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**Part 1 Module 2 Set operations, Venn diagrams**

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**Set operations Let U = {x|x is an English-language film}**

Set A below contains the five best films according to the American Film Institute. Set B below contains the five best films according to TV Guide. Set C below contains the five most passionate films according to the American Film Institute.

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Set operations A = {Citizen Kane, Casablanca, The Godfather, Gone With the Wind, Lawrence of Arabia} B= {Casablanca, The Godfather Part 2, The Wizard of Oz, Citizen Kane, To Kill A Mockingbird} C = {Gone With the Wind, Casablanca, West Side Story, An Affair To Remember, Roman Holiday}.

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Set operations Form a new set whose elements are those that sets A and B have in common A = {Citizen Kane, Casablanca, The Godfather, Gone With the Wind, Lawrence of Arabia} B= {Casablanca, The Godfather Part 2, The Wizard of Oz, Citizen Kane, To Kill A Mockingbird} {Citizen Kane, Casablanca} This set is called the INTERSECTION of A and B, denoted A B. A B = {Citizen Kane, Casablanca}

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**Set operations Find B C**

B= {Casablanca, The Godfather Part 2, The Wizard of Oz, Citizen Kane, To Kill A Mockingbird} C = {Gone With the Wind, Casablanca, West Side Story, An Affair To Remember, Roman Holiday} B C = {Casablanca}

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Set operations A different operation: form a new set that contains all the elements of A along with all the elements of B. A = {Citizen Kane, Casablanca, The Godfather, Gone With the Wind, Lawrence of Arabia} B= {Casablanca, The Godfather Part 2, The Wizard of Oz, Citizen Kane, To Kill A Mockingbird} {Citizen Kane, Casablanca, The Godfather, Gone With the Wind, Lawrence of Arabia, The Godfather Part 2, The Wizard of Oz, To Kill A Mockingbird} This set is called the union of A with B, denoted A B.

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Set operations We have encountered three basic set operations (including something from Part 1 Module 1). Intersection S T = {x|x S and x T} Union S T = {x|x S or x T}. Complement S = {x|x S}.

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Venn Diagrams A Venn diagram is a drawing in which sets are represented by geometric figures such as circles and rectangles. Venn diagrams can be used to illustrate the relationships between sets, and the effects of set operations. Venn diagrams are also used in other areas of mathematics, such as counting, probability and logic.

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**Venn Diagrams - Intersection**

Let S, T represent any sets in a universe U. The Venn diagram below illustrates the effect of intersection. The shaded region corresponds to S T.

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Venn Diagrams - Union Let S, T represent any sets in a universe U. The Venn diagram below illustrates the effect of union. The shaded region corresponds to S T.

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**Venn diagrams - Complement**

Let S, T represent any sets in a universe U. The Venn diagram below illustrates the effect of complement. The shaded region corresponds to S.

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Exercise #1 U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} S = {3, 5, 8, 11} T = {3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11} V = {2, 5, 6, 7, 8} W = {1, 3, 5, 6} Find ( V S ) ( W T ) A. { } B. {4, 10, 11} C. {1, 4, 10} D. None of these

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Exercise #2 U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} T = {3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11} V = {2, 5, 6, 7, 8} Find (V T) A. {1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11} B. {3, 4, 10, 11} C. {1, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11} D. None of these

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**EXAMPLE 1.2.1 Venn diagrams From your text: EXAMPLE 1.2.1 #13**

On the Venn diagram below, shade the region corresponding to A B.

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**Exercise #3 Select the Venn diagram whose shaded region corresponds to**

A B.

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**Exercise #4 Select the Venn diagram whose shaded region corresponds to**

(A B).

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**DeMorgan’s Laws For any sets S, T ( S T) = S T**

In the previous two exercises we saw that the shaded figure for (A B) is identical to the shaded figure for A B. This means that A B and (A B) are equivalent operations. This confirms one of the following general facts, which are known as DeMorgan’s Laws for Set Mathematics. For any sets S, T ( S T) = S T ( S T) = S T “The complement of a union is the intersection of the complements; the complement of an intersection is the union of the complements”

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**Exercise #5, DeMorgan’s Laws**

Let U = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g} T = {c, e} V = {a, d, e} Find ( T V ) A. {e} B. {a, c, d, e} C. {b, f, g} D. None of these

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Exercise #6 LIKE EXAMPLE from your text: On the Venn diagram below, shade the region corresponding to B (A C)

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Exercise #7 Select the shaded figure for ( C B ) A

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