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**Capacitor Selection for DC/DC Convertors: From Basic Application to Advanced Topics**

TI – Silicon Valley Analog in Santa Clara California USA - This course written by: Simple Switcher Applications Team Members: Alan Martin Marc Davis-Marsh Giuseppe Pinto Ismail Jorio Additional material provided by Chuck Tinsley of capacitor manufacturer KEMET 1

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**Table of Contents Capacitors types for DC/DC Conversion**

Electrolytic Ceramic Tantalum Polymer Typical Characteristics Advantages and Disadvantages Failure Modes Selection Process Advanced Applications in DC/DC Converters Buck Boost RMS current ratings by topology Measurement of capacitor parasitics Estimating output voltage ripple and transient response Simple method to reduce high frequency noise in SMPS 2

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Capacitor Types 3

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**Capacitor Chemistry - Value and Voltage rating**

100uF uF Electrolytic Polymer 0.1uF-100uF Tantalum Capacitance X5R X5R/X7R 1pF – 0.1uF COG Voltage 2V 4V 16V 25V 50V 100V

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**Aluminum Electrolytics - Overview**

Least Expensive Capacitors for Bulk Capacitance Multiple vendors Small size, surface mountable How is it made? Etched foil with liquid Electrolyte Placed in a can with a seal/vent Highest ESR Low Frequency Cap roll off due to higher ESR Wear Out Mechanism – Limited lifetime Liquid electrolyte – with a vent Cap changes over time with Voltage and Temp ESR changes over time Mounting High shock and vibration can cause failure 5

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**Aluminum Electrolytics - Packaging**

Through hole versions, usually in a round can. Large ones have screw terminals or solder lugs Radial or axial leads Non SMT may have higher inductance because of long leads Surface mountable versions, are modified from radial leaded versions. SMT versions usually have the capacitor value visibly printed on can. SMT versions may use letter codes instead of numeric rating. - + 6

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**Aluminum Electrolytics - Advantages**

Low Cost Mature technology with low cost materials Long History (Industry started in the 1930’s ) Many Manufacturers to choose from. High capacitance values available. Only choice for SMPS that need high voltage and high capacitance. 7

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**Aluminum Electrolytics - Disadvantages**

Large swings in ESR vs temperature Cold temps have 4-8x higher ESR than at room temperature 8

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**Aluminum Electrolytics - Disadvantages**

Large Parasitics High ESR (Effective Series Resistance) High ESL – (Effective Series Inductance). Electrolytic capacitors eventually degrade over the life of the product. The electrolyte eventually dries out. Long term storage may cause Aluminum oxide barrier layer to de-form. Capacitance drops ESR increases. Higher ESR causes more internal heat causing it to dry out even faster. This effect is worse at high temperatures. (Lesson: Don’t use “old stock” aluminum capacitors in your product.) Needs a ceramic in parallel for switch mode applications. High esr and esl can cause SMPS malfunction. Have measurable dc leakage current. Probably not an issue in power circuits; Leakage current can be a problem in timing circuits. 9

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**Aluminum Electrolytic - Venting failure**

Fails open or shorted. Catastrophic explosive venting From Over-Voltage of the capacitor. From exceeding the Ripple Current Rating of a capacitor May have the same effect as overvoltage; but it takes longer for the capacitor to overheat and vent. 450V rated capacitors after accidental application of 600V 10

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**Ceramics - Overview Lowest Cost devices How is it made?**

Primarily for decoupling and bypass applications Multiple vendors, sizes Surface mountable How is it made? Alternating layers of electrodes and ceramic dielectric materials Significant effects for Class 2 Dielectrics i.e. X5R, X7R. Voltage bias effect Temperature effects Ageing 2%/decade hour for X7R, 5%/decade hour for X5R Starts decay after soldering High Q Frequency selective 11

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**Ceramic Dielectric – 3 Character Codes**

Class 1: (Best Performance) Temperature Coefficient Decoder Class 2: (Higher Capacitance) Temperature and Capacitance Tolerance Decoder Typical Values: NP0,C0G, values up to 100,000pF Typical Values: X5R,X7R, values up to 150uF

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**Ceramic Capacitors - Advantages**

Low Cost Mature technology with low cost materials Many Manufacturers to choose from. Reliable and rugged Extremely tolerant of over voltage surges Best Choice for local bypassing Not Polarized Lowest effective series resistance (Low ESR) several milliohms Leads to high RMS current rating Low effective series inductance (Low ESL) < 3nH 13

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**Ceramic Capacitors - Disadvantages**

Capacitance limited to around 150 uF / 6.3V Large body sizes prone to cracking with PCB flexing. Several small units in parallel may be a better choice. Have both a voltage and temperature coefficient that reduces capacitance value. Some large package size units exhibit piezo-electric audible “singing”. Difficult to control. (Ceramic speaker effect.) More noticeable with Class 2 dielectrics Incomplete data sheets!! ESR, ESL, SRF and Ripple Current rating often missing from data sheets Contact the manufacturer for ripple current Capacitance value not printed on SMT device package. Impossible to visually inspect for value once mounted on the PCB. Some power supply circuits are not stable with ceramic output capacitors. Usually LDO’s and parts using COT control 14

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**Ceramics - Cracking Flex cracking – Number 1 Failure Mode!**

Cracks formed after mounting to PCB Mechanically stressed after assembly Larger parts, generate cracks more easily Usually Fails shorted Voltage de-rating Not required for COG, X7R and X5R…but… Voltage bias or capacitance loss increases as you approach rated voltage on X5R/X7R devices 15

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**Voltage Bias Effect on X5R - example**

X5R, 10uF, 6.3 volt Ceramic capacitor at 0, 3.15 and 6.3 volt bias 10uF becomes 2.9uF under 6.3V bias condition Doesn’t include, temperature, ageing and initial tolerance!!!!!!!!! 10uF 0V Bias 3.15V Bias 2.9uF 6.3V Bias 16

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**Voltage Bias Effect Including Case Size**

X5R, 16V Rated Capacitors 1uF 0603 1uF 0805 1uF 1206 Capacitance decreases more quickly with smaller Case sizes 17

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**Ceramic capacitance change due to temperature**

AVX Capacitor X5R dielectric - typical of any brand You lose another 10% over temperature 18

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**Y5V dielectric characteristics**

DO NOT USE! Y5V and Z5U ceramic dielectrics for power supply designs 19

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**Tantalum – Overview (MnO2 based)**

High Capacitance per unit Volume Technology Small package sizes available Thin devices are available How is it made? Tantalum Anode pressed around a tantalum wire Oxide grown on surface Cathode formed by dipping and heat conversion MnMnO Epoxy encapsulated Old technology Requires 50% Voltage derating PPM failure rates increase exponentially above 50% voltage derating Can fail explosively High ESR compared to Polymer types Fairly low cap roll off vs. frequency 2 Tantalum Model 20

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**Solid Tantalum Capacitors - Packaging**

Usually rectangular Surface Mount Technology – SMT machine mountable Capacitance ratings for 1uF to 1000uF + - + - 21

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**Solid Tantalum Capacitors - Advantages**

Lots of capacitance in a small package. 1uF to 1000uF max Medium-high effective series resistance (Low ESR) 10 to 500 milliohms Medium level of RMS current Low effective series inductance (Low ESL) < 3nH Numerous manufacturers Good datasheet vs. electrolytic 22

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**Solid Tantalum Capacitors - Disadvantages**

Limited voltage range 50V rating max. Therefore for circuit voltages less than 25 or 35VDC. Fairly high in cost Historically Tantalum has had supply shortages Limited inrush surge current capability. Do not use tantalum for hot pluggable input capacitors! Don’t Hot plug tantalum! 23

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**Solid Tantalum Capacitors – Application Safety**

ALWAYS observe voltage polarity DO NOT exceed voltage rating. DO NOT exceed inrush surge rating Can fail catastrophically if misapplied. Can fail open or short 24

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**Polymer - Overview Highest Capacitance per unit Volume Technology**

Small package sizes available How is it made? Tantalum Anode pressed around a tantalum wire Oxide grown on surface Cathode formed by dipping into Monomer and cured at room temperature Epoxy encapsulated Lower ESR vs MnO2 based Tantalums Higher frequency operation – over a Mhz…still looks like a cap! Lower power dissipation Higher ripple current capability May need less capacitance 25

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**Polymer & Organic Capacitors - Packaging**

SMT Block style similar to tantalum. Round / Radial versions in SMT and through-hole. Types Tantalum polymer / Aluminum polymer / Organic semiconductor PosCap Kemet Tantalum Polymer OSCON 26

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**Polymer & Organic Capacitors - Advantages**

Low ESR but not as low as equivalent ceramic. Low ESL depending on construction method New technology Designed for SMPS. Can be very low profile. High capacitance per unit volume. Much better performance than aluminum electrolytic and much smaller in size. No voltage coefficient. Viable alternative to solid tantalum. 27

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Polymer - Continued Voltage de-rating is 10/20% depending on rated voltage PPM failure rates significantly reduced Can withstand higher transient voltages 28

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**Polymer & Organic Capacitors - Disadvantages**

High cost Voltage surges capability depends on chemistry. Oscon very intolerant of voltage surges Tend to be from a single supplier. May have availability issues. Polymer & Organic Capacitors – Failure Mode Tantalum Polymer Less prone to catastrophic failure than solid tantalum but will still vent and emit smoke. Organic (OSCON) Emits noxious smoke. 29

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**Capacitor Chemistry - Quick Comparison**

Numerical Rankings from 1 (Best) to 5 (Worst) 30

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**Capacitor Chemistry – General Parameters**

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**DC/DC Converter Topologies**

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**Capacitor Selection for DC/DC converters**

Design factors that are known before selecting capacitors : Switching frequency Fsw : From 50KHz (High power) to 6MHz (Low power) Input voltage range Vin Output voltage Vout Switch duty factor Duty Cycle (D) ~ Vout/Vin (for Buck/Step Down) Output current Iout Inductance L is usually designed such that the ripple current is ~ % of Iout at the switching frequency Topology Chosen in architectural stage 33

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**Capacitor Selection for DC/DC converters**

RMS current of a capacitor is one of the most important specifications for capacitor reliability It also effects the converters performance, and varies by topology Self-Heating Proportional to RMS Current and Internal Losses Voltage Ripple Higher RMS Current leads to larger voltage ripple Let’s calculate RMS current for different topologies 34

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**Common Topologies - BUCK**

Buck Converter Switching Current exist in the input side Critical path Boost Converter Buck-Boost Converter In a Buck converter, it is obvious that the power switches are going to be part of the high di/dt loop, but which ground connection is more critical than the others? We find out is by identifying the current path of the two sub-sections in switching period of this converter. When the high-set FET is on, the current is going to go through the blue trace, and when the low-set FET is on, the current is going to through the pink trace, shown in this slide. And if a branch contains both of the two colored lines, that means 100% of the time of the switching period, there is current going through this branch, and we consider that a DC current path. If a branch only contains one of the colored lines, that means only a part of the switching period has a current going through this branch, and the current is going to be discontinuous. So, we consider those to be high di/dt paths and the critical paths of the PCB layout. So, in Buck converter, this is shown as the shaded loop, which contains the high-side switch, the low-side switch, and the input capacitor. 35 35 35

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**Common Topologies - BUCK**

Buck Converter Boost Converter Input Capacitor RMS Current Buck-Boost Converter Output Capacitor RMS Current 36 36 36

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**Common Topologies - BOOST**

Buck Converter Critical path Boost Converter Buck-Boost Converter We can do the same thing in the Boost converter, and the critical path is contained by the two switching components and the output capacitor. 37 37 37

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**Common Topologies - BOOST**

Buck Converter Boost Converter Input Capacitor RMS Current Output Capacitor RMS Current Buck-Boost Converter 38 38 38

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**Common Topologies – BUCK BOOST**

Non-Inverting Buck Converter Critical path Boost Converter Inverting Buck-Boost Converter The inverting Buck boost is shown here, and the Buck boost. In both, the input and output current are discontinuous. 39 39 39

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**Common Topologies – BUCK BOOST**

Buck Converter Non-Inverting Mode 1 (Buck) Mode 2 (Boost) Boost Converter Input Cap RMS Current Input Cap RMS Current Buck-Boost Converter Output Cap RMS Current Output Cap RMS Current 40 40 40

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**Additional Topologies**

SLUW001A

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Capacitor Parasitics 42

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**Ideal capacitor compared to actual capacitor**

You buy this You get this Voltage and Temperature De-rated Capacitance (ESL) Effective Series Inductance - Parasitic inductance term - 22uF 4V X5R 0603 Ceramic (ESR) Effective Series Resistance - Parasitic resistance term - Buy one part – Get three for the price of one! 43

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**Know your parasitics! They are very important!**

Equipment to use to measure capacitor parasitic elements. RLC Analyzer Some can apply DC bias RF Network Analyzer DC bias can easily damage analyzer source and receiver inputs AC performance measurement very accurate. Agilent (aka Hewlett Packard) i.e. HP3755A goes to 200MHz Many other brands Frequency Response Analyzer Allows DC bias so voltage coefficient can be measured. RLC results are less accurate. Frequency range is lower than network analyzer 30 MHz max; Usually just 1 or 2 MHz range. May allow plotting on reactance paper with line of constant capacitance and constant inductance. FRA is also used for loop stability analysis. Brands – Venable Industries – Ridley (A/P) several others. Measure the parasitic terms and include them in the design 44

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**5 different types of 22uF capacitor**

Comparison of capacitor types using Frequency Response Analyzer - Shown in reactance coordinate system - 5 different types of 22uF capacitor 45

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**Comparative performance of different capacitor types using RF Network Analyzer**

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**Reducing Ripple and Transient Response**

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Output Caps Selection The output capacitor must be designed to fulfill mainly two requirements: To keep the steady-state peak-to-peak output voltage ripple below the maximum allowed value ∆Vopp To keep the output voltage waveform within the required regulation window [Vo ± ∆Vo_reg] during the overshoot and undershoot caused by output current transients The output capacitor design of a buck converter will be discussed in this presentation 48

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**Output Caps Selection – output ripple**

Boundary conditions formulated separately for ESR and C of the output capacitor may lead to selection of oversized commercial components. Please note that there is a phase shift between the contribute of C and the contribute of ESR. In this presentation an approach based on Acceptability Boundary Curves which jointly considers the effect of ESR and C will be shown. 49

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**Output Caps Selection – stray inductances in output ripple analysis**

Depending on the constant ESR x C, the output voltage waveform can change from quasi-triangular to quasi-sinusoidal. The effect of stray inductances can be easily separated from the effect of the principal parameters ESR and C of the capacitor. In fact, stray inductances produce additive step-up and step-down effects on the output voltage, whose amplitude is given by: Dominant ESR Tantalum Electrolytic Dominant C Ceramic Bad layout NO ESL Includes ESL 50

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**Output Voltage Ripple by Chemistry**

Inductor Current Ceramic Tantalum Polymer OSCON Electrolytic This plot shows a comparison of the output voltage ripple of a buck converter using 4 different capacitor chemistries. All caps = 47uF. Scale = 20mV/div 51

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**Output Caps Selection – stray inductances in output ripple analysis**

In order to take in account the effect determined by the equivalent series inductance (ESL) of the output capacitor and by the inductance of the printed circuit board trace LPCB it is sufficient to replace the maximum allowed peak-to-peak output ripple voltage amplitude ΔVOpp with the net effective peak-to-peak ripple voltage ΔVOppeff allowed to ESR and capacitance C, given by: If ESL and LPCB are unknown, the previous formula can also be used to determine the maximum allowed ESL compatible with the ESR and capacitance C of a capacitor selected with the algorithm not including the LPCB : 52

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**Output Caps Selection – output ripple analysis**

ON TIME Current flowing into the output capacitor is given by : OFF TIME The remaining part of the peak to peak output ripple voltage can be determined by analyzing the circuit in the time intervals between switching instants and can be derived by integrating the current flowing into the output capacitor: Initial voltage charge ESR contribute capacitance contribute ON TIME OFF TIME Where: 53

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**Output Caps Selection – output ripple analysis**

In order to determine analytical expression of output voltage ripple, maximum and minimum values of output voltage waveform must be computed. Instant when minimum occurs is given by: vO(tmax) DOMINANT ESR case Instant when maximum occurs is given by: vO(tmin) The analytical output ripple is given by: ∆VOpp = vO(tmax) - vO(tmin) 54

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**Output Caps Selection – output ripple analysis**

Two different Domain Boundary Curves (DBC) can be defined as for D < 0.5 and D > 0.5 Three different Acceptability Boundary Curves (ABC) can be defined for HIGH, MID and LOW ESR case HIGH ESR MID ESR LOW ESR For D < 0.5 : ESR ≥ Rs- HIGH ESR Ri- < ESR < Rs- MID ESR ESR ≤ Ri- LOW ESR Please note that boundaries are duty cycle and switching frequency dependent ESR > Rs+ + HIGH ESR Rs+< ESR < Ri+ MID ESR ESR < Ri+ LOW ESR 55

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**Output Caps Selection – output ripple analysis**

The following figure shows Domain Boundary Curves (DBC) and the Acceptability Boundary Curves (ABC) in ESR-C plane for D = 33% , ∆iLpp = 0.8A, ∆Vopp_eff = 55mV, fS = 500kHz. In applications where D > 0.5 the DBC are inverted. ABCs allow to quickly figure out real feasible capacitors representing possible design solutions when load transient constraints are not needed. A real capacitor whose values of ESR and C correspond to a point located below ABCs (green area) is suitable to meet ripple constraints requirements. HIGH ESR MID ESR HIGH ESR LOW ESR MID ESR LOW ESR 56

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**Output Caps Selection – output ripple analysis – simplified formula**

A simplified equation can be derived by calculating the fundamental component of the output ripple voltage as: There is an overestimation of the needed output cap nearby the MID ESR area 57

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient**

The overshoot (or undershoot) occurs because of the surplus (or deficit) of charge in the output capacitor. Let’s define the allowed variation for the output voltage as ∆Voreg Because of slope constraints due to the inductor: when D < 0.5 the overshoot is greater than the undershoot and vice versa when D > 0.5 OVERSHOOT UNDERSHOOT 58

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient analysis**

The instant when the peak of the overshoot occurs depends on the type of the output capacitor. The exact point where peak overshoot is reached, and its magnitude, must be calculated by taking into account joined influence of C and ESR. 59

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient**

Three different cases can be considered when load transient occurs: stepwise load transient: load transient duration TLT is much smaller than closed loop system’s response time given by the crossover frequency fC, TLT << 1/(4fC) fast load transient: load transient duration TLT is smaller than closed loop system’s response time TLT < 1/(4fC) slow load transient: load transient duration TLT is larger that closed loop system’s response time TLT > 1/(4fC) In 1st and 2nd case the control network is not able to compensate output voltage variations suddenly after a load variation. Hence, the output filter must be designed to keep the output voltage within the maximum allowed range in early time after the load transient until the loop has the chance to respond. The impact of load transient constraint on the output capacitor size is lower in 3rd case. For this reason worst case stepwise load transient is treated. The output current slew rate will be considered as infinite (TLT = 0). This is a reasonable assumption in application such FPGA supplies where load-current slew rate may range up to 100A/µs. 60

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient analysis**

Is it possible to analyze a buck converter during load transient by means of the following circuit. tLT is the instant when the load transient occurs, it can occur during ON time or during OFF time. ON TIME OFF TIME Worst case condition occurs when: tLT = DTS for overshoot tLT = TS for undershoot Let’s assume a high cross over frequency controller. Minimum duty cycle is assumed to be 0 and maximum duty cycle is assumed to be 1. 61

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient analysis – overshoot**

Assuming that the step down load transient occurs at tLT = DT (overshoot worst case), the instant of peak variation of the output voltage and its maximum overshoot peak value are given by: It tOS = DTS the magnitude of VOS is determined by ESR only (high ESR case ESRH) If tOS > DTS the magnitude of VOS jointly depends on C and ESR values (low ESR case ESRL) 62

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient analysis – overshoot**

The three curves cross at the boundary value of capacitance CB given by: A real capacitor whose values of ESR and C correspond to a point located below this curve (green area) can be considered suitable to maintain the output voltage within the given regulation window in presence of a charging load transient. Negative slope CB Positive slope Zero slope 63

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient analysis – overshoot**

It makes sense to consider the effect of stray inductances LESL = ESL + LPCB only it the real slew-rate SR of the load current transition is known. After the instant tr, the output voltage evolves in the time as if there was no ESL. Load transient constraints are met if C, ESR and ESL are such that both conditions are fulfilled: ∆VO(tr) < ∆VOreg ∆VO(tos) < ∆VOreg The effect of LESL can be accounted by including the following constraints for the ESR ∆VOreg 64

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient analysis – overshoot**

LESL = 10nH SR = 3 A/µs ∆VOreg 65

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**Output Caps Selection – load transient analysis – overshoot – simplified equation**

It is possible to derive simplified boundaries for C and ESR. Let’s assume that the minimum output capacitance required is CB previously defined as: It is possible to calculate the maximum allowed value of the ESR by replacing CB value into the ESRcrit formula previously defined: Any capacitor whose value of capacitance and ESR is higher than Cmin and lower the ESRmax is suitable to meet load transient requirements for a buck converter. 66

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**Capacitor - Selection Process Summary**

Electrical specifications: Electrical performance RMS Current in the capacitor Look for RMS current equation in the chosen DC/DC topology Applied voltage at the capacitor De-rate the capacitor based on the chemistry Transient requirements Size bulk capacitance based upon voltage deviation requirements Check that the selected capacitor meets stability requirements Capacitor impedance Does this capacitor chemistry look inductive at the frequency of interest? 67

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**Capacitor - Selection Process Summary**

Most designs use a combinations of technologies Tantalums or Aluminum Electrolytics for bulk Capacitance Ceramics for decoupling and bypass Depends on Mechanical Challenges Vibration Temperature Cooling Lifetime comes into play For longer life, improve the quality of the components Ceramics and polymer have improved lifetime over electrolytic and tantalum Costs - Tradeoffs Component cost vs Total cost of ownership 68

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**Capacitors – Selection Process Summary**

Use Equations for selected topology Calculate RMS Currents, Peak voltages, Minimum capacitance, Maximum esr Select Chemistry based upon the designs needs Remember to de-rate voltage by at least 20% for all chemistries 50% for tantalum to improve reliability 50% for class 2 ceramics to decrease capacitance lost to DC biasing Note: Capacitor data sheet MUST include 100kHz data if the capacitor is to be applied in a switch mode power supply (SMPS). 120 Hz only versions are not suitable for SMPS Consider NP0 (C0G), X7R, X5R and X7S ceramic dielectrics* - in this order. DO NOT USE Y5V Place additional units in parallel if one is not enough Combine chemistries to benefit from their various advantages Use polymer, electrolytic and tantalum for bulk Use Ceramics as your primary decoupling capacitor 69

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**Output Caps Selection – References**

A. De Nardo, N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, “A unified method for optimal buck converter output capacitor design”, Proc. Of ISIE2008, Cambridge, UK, pp S. Maniktala, Switching Power Supply Design & Optimization, Mc Graw Hill, New York, 2004 G. Spagnuolo, N. Femia, A. De Nardo, “Optimal Buck Converter Output Filter Design for Point of Load applications”, IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., DOI /TIE , in press R.W. Erickson, D. Maksimovic, “Fundamentals of Power Electronics”, 2001 Kluwer Academic Publishers 70

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**Paralleling capacitors to reduce high frequency output voltage ripple**

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**A technique for reducing High Frequency output noise**

If the output capacitor(s) is not ceramic; then adding a small ceramic(s) in parallel with the output will reduce high frequency ripple. Choose a ceramic capacitor that has an impedance null (self resonance) that is the same as the frequency to be attenuated. One, two or three small ceramics can give 10X improvement (-20 dB.)

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**High frequency ripple Switch waveform (scope trigger)**

Vout ripple w/ 20 MHz bandwidth (bw) 5 mV /div 10 mv p-p HF spikes ignored !

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**Use Zoom function to measure ring frequency**

Timebase Zoomed traces 20 MHz bw 10 mV/div 300MHz ring 200 MHz bw 100 mV/div 2 GHz bw 100 mV/div Need to add 470 pF 0603 bypass SRF ~ 300 MHz

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**Continue the method Timebase Zoomed traces 20 MHz bw 10 mV/div**

115 MHz ring 2 GHz bw 100 mV/div Measured after adding a 470 pF 0603 but before adding 2200pF 0603

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**Continue the method Timebase Zoomed traces 20 MHz bw 10 mV/div**

60 MHz ring 200 MHz bw 100 mV/div 2 GHz bw 100 mV/div Measured after adding a 470pF 0603 and a 2200pF 0603 but before 4700pF 0805

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**Results after 3rd added small capacitor**

20 MHz bw 10 mV/div Ring ~377MHz 200 MHz bw 100 mV/div 2 GHz bw 100 mV/div Measured after adding a 470pF 0603, 2200pF 0603, and 4700pF 0805

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**Final amplitude improvement results**

20 MHz bw 10 mV/div 20 mV 20MHz bw 200 MHz bw 10 mV/div 80 mV 200MHz bw 2 GHz bw 10 mV/div After 470pF 2200pF 4700pF

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**Starting point for comparison - 3 caps removed**

20 MHz bw 10 mV/div 200 MHz bw 200 mV/div 200MHz bw 2 GHz bw 200 mV/div

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**Final schematic and bill of materials: 15 minutes later Cost Approx < $0.03 USD**

1.2VDC 5A 2200pF Remember to reserve locations on the schematic and PCB for these parts. You will not know the capacitor values until after you test the running power supply for ringing noise. Plan ahead

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Bench requirements 2GHz bw / 20Gsps Digital oscilloscope with zoom feature and adjustable channel bandwidth. Selection of small capacitors pre-characterized by Self Resonant Frequency. High quality interconnections with controlled impedances. Example of 3 channel input adapter built for this tutorial (net 4x passive probe)

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Use C0G (NP0) dielectric for high frequency shunt filter capacitors – lower ESR – more stable over temp Start with manufacturer data sheets, then measure SRF on bench to confirm 82

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Thank You Questions?

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