Presentation on theme: "BEIJING+10: ARAB WOMEN AT A GLANCE. Contents ESCWA Centre for Women (ECW) ESCWA Centre for Women (ECW) Status of Arab women: trends and indicators, 1990-2005."— Presentation transcript:
Contents ESCWA Centre for Women (ECW) ESCWA Centre for Women (ECW) Status of Arab women: trends and indicators, 1990-2005 Status of Arab women: trends and indicators, 1990-2005 1- Health 1- Health 2- Education 2- Education 3- Employment 3- Employment 4- Political participation 4- Political participation 5- National machineries for women 5- National machineries for women CEDAW and Arab countries CEDAW and Arab countries Women in Iraq Women in Iraq
Establishment of ESCWA Centre for Women (ECW) The Committee on Women was established as one of the subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (SCWA) pursuant to ESCWA resolution 240(XXII) of 17 April 2003, in which the Commission requested the Executive Secretary to establish a women’s centre within the secretariat with the responsibility for acting as the secretariat of the Commission on Women. The Executive Secretary duly established the Centre for Women in October 2003. The Committee on Women was established as one of the subsidiary bodies of the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (SCWA) pursuant to ESCWA resolution 240(XXII) of 17 April 2003, in which the Commission requested the Executive Secretary to establish a women’s centre within the secretariat with the responsibility for acting as the secretariat of the Commission on Women. The Executive Secretary duly established the Centre for Women in October 2003.
MISSION STATEMENT ♀ Gender Mainstreaming for Gender Equality ♀ Improvement of Status of Arab Women and their Empowerment Economically, Socially and Politically Alleviating poverty Encouraging greater participation in participation in decision- making Promotingpartnership in the Arab family
WHY? WHY? Objectives ♀ To improve the status of Arab women ♀ To empower Arab women economically, socially and politically ♀ To underscore partnership in the Arab family, and family- related gender roles and values ♀ To raise gender awareness ♀ To coordinate a common position among Arab countries on women and gender issues for gender equity and equality
WHAT? WHAT? Challenges ♀ Ensuring equal access by women to education and health services ♀ Increasing the participation of women in economic activities and the labour force ♀ Reducing gender imbalances particularly of poverty and illiteracy ♀ Combating violence against women and gender-based violence ♀ Eliminating all forms of discrimination against women ♀ Increasing the participation of women in decision- making and power-sharing ♀ Bridging the gap between the de jure and de facto gender-related laws and legislation
HOW? HOW? Means ♀ Organize national and regional meetings in preparation for and follow- up to the Beijing Platform for Action and the Arab Plan of Action for the Advancement of Women ♀ Undertake pioneering and thematic research ♀ Monitor developments in the situation of women and disseminate information ♀ Provide technical assistance for institutional and capacity-building of national machineries for women and NGOs ♀ Formulate operational projects for empowerment of women ♀ Provide advisory services in gender mainstreaming ♀ Launch media campaigns to raise gender awareness ♀ Follow-up on accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) ♀ Act as a catalyst for gender mainstreaming in plans, policies and programmes ♀ Serve as a forum and regional coordinator among Arab States for women and gender issues
RESEARCH & PUBLICATIONS I. Economic dimension Poverty ♀ Female-headed households in selected conflict-stricken ESCWA areas ♀ Women and poverty in the ESCWA region: issues and concerns ♀ Feasibility and operationalization of microcredit finance facilities targeting poor women in urban and rural areas in selected Arab countries ♀ Globalization, Poverty and Gender Based Division of Labour in Selected Arab Countries ♀ The Role of Women in Agriculture and Food Processing: The Syrian Arab Republic
II. Social dimension II. Social dimension Family Family ♀ Partnership in the Arab family: gender roles ♀ Annotated bibliography on the Arab family ♀ The Impact of Occupation, War and Armed Conflict on the Situation of the Family (Case studies of: Palestine, Kuwait, Lebanon, Yemen, Sudan, and Iraq) ♀ The Legal Frameworks and National Systems for the Protection of the Family ♀ The Impact of Social Policies on the Family ♀ Forward-Looking Strategy and the Empowerment of the Arab Family
NGOs NGOs ♀ Role of NGOs in the integrated follow-up to global conferences: assessment and vision ♀ Role of NGOs in the integrated follow-up to global conferences ♀ Role of NGOs in implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action: critical assessment ♀ Compendium of ESCWA studies on role of NGOs in follow-up to global conferences: Code of conduct for NGOs III. Political dimension III. Political dimension ♀ Gender, citizenship and the role of NGOs in Palestine ♀ Gender, citizenship and the role of NGOs in Lebanon ♀ Gender, citizenship and the role of NGOs in Yemen ♀ Gender, citizenship and the roles of NGOs in the Gulf Cooperation Countries
Recurrent Publications ♀ ♀ Studies on Arab Women and Development (annual, thematic) ♀ ♀ Status of Arab Women Report (biennial) ♀ ♀ Country profiles on the situation of women in ESCWA member countries (posted on the ESCWA Web Site) Forthcoming Publications ♀ ♀ Status of Arab Women Report (2005) ♀ ♀ Women and information society: use of information and communication technologies to empower women (2005) ♀ ♀ Role of women in managing natural resources and safeguarding the environment (in cooperation with the Sustainable Development and Productivity Division,2005) ♀ ♀ Gender, citizenship and role of NGOs in Egypt (2005)
OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES ♀ Institutional and capacity-building of national machineries for women ♀ Empowerment of Arab women for poverty alleviation ♀ Gender mainstreaming at national levels ♀ Institutional and capacity-building of NGOs ♀ Implementation of the Convention on Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and reporting to the CEDAW Committee ♀ Formulation of national and regional strategies for the empowerment of women and the Arab family ♀ Development of regional indicators to monitor status of Arab women, implementation of Beijing Platform for Action and MDGs
OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES Launching media campaigns on Arab satellites to raise gender awareness: Launching media campaigns on Arab satellites to raise gender awareness: Produced T.V spots on CEDAW, education, health, employment, gender roles in the family, violence against women, political and legal rights, personal status and family laws (nationality, inheritance, health, work, access to resources). (2004) Produced T.V spots on CEDAW, education, health, employment, gender roles in the family, violence against women, political and legal rights, personal status and family laws (nationality, inheritance, health, work, access to resources). (2004) Produced a 20-minute documentary on the history of women’s social movements in the Arab world, entitled “Waves in the history of Arab women”. (2004) Produced a 20-minute documentary on the history of women’s social movements in the Arab world, entitled “Waves in the history of Arab women”. (2004)
REGIONAL MEETINGS WORKSHOPS Arab regional preparatory meeting for the Fourth World Conference on Women, Amman, 6-10 November 1994 Regional workshop on leadership and lobbying skills for Arab official delegations to the Fourth World Conference on Women, Beirut, 6-8 July 1995 First Arab meeting to formulate a programme of action and mechanism for the follow-up to the Beijing Conference, Amman, 28-29 September 1996 Second Arab meeting for follow-up to the Beijing Conference, Beirut, 12-15 December 1998 “Beijing +5: Future actions and initiatives”, Beirut, 8-10 November 1999
Regional workshop in preparation for Beijing +5, Cairo, 23-27 May 2000 National workshop on “How to start a successful business enterprise”, Umm Al Moumineen Women’s Association, Ajman, United Arab Emirates, 1-13 June 2002 Arab Regional meeting on the Ten-Year Review for the International Year of the Family, Beirut, 8-10 October 2003 First Meeting of the ESCWA Consultative Committee on Non- Governmental Organizations, Beirut, 1-2 December 2003 First Session of the ESCWA Committee on Women, Beirut, 3-4 December 2003 Workshop on Gender Mainstreaming in the ESCWA Region, Beirut, 5-6 December 2003 Regional Forum on women and information and communication technology, Cairo, 17-19 December 2003
Regional workshop on the preparation of national reports for Beijing +10, Cairo, 28 March-1 April 2004 Arab Regional Conference Ten Years After Beijing: Call for Peace (Second Session of the ESCWA Committee on Women), Beirut 8-10 July 2004 Co-organized the Regional Forum on the International Year of the Family, Amman, 5-6 October 2004 Participated in International Celebration for the International Year of the Family, Doha, 29-30 November 2004 Workshops on Building a New Iraq:the Role of Women in the Electoral Process (11-13July and 13-16 December 2004)
Forthcoming Workshops on Iraqi women (post-elections) and participation in constitution writing in cooperation with Woodrow Wilson Institute (tentative April 2005) Peer review group on the Status of Arab Women Report (2005). (tentative April 2005) Workshop on Gender mainstreaming in ESCWA (for ESCWA Staff). (tentative June 2005) Regional workshop on implementation of CEDAW in Arab countries
Status of Arab women: trends and indicators 1990-2005
FemaleMale Percentage of Illiteracy for Adults (15+) in the Arab Countries in 2003
Women 49.1% Men 27.1% Illiteracy Rates in the Arab Region, 2003
Distribution of university students by field of specialization and gender in selected Arab countries, 1995/96
Percentage of Women and Men in the Labour Force, 2003
Women 29% Men 71% Percentage of Women and Men in the Labour Force, 2003
Gender Distribution of labour force by economic sector in selected Arab countries 1990-2001
Women and Political Participation The political participation of women in the Arab region is still low. The majority of Arab countries have granted women the right to vote and stand for elections, with exceptions of certain countries. The political participation of women in the Arab region is still low. The majority of Arab countries have granted women the right to vote and stand for elections, with exceptions of certain countries.
Country Suffrage rights (year) Total number of seats in parliament Number of women in parliaments Percentage of women in parliament Women Ministers Algeria1962389246.24 Bahrain1973n.a.0n.a.2 Comoros1956N,a.n.a.n.a.none Djibouti194665710.81 Egypt1956454112.42 Iraq198027585316 Jordan197411065.43 Kuwaitn.a650n.a.none Lebanon195212832.32 Libya19647600n.a1 Mauritania196118131.61 Morocco19633253510.82 Omann.an.a.n.a.n.a.3 Palestine19968855.72 Qatar 2003 (municipa) n.a.n.a.n.a.1 S. Arabia n.a.n.a.0n.a.none Somalian.a.n.a.n.a.n.a1 Sudan1964360359.71 Syria1949-19532503012.01 Tunisia1957-19591832211.53 UAEn.a.n.a.0n.a.1 Yemen 1970 (1967 South Yemen) 30110.31 Total2970176 8.5 % 38
Men %91.5% Women %8.5 Women in Parliament, 2005
National Machineries for Women in Arab countries CountryNational machineries for womenCountryNational machineries for women Algeria Supreme Council for Women Affairs Morocco Ministry of Family, Children and Disabled Bahrain Supreme Council for Women Palestine Ministry of Women’s Affairs ComorosOman Ministry of Social Development Djibouti Ministry of Women’s Promotion, Family and Social Affairs Qatar Supreme Council for Family Affairs Egypt National Council for Women Saudi Arabia Ministry of Social Affairs Iraq Ministry of Women’s Affairs Somalia Ministry of Women and Family Affairs Jordan Jordanian National Committee for Women أ Sudan Ministry of Welfare and Social Development Kuwait National Committee for Women’s Affairs Syrian A.R Syrian Commission for Family Affairs Lebanon National Commission for Lebanese Women Affairs Tunisia Ministry of Women, Family and Children’s Affairs Libya Secretariat for Women’s Affairs UAE Women’s General Union Mauritania Ministry of Women’s Affairs Yemen Supreme Council for Women
Arab Countries party to CEDAW (as of December 2004) Stateratification,accession or successionStateratification,accession or succession Algeria22 May 1996/ a / bSaudi Arabia7 September 2000 b/ Bahrain18 June 2002/ aSyrian Arab Republic28 March 2003 a / Comoros31 October 1994/ aTunisia20 September 1985 b/ Djibouti2 December 1998UAE2004 Egypt18 September 1981 b/Yemen30 May 1984 a /b/ Iraq13 August 1986 a /b/ Jordan1 July 1992 b/ Kuwait2 September 1994 a /b/ Lebanon21 April 1997 a /b/ Libyan A. Jamahiriya 16 may 1989 a /b/ Mauritania10 May 2001 a/ Morocco21 June 1993 a /b/ Oman- Palestine- Qatar- Sudan- Somalia- a/Accession; b/Declarations or reservations; c/Reservation subsequently withdrawn, d/Succession
Reservations of Arab Countries Majority of Arab State party to CEDAW have acceded with reservations except for : (1)Comoros; (2)Djibouti; (3) Mauritania. Saudi Arabia (2000) and United Arab Emirates (2004) have signed and ratified but have not yet deposited instruments of accession. Syria has signed but not ratified (2003).
Reservations of Arab Countries are mainly related to the conflict with national legislation and with Shari'a. Reservations are on six articles: Article 2: on national legislation and constitution; Article 7:on public life & political rights; Article 9:on citizenship law; Article 15: on equality in legal and civil rights; Article 16: on Family Law: marriage and family relations including marriage,divorce, and inheritance related to Islamic Shari' a; Article 29: on dispute settlement between parties to CEDAW
Arab countries: reservations to CEDAW Country Article2Article 7Article 9Article 15Article 16Article 29 AlgeriaXXXXX BahrainXXXXX Comoros Djibouti EgyptXXXX IraqXXXX JordanXXX KuwaitXXXX LebanonXXX LibyaXX Mauritania MoroccoXXXXX Saudi ArabiaXXXXXX Syrian Arab Republic XXXXX TunisiaXXXX YemenX
Concluding Remarks Most countries did not put in place CEDAW implementation monitoring mechanisms; Limited sufficient human & financial resources; Limited revision or amendments were introduced into existing and obsolete laws and legislation to be in line with the spirit of CEDAW and avoid contradiction; No significant improvement was perceived in the status of women in the countries that acceded to CEDAW; CEDAW is being increasingly used as the framework for monitoring implementation of the Beijing Platform of Action.
Iraqi Women Trends and Statistics The following statistics and numbers have been compiled before 2005, many of these numbers might have changed with the devastating results of the war, yet it is not possible to access new information due to the instability in Iraq. It is foreseen that most of the indicators have worsened after January 2004, due to the lack of sanitation service, education, safety and other major issues. The following statistics and numbers have been compiled before 2005, many of these numbers might have changed with the devastating results of the war, yet it is not possible to access new information due to the instability in Iraq. It is foreseen that most of the indicators have worsened after January 2004, due to the lack of sanitation service, education, safety and other major issues.
Historical Background 1932 The first Iraqi women’s magazine was launched entitled “Leila”, with Paulina Hassoun as Chief Editor 1933 First Iraqi woman to remove the veil 1937 Ms. Mariam Nermeh founded the first newspaper in Iraq, a daily newspaper entitled “Arab girl” 1941 Ms. Sabiha al Sheikh Daoud is the first female lawyer in Iraq The creation of many NGOs concerned with women’s issues such as “Iraqi Women’s league” The foundation of the General Union for Iraqi women (1941)
1959 Ms. Naziha Aldolemi was appointed the first women minister in Iraq (and in the Arab world) and was in charge of the Ministry of Municipalities and at the same time she was the president of the Iraqi Women’s League 1977 Three women entered the judicial institute during the first round for judges to graduate in 1979 become judges 1980 Iraqi women got their suffrage rights 1986 Iraq became a state party in CEDAW
Health Indicators1980-19901990-19951995-2003 womenmenwomenmenwomenmen Life expectancy at birth 63.361.166.563.560.357.2 Fertility rates 6.355.705.25 Infant mortality rates (for every 1000) 80.875.6124.7129.389.194.1
Educational Indicators 1987-19881990-19951995-2000 womenmenwomenmenwomenmen Percentage of enrollment in primary levels 455545554555 Percentage of enrollment in intermediate levels 386239613961 Percentage of enrollment in secondary levels 653435653566 Drop outs in the period 1990-2000 reached 30 percent
Political Participation19801985199020002003 Total seat in parliament 25025025025025 Number of women in parliament 163327203 % of women in parliament 61311812
Political Participation In 2004, a temporary government was established that included 6 women minsters: H.E Narmin Othman, Minister of Women’s Affairs H.E Narmin Othman, Minister of Women’s Affairs H.E Nesreen Berwari, Minister of Municipalities and Public Works H.E Nesreen Berwari, Minister of Municipalities and Public Works H.E Mishkat Momen, Minister of Environment H.E Mishkat Momen, Minister of Environment H.E Layla Abdul Latif, Minister of Labor H.E Layla Abdul Latif, Minister of Labor H.E Pascale Warda, Minister of Displacement and Migration H.E Pascale Warda, Minister of Displacement and Migration H.E. Sawsan Ali Majid Al-Sharifi, Minister of Agriculture H.E. Sawsan Ali Majid Al-Sharifi, Minister of Agriculture
Participation in the labor market198019912000 Percentage of men & women In the labor market womenmenwomenmenwomenmen 168423772080
Concluding remarks Iraq continues to be in a very politically unstable and insecure situation adversely Iraqi women. Iraqi women are solely taking care of the basic needs of their by providing food and water and ensuring their survival. Iraq continues to be in a very politically unstable and insecure situation adversely Iraqi women. Iraqi women are solely taking care of the basic needs of their by providing food and water and ensuring their survival. Wars and long years of sanctions have torn down Iraqi society. Women are always the major victims of these circumstances as their survival is a major pillar to the family's survival.