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1 Your webinar will begin shortly.
Chelie Welcome! Your webinar will begin shortly. There is nothing to hear at present. Make sure your speakers are turned on. If you have not already done so, please run the audio wizard (refer to directions in your registration .) In the meantime, can you think of a caption for this picture?

2 A Child Who Can’t Behave in Preschool Should Be… Taught!
Phoebe Rinkel, M.S. Misty Goosen, Ed.S. TASN-KITS March 28, 2013 Chelie We want to welcome everyone today to this TASN – KITS Webinar titled “A Child Who Can’t Behave in Preschool Should Be… Taught! As we get started, I want to remind everyone of some logistics for this webinar. We recommend that you turn off all other applications on your computer so that you just have your web browser open to Adobe Connect, this can help prevent you from having difficulties as we move forward with the presentation. You should be able to hear our presenters and see the PPT. To make it larger, you can click on the full screen button at the top of the window that holds the PPT and click it again to return it to the original size. Your mics are muted, so you won’t be able to ask questions directly; however there is a “chat” box on the lower right side of the Adobe Connect window where you can type in your questions or comments. I will be monitoring those comments as we go along and there will be time at the end of the presentation for our speakers to respond to questions, so as you think of questions, go ahead and type them in the chat box and then hit return to have them posted so we can see them, then I will pose your questions to our speakers at the end of the their presentation. If you have a good caption for the photo on our first slide, please type it into the chat box so the rest of us can see it. For those of you viewing the webinar with a group, you may want to decide how you will respond to the various polls and questions we’ll be posing during the webinar. You may want to designate one person to take a quick show of hands and then respond for the group, or you might let everyone in your group take a turn responding.

3 TASN – KITS Project Coordinator, KS-MTSS Core Team
Misty Goosen TASN – KITS Project Coordinator, KS-MTSS Core Team Phoebe Rinkel TASN - KITS TA Coordinator, Part B/619 Preschool TA Provider Chelie Nelson TASN – KITS Part B/619, Preschool TA provider If you experience technical problems during the webinar contact: Kim Page ECRC Coordinator (620) extension 1638 Chelie This webinar is the second in a series of follow-up sessions to Gaye Gronlund’s fall workshops on, “Rigorous Academics in Preschool? Yes! Through Playful Learning Throughout the Day”. If you attended one of Gaye’s workshops, you know that she gave us lots of developmentally appropriate strategies and challenged us to use what we know about how young children learn to be more intentional about incorporating learning goals throughout our preschool schedules. In our first webinar supporting a more intentional approach to teaching, we focused on oral language development. If you missed it, that webinar is now archived on the KITS website. In addition, we’re offering our first online book study for a smaller group of classroom teachers who want to work together to change their practices in teaching oral language and vocabulary. Today our focus shifts to social-emotional development. I know you will find the information that Phoebe and Misty have put together useful and practical in your work with young children. They will be talking primarily about teaching social skills and promoting social competence in preschoolers, but if you work with toddlers or kindergarteners, or even older children, we think you will also find this information useful. Each person who registered for the webinar should have received a couple of handouts. The PPT also will be made available to you after the webinar today. Once you complete your electronic sign-in, Karen will send you a certificate along with the PPT. At the end of the webinar today, we will give you instructions about the electronic sign-in. Remember if you experience technical difficulties, you can contact Kim at the and number above for assistance. We want to thank Kim Page for her support before and after our webinar (and Tony Grady for agreeing to step in for Kim in case her new grandchild decides to enter the world today). We also want to thank Karen Lawson, our project assistant, who did a great job, as usual, of marketing the webinar and handling registration for us, fielding questions and helping to make sure you receive handouts and certificates. It’s a real team effort, and we appreciate our KITS team, including our director, Dave Lindeman, and our Part C infant-toddler TA specialist, Peggy Miksch. This webinar, by the way, is being recorded and will be posted on the KITS website for people who missed it or if you would like to share it with others. Our presenters today are - Misty Goosen, who is the TASN KITS project coordinator. Misty spends a majority of her time these days working on the MTSS project focused on including preschool into the MTSS system. Phoebe Rinkel is also on our TASN_KITS project and works as a TA provider for preschool programs. A long-standing interest and emphasis in Phoebe’s career is effective practices supporting children with challenging behavior and the people who live and work with them. Don’t forget, I will be monitoring the chat window, so as you have questions go ahead and post them. And with that I will turn it over to Phoebe.

4 Session Objectives Understand the relationship between the development of academics and social emotional skills Describe basic components of the Kansas MTSS for Behavior and the Teaching Pyramid Identify methods for selecting and teaching social-emotional skills and competencies that are appropriate for all, some, and few Understand the importance of “explicit” and “intentional” instruction of skills supporting social-emotional competence Identify evidence-based resources to assist practitioners in embedding effective social-emotional instruction for children at different levels of development throughout the preschool day (including practices also shown to promote early literacy and learning!) Phoebe These are the objectives of our presentation. I won’t read them to you because they were included on the flyer we sent out advertising the webinar. We know these are pretty lofty objectives for a one-hour session, and we don’t expect you to feel fully competent in all of these areas by the end of the hour. We do anticipate that you’ll feel more confident in your knowledge and skills in these areas as a result of your participation, and at the end of our presentation you’ll have an opportunity to tell us where you need more information or additional resources in any of these areas.

5 “A child who can’t behave. . .”
“If a child doesn’t know how to read, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to swim, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to multiply, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to drive, we teach.” “If a child doesn’t know how to behave, we teach? Or punish?” Here’s where we came up with the title for our presentation from a past president of the National Association of State Directors of Special Education, Tom Herner. (Read Quote) Why do we even hesitate when we think about how to respond to a young child who doesn’t appear to know how to behave? Herner (1998)

6 Should Teachers Be Expected to Teach Children How to Behave?
(Read Quote) The Kansas MTSS Structuring Guide for Behavior (August 2012) has this to say: Although educators have no qualms with the instruction that is necessary for the acquisition of academic skills to occur, many take issue with the idea of “teaching” behavior to students. For whatever reason, it is often believed that students should come to school knowing such behavior or that their parents should have taught them that.

7 Behavior Expectations in Preschool
Kansas MTSS Structuring Module 2 Behavior Guide, KSDE (August, 2012) goes on to say: Less consensus exists regarding the behaviors that children “should know” when they come to preschool, and a greater expectation is evident that appropriate behaviors will need to be taught to all children as a part of their preschool experience. However, the behavioral expectations for preschoolers vary widely and are influenced greatly by the child’s experience in the home, in childcare settings, and throughout the community.

8 What Do We Mean by “Teaching Behavior” in EC?
The development of social-emotional competence in the first five years of life relies on the developing capacity of the child to form close and secure adult and peer relationships; experience, regulate, and express emotions in socially and culturally appropriate ways; and explore the environment and learn CSEFEL (2008) (Read quote) This description of social emotional competence comes from the Center for Social Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL). For those of us working with infants and young children with disabilities, you’ll recognize the obvious alignment with the Early Childhood Outcomes, our federal accountability measures for Part C and Part B services.

9 Which Matters Most: Academics or Behavior?
Which matters most? The KS-MTSS Behavior guide also acknowledges that: Educators intuitively understand that student behavior and academic outcomes are linked. However, the pressures to meet achievement standards are often emphasized to the extent that teachers and administrators alike believe that they must focus their attention solely and foremost in the academic arena. “Because school success—and, indeed, even teacher success—is being measured by student academic outcomes, the push to meet those academic standards is creating school environments that allow for little flexibility and choice for students. This exclusive and intense focus on academic outcomes crowds out all “extras,” including time for teachers to build relationships with students”.

10 The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success
Instilling self-confidence in young children is arguably the single most important task of early childhood teachers. Epstein (2007) I think that most of us working in early childhood today would agree with Ann Epstein, author of The Intentional Teacher.

11 The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success
Developing feelings of competence in young children is important because how children feel about themselves when they enter school has a great influence on their motivations and willingness to undertake challenging tasks Epstein (2007) Epstein makes the point that children’s self concepts—feelings of confidence and competence—positively influence their motivation to learn and their willingness to try things that might seem hard at first.

12 The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success
Children who have difficulty paying attention, following teacher directions, getting along with others, and controlling negative emotions, do less well in school. Ladd, Kochenderfer, & Coleman (1997) (Read quote) It’s interesting to note that the skills described in this quote are frequently identified by kindergarten teachers as among the most critical skills for a child entering school.

13 The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success
Children who exhibit challenging behavior in the classroom are more likely to be rejected by classmates and to get less positive feedback from teachers, which, in turn, contributes to off task behavior and less instructional time. Shores & Wehby (1999) Unfortunately, it only makes sense that young children who are disliked by their teachers and peers grow to dislike school and eventually have lower school attendance and are more at risk for dropping out.

14 The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success
Research has indicated that children’s emotional, social, and behavioral adjustment is as important for school success as cognitive and academic preparedness. Raver & Zigler (1997) In 2002 Raver edited a special report for the Society for Research on Child Development called “Emotions Matter”, making a strong case for the role that young children’s emotional development plays in school readiness.

15 The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success
The National Academy of Sciences reported that 60% of children enter school with the cognitive skills needed to be successful, but only 40% have the social-emotional skills needed to succeed in kindergarten. Raver (2002) In his report, Raver cited these National Academy of Sciences statistics. Based on your experiences, how do you think these numbers have changed in the last 10 years or so? 1. Kindergarten Ready Poll: How has kindergarten readiness changed since 2002? In 2002, 60% of children entered kindergarten with cognitive skills needed. Do you think that percentage increased or decreased by 2012? In 2002, 40% of children entered kindergarten with social-emotional skills needed. Do you think that percentage increased or decreased by 2012?

16 The Link Between Children’s Social Emotional Competence and School Success
A substantial body of of research indicates that children with behavior problems show social, cognitive, and behavioral deficits. Coie & Dodge (1998) A final link between children’s social-emotional competence and their success in school is supported by research suggesting that children with behavior problems frequently are found to have delays in other areas as well. This finding was first identified in school age children, but has since been replicated with preschool students in studies showing that problem behavior and language difficulties are likely to co-occur at that age (Rinaldi, Rogers-Adkinson, & Arora, 2009). Recognizing the link between academics and behavior is the first step to a comprehensive solution.

17 Kansas Multi-Tier System of Supports Behavior
Misty In the past few years, Kansas has been implementing a school improvement system for preK through grade 12 that addresses both academics and behavior. The focus on behavior within the Kansas MTSS is to create a proactive, preventative system to meet the needs of all students. Building staff will collaboratively create and define common expectations for all (i.e., students and adults), explicitly teach the expectations, recognize and encourage the appropriate behaviors, and use data to drive their practice and to make modifications for more effective practices, rather than wait for students to misbehave and then deliver consequences meant to eliminate those behaviors (which rarely works!). 17

18 Behavior MTSS Structuring Components
Building-wide Behavioral Expectations Define major/minor offenses (Assessment) ODR/BIR reflect expectations and minors/majors Data system for disaggregation of ODR data by Big 5 Universal Screener Building-wide rules to define expectations (Curriculum) Recognition System Continuum of Consequences Teach Expected Behavior (Instruction) Procedures and Routines Lesson Plans Schedule for Instruction We are not going to get into all of the specifics of MTSS in this webinar – however it is helpful to understand that in this framework there are very prescriptive steps in what a building leadership team carries out first to put the appropriate “structures” into place for an MTSS to be implemented correctly. The first set of structures is agreeing upon a set of building wide behavioral expectations, from which a formalized assessment system, core curriculum, and instructional practices can be developed and implemented across the entire building from preschool up. This provides the ability for a systematic way to identify what teachers/adults should do to promote desirable skills, identify behaviors that are of most concern and can be systematically addressed, proactive teaching of specific behaviors, done so through instructional practices that are carried out in the same way by all staff, and a system for identifying students who need increasingly more support than is provided at the core. The first level, BUILDING-WIDE BEHAVIORAL EXPECTATIONS, is where the process began Once the expectations were established, everything else flows from them. Defining majors/minors and getting the assessment system in place is the next most important piece to establish. Revising the ODR (for K-12) BIR for preschool and Adopting the data system are the next most critical steps. The continuum of consequences will be a work in progress and may take some time for teams to complete. September 12, 2007

19 The Kansas Multi-Tier System of Supports for Behavior are based on the research-validated practices of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBS or PBIS) and, for preschoolers, the Teaching Pyramid model. The general curriculum, instruction and assessment practices outlined in MTSS are consistent with those found in SWPBIS and the Teaching Pyramid. For preschools, the significant difference is the implementation of this model through a school based approach (meaning that preschool classrooms located within an elementary building provide representatives who serve as equal members on the building leadership team, and make decisions based on the needs of all programs within that building). The Kansas MTSS framework provides very concrete steps that are taken in a prescribed order by the leadership team through a process called Structuring, and then later Implementation. The Pyramid Model is based on research and evidence-based practices that proactively promote young children’s healthy social and emotional development through the specific application of teaching and intervention strategies that are applied at the universal, secondary, and tertiary levels. Based on the public health model of promotion, prevention and treatment, the Teaching Pyramid, as it was originally named, has become a widely accepted framework for systematically implementing the practices associated with positive social emotional outcomes for young children.

20 The Importance of Being Intentional. . .
What to teach How to teach How to meet the needs of individual children How to monitor children’s growth How to use data on child progress to guide decisions on assessment, curriculum, instruction, and intervention But even if you aren’t in position to be implementing school wide or program wide systems of support, there are practices you can be implementing that are appropriate for all programs working with young children and critical to helping young children be successful in preschool and kindergarten. This approach to intentional teaching crosses all content areas, and it applies to social skills every bit as much as it does to academics.

21 …About Teaching Social Skills
Social skills training is not a specific curriculum, but rather a collection of practices that utilize a behavioral approach to teaching preschool children age-appropriate social skills and competencies, including communication, problem solving, decision making, self-management, and peer relations. What Works Clearinghouse (February, 2013) The recent investigation of the impact of social skills training in preschool conducted by the What Works Clearinghouse identified only 3 studies that met the standards set by the Institute for Education Science (IES), so clearly more high quality research is needed. Nevertheless, the conclusion from the review of those 3 studies was that social skills training has a positive affect on preschoolers’ social emotional development and behavior. There was also a small, but not discernible effect on cognition for the children in those 3 studies.

22 Teaching Social Skills with Intentionality
A systematic, intentional approach to teaching social emotional skills involves: Teaching the skill or concept Talking about examples and non-examples of the target skill Supporting use of the target skill in naturally occurring contexts Reviewing children’s use of skill. Webster-Stratton (1999) Carolyn Webster-Stratton is a professor at the University of Washington, a respected researcher in social-emotional development of young children and author of one of The Incredible Years, a social skills curriculum with a strong evidence base (and you can borrow it from the ECRC if you’re interested). Here she describes an intentional approach to teaching social emotional skills step-by-step, beginning by deciding in advance what is to be taught, talking about and demonstrating examples of what it looks like, and what it does NOT look like, and then intentionally creating and reinforcing opportunities for children to practice the target skills in the course of daily activities and routines throughout the day, making time to reflect with the children on their use of the new skill. Intentional instruction is data-driven, so teachers must also identify, collect, analyze, and reflect on the children’s use of target skills (by all, some, or few).

23 “Intentional” An intentional instructor
has clearly defined learning goals for children, thoughtfully chooses teaching strategies that will enable children to achieve these goals, and continually assesses children’s progress and adjusts strategies to reach those goals. Having their goals and plans in mind, intentional teachers are well prepared to tell others—parents, administrators, colleagues—about what they are doing. Not only do they know what to do, they also know why they are doing it and can describe that rationale. In 2010 the Annual conference for the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) selected Intentional Intervention for it’s theme, noting that …. Intentional interventions allow teams to be thoughtful, purposeful, and data-driven in creating relationships and learning environments that support and promote the growth of young children with diverse abilities within the context of their families and communities (DEC) But even before that, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) had described intentional instruction as an integral feature of developmentally appropriate practice, as in the quote you see here. Copple & Bredekamp (2006)

24 Intentional instruction is planful, purposeful, and thoughtful about…
Creating a learning environment rich in materials, experiences and interactions Encouraging children to explore materials, experiences, relationships and ideas Conversing respectfully, reciprocally, and frequently with all children Consciously promoting all areas of learning and development In the references at the end of this presentation you’ll find the reference for another NAEYC publication by Ann Epstein (2007), The intentional teacher,. Choosing the best strategies for young children’s learning, a book that Phoebe quoted from earlier. This book also is available in the KITS ECRC. Epstein talks about intentional instruction as being planful, purposeful, and thoughtful, and she provides rich examples of what that looks like across content areas in a developmentally appropriate preschool classroom. Epstein (2007)

25 Intentional instruction is planful, purposeful, and thoughtful about…
Content (concepts, vocabulary, facts, skills) that make up each area of learning General teaching strategies that are effective with young children Specific teaching strategies that are effective in different content areas Epstein (2007) Epstein challenges us to think not only about WHAT we intend to teach children, but the teaching strategies that will be effective with the children in our classrooms, individually, and in large and small group settings. This made me think of an earlier NAEYC publication by Mark Wolery and Jan Wilburs, that helped us think about the intensity of adult instructional supports as a continuum, starting with how we structure the environment and routines, how we use child interests to identify materials, how we differentiate reinforcement strategies, use naturalistic teaching strategies, peer-mediated instruction, and finally, at the end of the instructional continuum, direct instruction strategies with a few students who need that level of intentional instruction. Epstein also talks about the importance of using the specific instructional strategies that are most effective in different content areas. For example, knowing evidence based strategies for teaching oral language, as was the focus of our first webinar in this series about intentional teaching.

26 Intentional teachers are planful, purposeful, and thoughtful about…
Matching content with children’s developmental and emerging abilities Taking advantage of spontaneous, unexpected teaching and learning opportunities Neither overestimating or underestimating what children can do and learn Challenging children to question their own thinking and conclusions Epstein (2007) You’ll notice that Epstein doesn’t think intentional instruction precludes taking advantage of opportunities for incidental teaching or allowing children opportunities for critical thinking on their own. She talks here about the challenge of striking a balance between what you expect children to know and what you expect to teach, knowing just how much support each child will need to be successful. 2. Curriculum Resources Poll: If we believe that intentional instruction requires knowing what to teach children at different levels of development, what are some of the sources we can use to identify social-emotional curriculum content?

27 Knowing What to Teach: Resources
Curriculum Based Assessments Social-Emotional Measures, Rating Scales, Checklists Early Childhood Outcomes/Child Outcomes Summary Information Early Learning Standards Observations Family Concerns, Priorities, and Interests Phoebe These are some of the resources we thought of. How did we do? (Discuss which ones were/were not identified in the poll.)

28 Knowing What to Teach: Priorities
Being able to select appropriate learning goals for children from appropriate assessments involves sorting and prioritizing those skills and behaviors that 1) Can be addressed through development, play, maturation, and exposure/experience (All) 2) Are emerging: with practice and repetition they will improve in independence or fluency (Some) 3) Are unlikely to emerge without intensive instruction or individualized intervention and supports (Few) Grisham-Brown (2012) Knowing what to teach involves being able to summarize and analyze your assessment information in such a way that you can identify and prioritize goals for groups of children as well as for individual children. At the KITS Summer Institute last year, Jennifer Grisham-Brown provided us with a simple tool to assist us in this task, based on a tiered approach to effective instruction for all, some and few. She suggested that when we look at children’s needs, in relationship to identifying potential IEP goals, we ask ourselves these 3 questions. It only makes sense that we would develop goals to address skills and behaviors the team believes are not likely to develop without intensive, individualized specially designed instruction and supports. But this exercise also helps us to identify the instruction in social-emotional skills we expect to provide to ALL of the children, versus the instruction we are prepared to provide to children who need additional supports.

29 Social Skills Curricula
Resources Related to PBIS: Selected Titles from TASN-KITS Early Childhood Resource Center (handout) TACSEI Roadmaps to Effective Intervention Practices (2009). Evidence Based Social Emotional Curricula and Intervention Packages for Children 0-5 Years and Their Families Retrieved from If you are looking to supplement your existing curriculum and you’re in the market for a commercially available curriculum for social skills, here are a couple of great resources to start with. We have copies of all of the evidence based curricular materials identified in the TACSEI Roadmap except for the ones that require certification to purchase and administer (e.g., Al’s Pals), but we do have Incredible Years, Preschool PATHS, Second Step, I Can Problem-Solve, for preschool and for kindergarten-primary grades, and some new materials that have come out since the review was conducted. Again, I’d refer you to the handout you have on resources on this topic available from the ECRC.

30 Social Skills Curricula
From the “Sister Centers” promoting social-emotional development in early childhood: Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning (CSEFEL) Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Interventions (TACSEI) Center on Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation (ECMHC) Hemmeter, M.L., Ostrosky, M.M., & Corso, R. (2011) But it’s my opinion that you don’t have to spend a lot of money to find quality social skills materials for your preschool program. All of the resources available from the three national centers named here, sometimes known as the “Sister Centers”, can be downloaded and reproduced at no cost. Here are the links to their respective home pages.

31 Social Skills Curricular Materials
Building relationships and creating nurturing environments Tools for working on building relationships Book list—focused on social emotional skills Book nooks In 2011 Mary Louise Hemmeter and her colleagues published a paper in the journal Young Exceptional Children on Preventing and Addressing Challenging Behavior that provided a table with examples of instructional strategies and interventions to support social emotional development organized by tiers, for all, some and few, with links to supporting materials on the 3 sister-center websites. We’ll take a look at some of these materials in the next series of slides. For the core curriculum—to support building relationships and creating nurturing environments, here are examples of recommended resources. The book list you can download is pages long and is organized by ages and by topic, such as being a friend, different kinds of feelings, problem solving, building self confidence, good behavior expectations, family relationships, bullying/teasing, and grief and death. Then the book nooks are collections of activities to help you incorporate some of the very best books into your daily activities and routines. The 3 books you see in this slide are featured in the book nooks section.

32 Social Skills Curricular Materials
Building relationships and creating nurturing environments Family tools—making the most of playtime family.html Teacher tools Classroom rules Circle time tips resources/teaching_tools/ttyc_toc.htm These examples are from the family tools section on the CSEFEL site and the Teaching Tools for Young Children, a zip file you can download from the TACSEI website. Materials include handouts, scripts, visual supports, and video clips. Many materials on the CSEFEL website are available in Spanish. On the home page, in the navigator bar on the left, there is a button for materials En Espanol.

33 Social Skills Curricular Materials
Targeted social emotional supports Scripted stories for social situations Feelings charts Emotions faces Solutions kit Problem-solving steps Turtle technique Family tools--Teaching your child about feelings At the targeted supports level, for SOME kids, who need more support, or more practice opportunities, or more explicit instruction, there are a number resources to help teach specific strategies, both for teachers and for parents. Most of these materials are available in Spanish as well. The picture you see here depicts Tucker the Turtle, who teaches children how to handle anger. The turtle technique depicted here is common to a number of different social skills programs, including Incredible Years and PATHS, among others. You can download a social story for teaching the Turtle technique. There are other social stories for different social situations, as well as tools to help teach children to recognize and understand a range of emotions—their own and others (feelings posters and charts, feelings dice, masks, etc). A strategy I’ve used and seen used very effectively is the Solutions Kit to model problem solving strategies. There are solutions cards you can download, scripts and video clips demonstrating the practice.

34 Social Skills Curricular Materials
Targeted social emotional supports Buddy system tips—friendship building tools Visual strategies—making a visual schedule Everyday ideas for increasing children’s opportunities to practice social skills and emotional competencies Other sample resources supporting those kids who need a little more support in this area include strategies for teaching and supporting friendships, how to make a visual schedule, and from the Georgetown TA Center on early childhood mental health consultation, ideas for infusing opportunities to practice social skills in everyday activities. 4. Targeted Supports Poll: We’d like to know if you’ve used some of these targeted strategies and materials for teaching social emotional skills, and if so, did you use them with all of the children, or a maybe a small group, or just the children with the most intensive needs?

35 Social Skills Curricular Materials
Individualized Interventions Observation cards Functional assessment interview form Family tools—responding to your child’s bite Teacher support planning sheet Recognizing and addressing trauma in infants and young children As we’ve been saying, there will be a FEW kids who, in spite of a rich core curriculum, focused on building relationships and a responsive and nurturing environment, and explicit and intentional teaching opportunities to practice targeted social skills, will still need more individualized, intensive intervention. The Hemmeter article links us to supports for these kids from all 3 center websites, all of them use the same approach, consistent with the research supporting Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, beginning with a team assessment of the function of the challenging behavior and culminating in the development of an individualized positive behavior interventions and supports plan for the child. While family involvement is emphasized at every level of support, at this level families are critical members of the team. From CSEFEL, you can download tools for developing behavior support plans, including simple observation cards and an adapted version of the functional assessment interview form, originally developed in 1997 by O’Neill, Horner, et al., and adapted with permission for a young child. Our webmaster, Cynthia Huebner, created a fillable PDF of the functional assessment interview form for a young child that I’d be glad to send you, if you me. There are also case studies and sample plans for kids at this site, and hese materials are also available in Spanish. You can find tools to help families address some of the most serious—but also the most common—problems at this level, such as the family tool on responding to your child’s bite. (Others include teaching your child to cooperate with requests, to become more independent, to identify and express emotions) From TACSEI, when you download the Teaching Tools for Young Children, you’ll get a teacher support planning sheet to guide you in the development of individualized supports for a child. From the Georgetown ECMH center, you can also find resources specific to infants and young children who have been affected by trauma, consistent with what we know as trauma informed care practices.

36 The Importance of Explicit Instruction of Desired Behaviors
Teaching social and emotional skills to young children who are at risk either because of biological and temperament factors or because of family disadvantage and stressful life factors can result in fewer aggressive responses, inclusion with prosocial peer groups, and more academic success. Because development of these social skills is not automatic, particularly for these higher risk children, more explicit and intentional teaching is needed. Bredekamp & Copple (1997) Misty We’ve talked about the importance of intentional teaching, supported by DEC, NAEYC and others. Now we need to talk about explicit instruction, also supported by NAEYC, which here makes a case for “explicit” and intentional teaching of social and emotional skills, especially for young children who may be at risk due to heredity, environment, or both.

37 What is Explicit Instruction?
I do it (modeling). We do it (prompted or guided practice). You do it (unprompted practice). Archer and Hughes ( 2011) One of the earliest, if not the earliest, definition of explicit instruction comes from Rosenshine (1987): A systematic method of teaching with emphasis on proceeding in small steps, checking for student understanding, and achieving active and successful participation by all students The Archer and Hughes 2011 book (listed in the references at the end of this presentation) is an excellent resource on explicit instruction. When Anita Archer was here last year for the MTSS Symposium she modeled explicit instruction by teaching participants the strategy of “I do—We do—You do” (give example)

38 Explicit Instruction Hall (2002)
This diagram comes from a report on Explicit Instruction from the National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum written by Tracey Hall and available online (see resources section). Hall talks a out 2 components of explicit instruction: Instructional design and Instructional delivery. Instructional design encompasses concepts familiar to early childhood practitioners, such as “big ideas” about what children should know and be able to do, “primed background knowledge”, or what the learner brings to the task, “scaffolding”, “planned review”, and something she calls “conspicuous strategies”, e.g. the idea that all students, but diverse learners in particular, benefit from having good strategies made conspicuous for them. To me, that seems to have particular implications for teaching social skills. The instructional delivery components, pictured here, are likewise particularly relevant to early childhood. This paper includes a list of resources, many available online, to help us think and learn more about explicit instruction. Hall (2002)

39 Elements of Effective Social Skills Instruction
Using developmentally appropriate practices Designing the environment to support Developmental levels Content areas Teacher-child interactions Peer interactions Identifying evidence-based social-emotional curricular materials Intentionally infusing social skills instruction across the day Providing supplemental and intensive supports for those children who need them So what we’re saying so far is that effective social-emotional skills instruction involves all of these elements, knowing what to teach, how to teach it, and how to meet the needs of individual children. We know that many preschool teachers, even Super Teachers, struggle to meet the social-emotional needs of at least some of the children in their programs. Now Phoebe’s going to talk about tools to help preschool teachers be more intentional about promoting social competence for all of the children in their classrooms.

40 Send request for copy of TPOT research version to
The Teaching Pyramid Observation Tool for Preschool Classrooms (TPOT) is soon to be published by Brookes Publishing Co. Based on the Teaching Pyramid Model, it was developed and refined through years of research by faculty from the Center for the Social and Emotional Foundations of Early Learning (CSEFEL) and the Technical Assistance Center for Social and Emotional Interventions (TACSEI). Send request for copy of TPOT research version to Phoebe Recognizing that promoting social-emotional competency for all of the diverse learners in a preschool classroom is a complex undertaking, CSEFEL researchers worked with a group of stakeholders to identify a set of practitioner competencies published as the CSEFEL Inventory of Practices for Promoting Children’s Social Emotional Competence (the link to the practices is provided in the references at the end of this presentation.) The competencies identified in the inventory are aligned with professional guidelines from a number of professional organizations representing childcare, early education, and special education. In recent years, the social-emotional competencies identified by the CSEFEL group were used to create a classroom observation tool known as the TPOT (and more recently, a comparable tool has been developed for infant-toddler service settings and it’s called the TIPITOS). The TPOT has been validated in research of program wide implementation of the Teaching Pyramid practices and is intended to be used by a trained observer. It’s recommended as a tool for assisting teachers in targeting areas of strengths and needs, preferably working with a coach who has expertise in social-emotional interventions and implementing program wide positive behavior interventions and supports. The TPOT is organized by recommended practices for all, some and few. In addition, there is a set of “red flags”, which according to the training manual, may indicate the need to review program policies and procedures with staff or provide targeted professional development for staff. Lise Fox, the director of the TACSEI center, has given permission for Kansas to use the research edition of the TPOT, at least until it’s published, in our early childhood programs implementing MTSS. If you her, at the address on the slide, and tell her how you intend to use it, she will send you a copy of the TPOT, at least until it is published. Short versions of the TPOT and the TIPITOS have been published in the early childhood mental health consultation observation toolkit developed by the Georgetown Center for Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation and you’ll find the link to the toolkit at the end of this presentation. In a little bit, I’ll show you another resource, based on the social-emotional competencies and practices identified in the TPOT, that can be used a planning tool for implementing practices within the Teaching Pyramid, for those of you who aren’t in an elementary building that’s implementing the KS-MTSS.

41 TPOT Examples of “Red Flags” from TPOT Teacher-directed activities
Teacher talk to children primarily “no,” “stop,” “don’t” Many children not engaged Teachers not prepared for activities Emotions never discussed or children reprimanded for expressing emotions Interactions between children during play or activities rarely encouraged Teacher only communicates with families when children have problems Before we look at the teacher competencies described in the TPOT, let’s look at some examples of the “red flags” because if any of these are observed in a classroom, they need to be addressed first.. If there are no red flags, the observer/coach works with the teacher to decide where she or he wants to make changes first. A “red flag” would be if: The majority of the day is spent in teacher directed activities Teacher talk to children is primarily giving directions, telling children what to do, reprimanding children (use of “no,” “stop,” “don’t”, or harsh or punitive reprimands) During group activities, many children are not engaged Teachers are not prepared for activities before the children arrive at the activity Emotions are never discussed in the classroom; or, teacher reprimands children for expressing emotions Teacher rarely encourages interactions between children during play or activities Teacher only communicates with families when children have challenging behavior

42 TPOT Intensive Individualized Intervention: A Few Children
Skills/behaviors are unlikely to emerge without intensive instruction or individualized intervention and supports Targeted Social Skills Instruction: Some Children Skills/behaviors are emerging: with practice and repetition they will improve in independence or fluency Universal Strategies: All Children Skills/behaviors that can be addressed through development, play, maturation, and exposure/experience Remember the previous slide from Jennifer Grisham Browne’s activity from our Summer Institute last year? At the KDEC Conference last month we did a little action research project. We handed out cards with all of the instructional strategies from the TPOT and asked participants to build a teaching pyramid on the wall by placing their post-it cards where they thought they belonged: universal strategies for all kids at the base, targeted practices necessary for some in the middle, and intensive individualized practices at the top for the few who need them. Participants correctly matched 94% of the universal practices for building relationships and high quality environments. They had a harder time deciding on certain practices or strategies that should available for some, or few. Let’s see how you do on some of the practices that gave our participants some cause to think. 5. All, Some and Few Poll: assign a set of instructional strategies for all, some, and few

43 How Did You Do? Teachers identify ways to have conversations with children who are non-verbal, language-delayed, or have English as a second language. (ALL- Relationships) Teachers provide support and special preparation for children who might need additional learning opportunities, adapted materials and activities, peer support, or more support to follow the routine, etc. (ALL -Environment) Teachers use assessment to guide decisions about frequency, intensity, and impact of targeted instruction. (SOME – Targeted Social Skills Instruction) Teachers partner with the family and other team members to participate in the development of a positive behavior support plan by providing functional assessment data to team members. (FEW – Intensive Individualized Intervention)

44 TPOT Universal Practices
Nurturing and Responsive Relationships Supporting children’s play Responding to child conversations Supporting communication of children with special needs Providing positive feedback and encouragement of appropriate behavior Building relationships with children Let’s take a look at the rest of the specific teacher practices the TPOT associates with social skills instruction at different levels. Here are the practices listed in the section on developing nurturing and responsive relationships, at the base of the pyramid. For every competency, observable criteria are provided, along with specific examples. Hemmeter, Fox, & Snyder (2008, Revised 2009)

45 TPOT Universal Practices, continued
High Quality Supportive Environments Adequate Materials Defined play centers Balanced schedule (large and small group) Structured transitions Individualized instructions for children who need support Small number of rules taught and promoted Activities designed to engage children Clear directions These are the practices from the TPOT that are associated with developing high quality environments that promote social-emotional development (but seem to describe developmentally appropriate practices for children across content areas).

46 TPOT Targeted Practices
Targeted Social Emotional Supports Teach children to identify and express emotions Teach and support self-regulation Teach and support strategies for handling anger and disappointment Teach and support social problem solving Teach and support cooperative responding Teach and support friendship skills Teach and support collaboration with peers These are targeted practices identified in the TPOT, for those children who need additional supports to develop and demonstrate skills associated with social competency. The Teaching Pyramid emphasizes emotional literacy, problem solving, self-regulation, and friendship skills as critical components of social skills instruction and components to look for in selecting supplemental social skills curricula. It’s not that these skills aren’t part of the core curriculum, but they are the skills SOME children are likely to need more support to acquire and use in the preschool setting.

47 TPOT Targeted Practices
Targeted Social Emotional Supports Explicit instruction Increased opportunities for instruction, practice, feedback Family partnerships Progress monitoring and data-based decision-making And more targeted practices, including the explicit instruction Misty talked about.

48 TPOT Intervention Practices
Individualized Intensive Interventions Convene team to develop interventions Collect data to determine nature of problem behavior Develop individualized behavior support strategies Implement behavior support plan with consistency Conduct ongoing monitoring of child progress Revise plan as needed Partner with families and colleagues in plan implementation And finally, these are the individualized intervention practices identified in the TPOT. At this level, we’re talking about convening a behavior support team to conduct a functional assessment of behavior, or FBA, to develop a positive behavior interventions and supports plan for a child whose challenging behavior is both persistent and intense. This process requires a team approach, including the family and community service providers, if appropriate, and administrative support, as well as behavioral experience and expertise, but it is not necessarily a special education function. Not every child who exhibits periods of persistent and intensive challenging behavior is in need of special education—a special education referral may or may not be indicated. That’s a team decision. But every preschool teacher needs to be part of, or have access to, a behavior support team that knows how to conduct a functional assessment of behavior. If you’re not in a school that’s implementing—or structuring for—MTSS, and you need help in this area, the list of ECRC resources includes not only materials in the ECRC but also links to technical assistance packets on the KITS website that you can download, including one on functional assessment of behavior, and another one on developing positive behavioral interventions and supports. Or, you can contact TASN to request individual assistance, and that link is at the end of this presentation.

49 You Want to Be More Intentional About Teaching Social-Emotional Skills
You Want to Be More Intentional About Teaching Social-Emotional Skills. What’s Next? Planning and Implementation Tools Promoting: High Quality Environments Responsive Caregiving Social Emotional Teaching Strategies Individualized Interventions If you are not in a building or a program that’s implementing MTSS or SW-PBIS, or program wide Pyramid practices, if you’re working on your own, and you want to be more intentional and explicit about implementing practices to increase social-emotional competency in your kids? Or what if you are the administrator, coach, or lead teacher, and you want to share best practice information with your staff, your paraeducators, or others on your team, but you don’t have someone trained in the TPOT? Maybe you are a special educator who works with community childcare or preschool programs that need access to the information and resources we’ve been talking about today? We have a couple of recommendations. And the good news is, once again, the resources are free. First, we suggest you take a look at the checklists on the TACSEI trainers web page. The link is pictured here.

50 Corresponding with the research based practices identified in the TPOT, for every level of practice promoting social-emotional competence there is a one page practice implementation checklist, like the one for High Quality Environments pictured here…

51 …and a corresponding planning form, as the one pictured here that accompanies the checklist for High Quality Environments. I know you can’t really read these, but you should have received the complete set of handouts from Karen, and you can download the electronic copies as well. This set of tools provides you with a process for planning and implementing the practices you want to integrate within your program or classroom—practices that intentionally support social-emotional development and the development of social competency in young children. To provide additional support in knowing how to teach the individual practices, and what that might look like, we have one more recommendation.

52 Whether you’re working with a coach, or a team, or on your own, here’s a good place to start with implementing effective practices. It says so right in the name of the link: START_HERE. In their last year of funding, researchers from the TACSEI Center partnered with researchers from the Center for Early Literacy and Learning (CELL), another research-to-practice TA center funded by the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), to develop an alignment of evidence based practices identified by both research groups as promoting children’s social competence and early literacy skills.

53 The 2 centers created a website that identifies common practices promoting social emotional skills and early literacy skills by levels that correspond with the Teaching Pyramid, and the practice implementation checklists we just talked about. Responsive relationships and supporting environments are levels 1 and 2, targeted interventions are at level 3, and individualized and intensive interventions are at level 4. Level 4, when I was there last, was listed as still under development. Lisa Fox, the director of the TACSEI center, and Carol Trivette, one of the directors of the CELL Center, said they hope to obtain funding to fully develop this website, adding links to additional materials, more videos. Currently, each practice is linked to existing resources posted on the CELL, CSEFEL, or TACSEI websites. They don’t link to every available resource that supports the practice—just several examples, most with photos, video clips, or materials to support you in teaching the practice. We wanted to make sure you know about this site for another reason too, because of how often we hear from practitioners who are aware of these websites that there is just so much information there they sometimes have difficulty navigating the sites to find what they’re looking for. This site may serve as a guide for “how to use” the vast resources available from these 3 early childhood technical assistance centers. In this new TACSEI-CELL integration, as they call it, shared practices are identified at each level and examples are provided for what the practice looks like if you’re promoting social-emotional development and what it looks like if you’re promoting early language and literacy. So, if you’re looking for evidence based practices that will give you the biggest bang for the buck, you might do like the link says and “START HERE”.

54 Click on the window for Responsive Relationships, which they call Level I, and it takes you to this page, with 11 shared practices. You can see that the shared practice is identified in the center of the page, with the rationale for how the practice promotes social emotional development provided on the left and how it promotes language and literacy development on the right. Each shared practice links to a page of web-based resources. If you click on the third shared practice for level I, Using specific and descriptive encouragement, here’s what comes up…

55 The practice is listed at the top of the page, followed by links to various online resources. Follow the first 2 links and you can watch a couple of videos from the CELL Center, the first in which moms acknowledge and respond appropriately and promptly to their children’s communicative attempts, and the second one demonstrating specific responsive teaching strategies to support and encourage new child behavior by: paying attention, responding, then providing new information. These are both effective strategies for promoting child language and strategies for building nurturing relationships. If you are interested in teaching behavioral expectations you can watch a CSEFEL video on teaching rules using the Stop and Go activity, where children make and hold up red and green lights to indicate examples and non-examples of the rules. Then you can download 2 handouts to read or share: one about acknowledging expectations and rules children are expected to follow, and the other with tips for acknowledging and encouraging positive behavior, providing specific examples of how to provide feedback that acknowledges effort and not just the final product.

56 The video links take you to embedded short clips from the TACSEI, CSEFEL or CELL websites. You can’t download the video clips here, but most of the clips you find on the CSEFEL and TACSEI websites can be downloaded to your desktop. We just looked at one practice, from one level, responsive relationships. There are 11 shared practices identified for providing supportive environments, 10 shared practices for providing targeted interventions for children who need more support, and 7 shared practices for providing individualized interventions for children with the most intensive needs. When I saw this website for the first time, I just thought, “What a gift!”

57 Based on What You’ve Heard Today
We hope you feel more confident in knowing: What social-emotional skills to teach How to teach them How to meet the social-emotional needs of individual children (all, some, and few) Misty These were our goals for this webinar: to either confirm or increase your knowledge of the importance of teaching social-emotional skills and promoting social competency, and then to ensure that you feel competent that you know what social-emotional skills to teach, how to teach them, and how to meet the social-emotional needs of all of the children in your classroom.

58 Based on What You’ve Heard Today… What Do You Want to Know More About?
Developing nurturing and responsive relationships with all children? Creating classroom environments that support the active engagement of all children? Teaching social emotional skills intentionally to all children? Targeting social emotional strategies for individual children who are at risk of challenging behavior? Developing individualized behavior support plans for children who need them? Misty However, we knew we couldn’t possibly give you everything you need on a topic this broad in a 60 minute webinar. So, as we wrap up, we’d like to ask you to participate in one more poll, to let us know where you would like additional resources. 7. Additional Resources Poll

59 Questions? KSDE TASN Phoebe Rinkel Misty Goosen Chelie

60 Don’t Forget to Complete the Electronic Sign-In and Webinar Evaluation
Send and message to Karen Lawson – include the following information for each participant: Name Position address USD Number Electronic Evaluations – Your feedback is important to us! Session 1 Evaluation (11:30 a.m.) Survey: Session 2 Evaluation (4:00 p.m.) Survey: Chelie Review unanswered questions from chat box Thank everyone for their participation and remind them to Karen to receive a certificate and ppt handout. Let them know Karen will them the link to the evaluation, but it’s also on this slide, on their ppt handout when they receive it, and we would appreciate them completing it to help us know what worked and what didn’t, how you plan to use this information, and what other topics you would like to see addressed in future presentations of this type. We also want to know who participated, so please be sure to indicate your role as a professional or family member. If you want a copy of the PPT with the notes, it will be posted on our website for you to download. [Flip through to show participants that there are references and resources listed in the PPT that they’ll be receiving.]

61 Primary References Archer, A., & Hughes, C. (2011). Explicit instruction: Effective and efficient teaching. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Dunlap, G., Strain, P. S., Fox, L., Carta, J., Conroy, M., Smith, B., et al. (2006). Prevention and intervention with young children’s challenging behavior: A summary of current knowledge. Behavioral Disorders, 32, Epstein, A. (2007). The intentional teacher: Choosing the best strategies for young children’s learning. Washington, DC: NAEYC. Grisham-Brown, J. (2012) Using assessments for the purpose of program planning. Wichita, KS: KITS Summer Institute. Hall, T. (2002). Explicit instruction: Effective classroom practices report. Wakefield, MA: National Center on Accessing the General Curriculum. Retrieved from Hemmeter, M.L., Ostrosky, M.M., and Corso, R.M. (2012). Preventing and addressing challenging behavior: Common questions and practical strategies. Young Exceptional Children, 15:2, pp Herner, T. (1998). NASDE Counterpoint, p. 2.

62 Primary References KSDE (August, 2012). Structuring Module 2 Behavior Kansas MTSS, pp. 1-6. Raver, C. (2002). Emotions matter: Making the case for the role of young children’s emotional development for early school readiness. Social Policy Report of the Society for Research in Child Development, 16 (3), 1-20. TACSEI-CELL (2012). Implementing Effective Practices to Support Young Children’s Social Emotional, Language, and Early Literacy: A Collaboration between TACSEI and CELL. University of South Florida: Technical Assistance Center on Social Emotional Intervention for Young Children, and Orlena Hawks Puckett Institute: Center for Early Literacy Learning. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse. (2013, February). Early Childhood Interventions for Children with Disabilities intervention report: Social skills training. Retrieved from Webster-Stratton, & Reid (2004). Infants and Young Children, 17:2, pp Thanks to the CSEFEL, TACSEI , and ECO Centers for many of the child photos used in this presentation.

63 Additional Resources Center for Early Childhood Mental Health Consultants, Toolkits CSEFEL Inventory of Practices for Promoting Children’s Social Emotional Competence CSEFEL/TACSEI Routine Based Support Guides TACSEI Recommended Practice Handouts TACSEI Roadmaps to Effective Intervention Practices (2009) Evidence Based Social Emotional Curricula and Intervention Packages for Children 0-5 Years and Their Families Promoting Social Behavior of Young Children in Group Settings: A Summary of Research Screening for Social Emotional Concerns: Considerations in the Selection of Instruments Retrieved from

64 Some Kansas Organizations Supporting Social-Emotional Development in Young Children
Child and Youth Training and Technical Assistance Project (CYTTAP) Kansas Association for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health (KAIMH) Kansas Child Care Training Opportunities (KCCTO) Kansas Early Childhood Mental Health Advisory Council Kansas Pyramid Collaborative Kansas MTSS TASN Autism and Tertiary Behavior Supports Project or TASN KITS Project or

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