
9Rosie the Riveter new public image: “Rosie the Riveter” “The Lady at Lockheed”“The Janes Who Make the Planes”Rosie, the factory worker dominating public imagebut still housewife and motheremphasis on the feminine sideend of war – return to the housewife image, reintegrating male labor power
10The Media and Nazi Propaganda Propaganda as a legitimate toolMinistry of Popular Enlightenment and PropagandaDual institutional Party/State structure in the control of the media and in propaganda disseminationAims of nazi propagandaMedia used: print media, broadcast media, public meetings, slide lectures, films, newsreels, posters, badges, word of mouth, bulletin boards even in the most remote communitiesProminent role of the Bund Deutscher Mädel and Frauenschaft in propaganda addressed to women.
11Nazi Ideology and the Role of Women 1. A rather wider spectrum of views with two poles:(1) The ‘misogynic’ view of the Nazi top elite(2) ‘nazi-feminism’ (CIT)Common shared elements:The main role of German woman is to be ‘The Mother of the Nation’ (“Die Mutter des Volkes”)Women as ‘the guardians of racial purity’
12Nazi Ideology and the Role of Women 2. Life of the nation is divided into two spheres according to ‘the polarity of sexes”:(1) The public sphere(2) The private/family sphereBoth of those spheres are seen as vital for ‘nation`s life’Within the private/family sphere women play essential role in:i) the biological reproductionii) the cultural reproduction
13Nazi Ideology and the Role of Women 3. The conception of the role of women in nazi ideology is not identical with the Victorian ideal:emphasis on physical activitieswomen are often seen as similarly physically and mentally capable of work as men arethe status of single mothers is betterwomen are seen as suited for certain kinds of work (agriculture, nursing, education, social work)
14WW II German Propaganda 1. Certain institutional measures for conscription of women into the labor force existed, but never implementedReasons: (a) belief that the total mobilization was not necessary; (b) opposition from the top leadershipNo large scale propaganda launched in this area.Pre-war propaganda continues altered, the public image of women is subject only to minor changes. This image remains constant in its basic characteristics in the period
15WW II German Propaganda 2. Changes made necessary by the war-effort are presented as an extension of the role of ‘the mother of the nation’.The life of nation is seen as divided into two spheres:(1) Front(2) Home-front
16WW II German Propaganda 3. ‘Earlier I buttered his bread for him, now I paint grenades and think, this is for him’Focus on the biological and cultural reproduction is slightly altered by the new war-related conditions.Employment of women is seen as a sacrifice for the nation.
17ConclusionNazi ideology offered a wider spectrum of positions on the role of women in German society. Yet, there was a dominant image of ‘the mother of the nation’.German WW II propaganda did not alter the public image of the role of German women. Little has changed in this respect since 1934.No large-scale campaign in order to recruit women into the labor force as in the case of USA.This can be interpreted as a mistake that severely impaired German war economy. In contrast, the US effort was a success in this respect.
18SourcesAmherst, Maureen Honey Creating Rosie the Riveter: class, gender, and propaganda during World War II University of Massachusetts PressRupp, Leila J Mobilizing women for war: German and American Propaganda, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University PressYuval Davis, Nira Theorizing Gender and Nation. In: Gender and Nation. London: Sage