# Increasing Reading Fluency in Elementary Students.

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Increasing Reading Fluency in Elementary Students

Read the Following passage… In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry is a non-Euclidean geometry, meaning that the parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced. The parallel postulate in Euclidean geometry is equivalent to the statement that, in two- dimensional space, for any given line l and point P not on l, there is exactly one line through P that does not intersect l; i.e., that is parallel to l. In hyperbolic geometry there are at least two distinct lines through P, which do not intersect l, so the parallel postulate is false. Models have been constructed within Euclidean geometry that obey the axioms of hyperbolic geometry, thus proving that the parallel postulate is independent of the other postulates of Euclid. Because there is no precise hyperbolic analogue to Euclidean parallel lines, the hyperbolic use of parallel and related terms varies among writers. In this article, the two limiting lines are called asymptotic and lines sharing a common perpendicular are called ultra parallel; the simple word parallel may apply to both. A characteristic property of hyperbolic geometry is that the angles of a triangle add to less than a straight angle (half circle). In the limit as the vertices go to infinity, there are even ideal hyperbolic triangles in which all three angles are 0°.

Were you able to finish the passage in the 30 seconds you were given? Did the passage make sense to you? What was the main message the author was trying to get across?

What is Reading Fluency? “Accuracy in reading grade-level passages aloud, as measured by words read correctly per minute” “Reading that expresses the reader’s understanding of the author’s message and tone” “The ability to read phrases and sentences smoothly and quickly, while understanding them as expressions of complete ideas” “Fluent readers read aloud, text flows as if strung together like pearls on a necklace, rather than sounding halting and choppy”

My Definition of Reading Fluency Combination of definitions Important for students to learn and practice reading smoothly, quickly, and accurately, however being able to understand the authors message is just as important. I believe that they work hand in hand. A reader can not be considered a fluent reader without mastering all these aspects of reading.

Where did I Start? How I can most effectively work with students on fluency in conjunction with their daily reading groups? Fluently reading is more enjoyable because it is not as much work Multiple sources to gather teaching tools that focus on my definition of fluency Wanted to accomplish more than just improving their score on the test that assesses fluency

D ynamic I ndicators of B asic E arly L iteracy S kills DIBELS Measures seven indicators – Initial Sound Fluency, Letter Naming Fluency, Phoneme Segmentation Fluency, Nonsense Word Fluency, Oral Reading Fluency, Retell Fluency, Word Use Fluency Three primary uses – screening instrument, progress monitoring assessments, and outcome assessments Students that test into “at-risk” become part of a RTI (Response to Intervention) group and are required to receive at least tier 2 instruction

The Three Tier Model

DIBELS in My Classroom This year was Hughes first year using DIBELS They were only doing RTI groups for K-2 After sitting in on several of the testing sessions and finding out that my students weren’t going to be doing RTI groups I became interested in how I could incorporate interventions into my guided reading groups. 3 rd grade Benchmark is 110 words per minute in the ORF and they are also tested on RTF

My RTI Group Worked with the eight students that scored in “at-risk” on the ORF part of the test Formed Guided Reading Groups with those eight students / Guided Reading group is a half hour of reading instruction each day Four of these students qualified for additional reading support in the Resource Room Three qualified for reading support through Title 1 One student didn’t receive any reading support prior to the DIBELS test

Timed Readings Preview the passage – Look at title, any bolded words, pictures, any unfamiliar punctuation Make predictions about what we think the passage will be about I read the passage once to the students Choral read the passage together, assigning the students different parts of the passage Talk about what the passage was about and what we learned from it Take turns reading passage to a partner, marking how far each reader got after one minute Do several timed readings of the same passage with a partner

Poetry “With rehearsal, reading poems aloud enables children to feel the joy of successful fluent reading, encouraging attention to expression and intonation” Worked with short poems Color a picture that goes with poem Read it lots of different ways Together Assign parts Individually With a partner

Fluency Data Progress Monitoring – Collected DIBELS data (Oral Reading Fluency and Retell Fluency) from the students 3 times 1 st – Set the baseline for my intervention before I even began doing fluency activities with the students 2 nd – After first two weeks of activities 3 rd – After four weeks of activities Observed students during our guided reading time to look for improvements in fluency and comprehension This data is just as important Lots of factors can influence performance in DIBELS The test is just a quick look at what students can do

Progress Monitoring of ORF

Progress Monitoring of RTF

Next Steps for Reading Fluency If I was going to continue being in the classroom and working with my RTI group… Continue with the schedule of weeks 3 & 4 Try in add more fluency practice for the students that isn’t led by me Timed readings Poetry Reader’s Theater Use the guided reading time to really focus on comprehension Keep looking at the new research about reading fluency Use other forms of fluency and comprehension testing besides DIBELS to see where the students are

Bibliography Adams, Gail N., and Sheron M. Brown. The Six-minute Solution: A Reading Fluency Program. Longmont, Colo.: Sopris West Educational Services, 2004. Print. Hall, Susan L. I've DIBEL'd, Now What?: Designing Interventions With DIBELS Data. Longmont, Colo.: Sopris West Educational Services, 2006. Print. McCardle, Peggy D., Vinita Chhabra, and Barbara A. Kapinus. Reading Research in Action: a Teacher's Guide for Student Success. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub.2008. Print. Prescott-Griffin, Mary Lee., and Nancy L. Witherell. Fluency in Focus: Comprehension Strategies for All Young Readers. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 2004. Print. Samuels, S. Jay., and Alan E. Farstrup. What Research Has to Say about Fluency Instruction. Newark, DE: International Reading Association, 2006. Print.