# 4 . 1 Definitions.

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4 . 1 Definitions

Great Circle A circle on the surface of the earth whose plane passes through the center of the earth. It is also the shortest distance between two points on the surface of the earth. Regional Gliding School

Rhumb Line A curved line on the surface of the earth cutting all meridians at the same angle. All parallels of latitude are rhumb lines. Regional Gliding School

Measurement of Direction
Direction is measured in degrees clockwise from north which is 0° (or 360°). East is 90°, south is 180° and west is 270°. Regional Gliding School

Headings The direction that the aircraft nose (longitudinal axis) is pointing, measured clockwise from north. True heading is measured from true north. Magnetic heading is measured from magnetic north. Regional Gliding School

Variation Defined as the angle between the true meridian and magnetic meridian. It is also referred to as magnetic variation. Regional Gliding School

Isogonic Lines Lines on a map joining places of equal variation.
Also known as isogonals. These are numbered east and west according to whether the magnetic variation is to the east or west of true north. Regional Gliding School

Agonic Lines Lines on a map joining places of zero variation.
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The angle between compass heading and magnetic heading. The difference is caused by the magnetic fields generated from the metal airframe and engine. Compass Heading The direction that the needle in the compass is pointing. Regional Gliding School

NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage

Navigation Definitions Let's try a few review questions on Navigation:
Question #1 - What is curved line on the surface of the earth cutting all meridians at the same angle? A Heading B Magnetic heading C Great circle D Rhumb line Regional Gliding School

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Aero Engines Basic construction and the four stroke cycle
Let's try a few review questions on Navigation: Question #2 - What lines join places of zero variation? A Agonic lines B Isogonals C Rhumb lines D Great circle Regional Gliding School

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Bearings The position of an object relative to your aircraft.
This angle is also known as the azimuth. Measured clockwise from the meridian through 360°. Has nothing to do with aircraft heading. Regional Gliding School

Standard Measurements Of Distance
Statute Mile - Distance measuring feet. Nautical Mile - Average length of one minute of latitude: feet. Kilometer meters. Regional Gliding School

Standard Measurements of Speed
Speed - The rate at which an object moves in relation to a fixed object. Miles per Hour (MPH) - Speed in statute miles per hour. Knot - Speed in nautical miles per hour. Kilometers per hour (KPH) - Speed in kilometers per hour. Regional Gliding School

Airspeeds and Groundspeed
Indicated Airspeed - Speed shown on the airspeed indicator. True Airspeed - Speed of the aircraft relative to the air. Groundspeed - Speed of the airplane relative to the ground. Regional Gliding School

Track The direction an airplane intends to travel over the ground.
May be represented by a straight line drawn on a map. Also known as intended track or required track. Direction is the angle between this line and a meridian measured clockwise through 360°. Can be true, magnetic or compass. Regional Gliding School

Track Made Good Actual path traveled by the airplane over the ground.
Like track, it may be represented by a line drawn on a map and its direction measured (if it is reasonably straight line). Regional Gliding School

Drift Drift, or drift angle, is the angle between the heading being flown and the track made good over the ground. It can be expressed in degree either left or right. Regional Gliding School

NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage
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Navigation Definitions Let's try a few review questions on Navigation:
Question #3 - What is the length of a nautical mile? A 5280 feet B 6080 feet C 5280 meters D 6080 meters Regional Gliding School

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Navigation Definitions Let's try a few review questions on Navigation:
Question #4 - What is the actual track the aircraft flies over the ground? A Bearing B Track C Track made good D Drift Regional Gliding School

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