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A Child Who Can’t Behave in Preschool Should Be… Taught! Phoebe Rinkel, M.S. Misty Goosen, Ed.S. TASN-KITS March 28, 2013
3 Misty Goosen TASN – KITS Project Coordinator, KS-MTSS Core Team Phoebe Rinkel TASN - KITS TA Coordinator, Part B/619 Preschool TA Provider Chelie Nelson TASN – KITS Part B/619, Preschool TA provider If you experience technical problems during the webinar contact: Kim Page TASN – KITS ECRC Coordinator (620) extension 1638
Session Objectives Understand the relationship between the development of academics and social emotional skills Describe basic components of the Kansas MTSS for Behavior and the Teaching Pyramid Identify methods for selecting and teaching social- emotional skills and competencies that are appropriate for all, some, and few Understand the importance of “explicit” and “intentional” instruction of skills supporting social-emotional competence Identify evidence-based resources to assist practitioners in embedding effective social-emotional instruction for children at different levels of development throughout the preschool day (including practices also shown to promote early literacy and learning!)
“A child who can’t behave...” “If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we teach? Or punish?” Herner (1998)
Should Teachers Be Expected to Teach Children How to Behave?
Behavior Expectations in Preschool
What Do We Mean by “Teaching Behavior” in EC? The development of social-emotional competence in the first five years of life relies on the developing capacity of the child to form close and secure adult and peer relationships; experience, regulate, and express emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways; and explore the environment and learn CSEFEL (2008)
Which Matters Most: Academics or Behavior?
The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success Instilling self-confidence in young children is arguably the single most important task of early childhood teachers. Epstein (2007)
The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success Developing feelings of competence in young children is important because how children feel about themselves when they enter school has a great influence on their motivations and willingness to undertake challenging tasks. Epstein (2007)
The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success Children who have difficulty paying attention, following teacher directions, getting along with others, and controlling negative emotions, do less well in school. Ladd, Kochenderfer, & Coleman (1997)
The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success Children who exhibit challenging behavior in the classroom are more likely to be rejected by classmates and to get less positive feedback from teachers, which, in turn, contributes to off task behavior and less instructional time. Shores & Wehby (1999)
The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success Research has indicated that children’s emotional, social, and behavioral adjustment is as important for school success as cognitive and academic preparedness. Raver & Zigler (1997)
The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success The National Academy of Sciences reported that 60% of children enter school with the cognitive skills needed to be successful, but only 40% have the social-emotional skills needed to succeed in kindergarten. Raver (2002)
The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success A substantial body of of research indicates that children with behavior problems show social, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. Coie & Dodge (1998)
Kansas Multi-Tier System of Supports Behavior
Behavior MTSS Structuring Components
The Importance of Being Intentional... What to teach How to teach How to meet the needs of individual children How to monitor children’s growth How to use data on child progress to guide decisions on assessment, curriculum, instruction, and intervention
…About Teaching Social Skills Social skills training is not a specific curriculum, but rather a collection of practices that utilize a behavioral approach to teaching preschool children age- appropriate social skills and competencies, including communication, problem solving, decision making, self-management, and peer relations. What Works Clearinghouse (February, 2013)
Teaching Social Skills with Intentionality A systematic, intentional approach to teaching social emotional skills involves: o Teaching the skill or concept o Talking about examples and non-examples of the target skill o Supporting use of the target skill in naturally occurring contexts o Reviewing children’s use of skill. Webster-Stratton (1999)
An intentional instructor has clearly defined learning goals for children, thoughtfully chooses teaching strategies that will enable children to achieve these goals, and continually assesses children’s progress and adjusts strategies to reach those goals. Having their goals and plans in mind, intentional teachers are well prepared to tell others—parents, administrators, colleagues—about what they are doing. Not only do they know what to do, they also know why they are doing it and can describe that rationale. “Intentional” Copple & Bredekamp (2006)
Intentional instruction is planful, purposeful, and thoughtful about… Creating a learning environment rich in materials, experiences and interactions Encouraging children to explore materials, experiences, relationships and ideas Conversing respectfully, reciprocally, and frequently with all children Consciously promoting all areas of learning and development Epstein (2007)
Intentional instruction is planful, purposeful, and thoughtful about… Content (concepts, vocabulary, facts, skills) that make up each area of learning General teaching strategies that are effective with young children Specific teaching strategies that are effective in different content areas Epstein (2007)
Intentional teachers are planful, purposeful, and thoughtful about… Matching content with children’s developmental and emerging abilities Taking advantage of spontaneous, unexpected teaching and learning opportunities Neither overestimating or underestimating what children can do and learn Challenging children to question their own thinking and conclusions Epstein (2007)
Knowing What to Teach: Resources Curriculum Based Assessments Social-Emotional Measures, Rating Scales, Checklists Early Childhood Outcomes/Child Outcomes Summary Information Early Learning Standards Observations Family Concerns, Priorities, and Interests
Knowing What to Teach: Priorities Being able to select appropriate learning goals for children from appropriate assessments involves sorting and prioritizing those skills and behaviors that 1) Can be addressed through development, play, maturation, and exposure/experience (All) 2) Are emerging: with practice and repetition they will improve in independence or fluency (Some) 3) Are unlikely to emerge without intensive instruction or individualized intervention and supports (Few) Grisham-Brown (2012)
Social Skills Curricula Resources Related to PBIS: Selected Titles from TASN-KITS Early Childhood Resource Center (handout) TACSEI Roadmaps to Effective Intervention Practices (2009). Evidence Based Social Emotional Curricula and Intervention Packages for Children 0-5 Years and Their Families Retrieved from es/roadmap.html es/roadmap.html
Social Skills Curricula From the “Sister Centers” promoting social- emotional development in early childhood: Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Interventions (TACSEI) Center on Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) Hemmeter, M.L., Ostrosky, M.M., & Corso, R. (2011)
Social Skills Curricular Materials Building relationships and creating nurturing environments Tools for working on building relationships Book list—focused on social emotional skills Book nooks
Social Skills Curricular Materials Building relationships and creating nurturing environments Family tools—making the most of playtime family.html Teacher tools o Classroom rules o Circle time tips resources/teaching_tools/ttyc_toc.htm
Social Skills Curricular Materials Targeted social emotional supports Scripted stories for social situations Feelings charts Emotions faces Solutions kit Problem-solving steps Turtle technique Family tools--Teaching your child about feelings
Social Skills Curricular Materials Targeted social emotional supports Buddy system tips—friendship building tools /folder2/2a_buddy.pdf Visual strategies—making a visual schedule /folder5/5b_how_make_vis_sched.pdf Everyday ideas for increasing children’s opportunities to practice social skills and emotional competencies
Social Skills Curricular Materials Individualized Interventions Observation cards Functional assessment interview form Family tools—responding to your child’s bite Teacher support planning sheet htm Recognizing and addressing trauma in infants and young children
The Importance of Explicit Instruction of Desired Behaviors Teaching social and emotional skills to young children who are at risk either because of biological and temperament factors or because of family disadvantage and stressful life factors can result in fewer aggressive responses, inclusion with prosocial peer groups, and more academic success. Because development of these social skills is not automatic, particularly for these higher risk children, more explicit and intentional teaching is needed. Bredekamp & Copple (1997)
What is Explicit Instruction? I do it (modeling). We do it (prompted or guided practice). You do it (unprompted practice). Archer and Hughes ( 2011)
Explicit Instruction Hall (2002)
Elements of Effective Social Skills Instruction Using developmentally appropriate practices Designing the environment to support o Developmental levels o Content areas o Teacher-child interactions o Peer interactions Identifying evidence-based social-emotional curricular materials Intentionally infusing social skills instruction across the day Providing supplemental and intensive supports for those children who need them
TPOT The Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool for Preschool Classrooms (TPOT) is soon to be published by Brookes Publishing Co. Based on the Teaching Pyramid Model, it was developed and refined through years of research by faculty from the Center for the Social and Emotional Foundations of Early Learning (CSEFEL) and the Technical Assistance Center for Social and Emotional Interventions (TACSEI). Send request for copy of TPOT research version to
TPOT Examples of “Red Flags” from TPOT Teacher-directed activities Teacher talk to children primarily “no,” “stop,” “don’t” Many children not engaged Teachers not prepared for activities Emotions never discussed or children reprimanded for expressing emotions Interactions between children during play or activities rarely encouraged Teacher only communicates with families when children have problems
TPOT Intensive Individualized Intervention: A Few Children Skills/behaviors are unlikely to emerge without intensive instruction or individualized intervention and supports Targeted Social Skills Instruction: Some Children Skills/behaviors are emerging: with practice and repetition they will improve in independence or fluency Universal Strategies: All Children Skills/behaviors that can be addressed through development, play, maturation, and exposure/experience
How Did You Do? Teachers identify ways to have conversations with children who are non- verbal, language-delayed, or have English as a second language. (ALL- Relationships) Teachers provide support and special preparation for children who might need additional learning opportunities, adapted materials and activities, peer support, or more support to follow the routine, etc. (ALL - Environment) Teachers use assessment to guide decisions about frequency, intensity, and impact of targeted instruction. (SOME – Targeted Social Skills Instruction) Teachers partner with the family and other team members to participate in the development of a positive behavior support plan by providing functional assessment data to team members. (FEW – Intensive Individualized Intervention)
TPOT Universal Practices Nurturing and Responsive Relationships o Supporting children’s play o Responding to child conversations o Supporting communication of children with special needs o Providing positive feedback and encouragement of appropriate behavior o Building relationships with children Hemmeter, Fox, & Snyder (2008, Revised 2009 )
TPOT Universal Practices, continued High Quality Supportive Environments o Adequate Materials o Defined play centers o Balanced schedule (large and small group) o Structured transitions o Individualized instructions for children who need support o Small number of rules taught and promoted o Activities designed to engage children o Clear directions
TPOT Targeted Practices Targeted Social Emotional Supports o Teach children to identify and express emotions o Teach and support self-regulation o Teach and support strategies for handling anger and disappointment o Teach and support social problem solving o Teach and support cooperative responding o Teach and support friendship skills o Teach and support collaboration with peers
TPOT Targeted Practices Targeted Social Emotional Supports o Explicit instruction o Increased opportunities for instruction, practice, feedback o Family partnerships o Progress monitoring and data-based decision- making
TPOT Intervention Practices Individualized Intensive Interventions o Convene team to develop interventions o Collect data to determine nature of problem behavior o Develop individualized behavior support strategies o Implement behavior support plan with consistency o Conduct ongoing monitoring of child progress o Revise plan as needed o Partner with families and colleagues in plan implementation
You Want to Be More Intentional About Teaching Social-Emotional Skills. What’s Next? Planning and Implementation Tools Promoting: High Quality Environments Responsive Caregiving Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Individualized Interventions main.html
Based on What You’ve Heard Today We hope you feel more confident in knowing: What social-emotional skills to teach How to teach them How to meet the social-emotional needs of individual children (all, some, and few)
Based on What You’ve Heard Today… What Do You Want to Know More About? Developing nurturing and responsive relationships with all children? Creating classroom environments that support the active engagement of all children? Teaching social emotional skills intentionally to all children? Targeting social emotional strategies for individual children who are at risk of challenging behavior? Developing individualized behavior support plans for children who need them?
Don’t Forget to Complete the Electronic Sign-In and Webinar Evaluation Send and message to Karen Lawson – include the following information for each participant: o Name o Position o address o USD Number Electronic Evaluations – Your feedback is important to us! Session 1 Evaluation (11:30 a.m.) Survey: Session 2 Evaluation (4:00 p.m.) Survey:
Primary References Archer, A., & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Dunlap, G., Strain, P. S., Fox, L., Carta, J., Conroy, M., Smith, B., et al. (2006). Prevention and intervention with young children’s challenging behavior: A summary of current knowledge. Behavioral Disorders, 32, f f Epstein, A. (2007). The intentional teacher: Choosing the best strategies for young children’s learning. Washington, DC: NAEYC. Grisham-Brown, J. (2012) Using assessments for the purpose of program planning. Wichita, KS: KITS Summer Institute. Hall, T. (2002). Explicit instruction: Effective classroom practices report. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved from Hemmeter, M.L., Ostrosky, M.M., and Corso, R.M. (2012). Preventing and addressing challenging behavior: Common questions and practical strategies. Young Exceptional Children, 15:2, pp Herner, T. (1998). NASDE Counterpoint, p. 2.
Primary References KSDE (August, 2012). Structuring Module 2 Behavior Kansas MTSS, pp Raver, C. (2002). Emotions matter: Making the case for the role of young children’s emotional development for early school readiness. Social Policy Report of the Society for Research in Child Development, 16 (3), TACSEI-CELL (2012). Implementing Effective Practices to Support Young Children’s Social Emotional, Language, and Early Literacy: A Collaboration between TACSEI and CELL. University of South Florida: Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children, and Orlena Hawks Puckett Institute: Center for Early Literacy Learning. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse. (2013, February). Early Childhood Interventions for Children with Disabilities intervention report: Social skills training. Retrieved from Webster-Stratton, & Reid (2004). Infants and Young Children, 17:2, pp Thanks to the CSEFEL, TACSEI, and ECO Centers for many of the child photos used in this presentation.
Additional Resources Center for Early Childhood Mental Health Consultants, Toolkits CSEFEL Inventory of Practices for Promoting Children’s Social Emotional Competence of_practices.pdf CSEFEL/TACSEI Routine Based Support Guideshttp://www.challengingbehavior.org/communities/teachers.htmhttp://www.challengingbehavior.org/communities/teachers.htm TACSEI Recommended Practice Handoutshttp://www.challengingbehavior.org/do/resources/tacsei_resources _all.htmhttp://www.challengingbehavior.org/do/resources/tacsei_resources _all.htm TACSEI Roadmaps to Effective Intervention Practices (2009) o Evidence Based Social Emotional Curricula and Intervention Packages for Children 0-5 Years and Their Families o Promoting Social Behavior of Young Children in Group Settings: A Summary of Research o Screening for Social Emotional Concerns: Considerations in the Selection of Instruments Retrieved from
Some Kansas Organizations Supporting Social-Emotional Development in Young Children Child and Youth Training and Technical Assistance Project (CYTTAP) Kansas Association for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health (KAIMH) Kansas Child Care Training Opportunities (KCCTO) Kansas Early Childhood Mental Health Advisory Council Kansas Pyramid Collaborative Kansas MTSS TASN Autism and Tertiary Behavior Supports Project or TASN KITS Project or
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