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Regional Gliding School The Propeller The function of the propeller is to convert the torque, or turning movement, of the crankshaft into thrust, or.

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Presentation on theme: "Regional Gliding School The Propeller The function of the propeller is to convert the torque, or turning movement, of the crankshaft into thrust, or."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Regional Gliding School The Propeller The function of the propeller is to convert the torque, or turning movement, of the crankshaft into thrust, or forward, speed. Designed that, as it rotates, it moves forward along a corkscrew or helical path. It pushes air backward with the objective of causing a reaction, or thrust, in the forward direction.

4 Regional Gliding School The Propeller The jet engine moves a small mass of air backward at a relatively high speed. The propeller, on the other hand, moves a large mass of air backward at a relatively slow speed. The propeller blade is an airfoil section, similar to the airfoil section of a wing.

5 Regional Gliding School The Propeller It meets the air at an angle of attack as it rotates. It produces lift and drag. In the case of the propeller, the forces are designated as thrust and torque.

6 Regional Gliding School The Propeller Those attached forward of the engine and pull are called tractors. Those which are attached aft of the engine and push from behind are called pushers.

7 Regional Gliding School Pitch àThe distance in feet a propeller travels forward in one revolution. àThe angle at which the blade is set governs the pitch. àThere is a Coarse Pitch meaning the blade is set at a larger angle. àThere is a Fine Pitch meaning the blade is set at a small angle.

8 Regional Gliding School Coarse Pitch  Travels forward a greater distance with each revolution.  The airplane will move forward at greater speed for a given RPM.  Like high gear in a car.  Best suited for high speed cruise and for high altitude flight.

9 Regional Gliding School Fine Pitch  Less torque, or drag.  Revolves at a higher speed around its own axis.  Enables the engine to develop greater power.  Like low gear in a car.  Gives best performance during take-off and climb.

10 Regional Gliding School Types of Propellers  Fixed Pitch:  constant blade angle,  blades are at an angle in between fine and course pitch to give the best overall performance possible for all flight conditions.  Controllable Pitch:  blade angle can be adjusted by the pilot to various angles during flight.  Adjustable Pitch:  blade angle may be adjusted on the ground.  Constant Speed:  blades automatically adjust themselves to maintain a constant RPM as set by the pilot.

11 Regional Gliding School Propeller Control Systems: óthe mechanism for varying the pitch of the propeller may be: ó mechanical - hand controlled by linkages ó hydraulic - a fluid under pressure pushes or pulls on a cam that uses gears to turn the blades of the propellers ó electrical - operated by an electric motor. Feathering: óturning the propeller blades to an extreme coarse pitch, óused in the event of an engine failure to stop the propeller from “wind milling”. It will reduce drag of the failed engine or propeller.

12 Regional Gliding School Thrust Reversing: óchanging the pitch below the idle position (full fine pitch) into the reverse range or negative pitch, óthrust now works in the reverse direction, óused to slow down the aircraft after it has landed and to manoeuvre the aircraft on the ground.

13 Confirmation Stage NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage

14 Regional Gliding School Aero Engines The Propeller and Engine Instruments A B C D Adjustable Fine Constant Let's try a few review questions on Aero Engines: Question #1 - Name a type of pitch? Mechanical

15 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

16 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

17 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

18 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

19 Regional Gliding School A B C D Air braking Thrust reversing Hydraulic positioning Let's try a few review questions on Aero Engines: Question #2 - Changing the pitch below the idle position (full fine pitch) into negative pitch is known as what? Feathering Aero Engines The Propeller and Engine Instruments

20 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

21 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

22 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

23 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

24 Regional Gliding School Basic Engine Instruments 4Although an aircraft has many complex instruments, the basic engine instruments are perhaps the most important. 4These gauges monitor essential components of the engine. 4Can indicate early warning signs of potential problems and possible engine failure.

25 Regional Gliding School Colour Coding Colour code ranges from green, to yellow to red, indicating normal, caution and danger operating settings respectively.

26 Regional Gliding School Oil Pressure Gauge åMonitors oil pressure supplied by oil pump. åHigh pressure can force oil into the combustion chamber where it will burn. åLow pressure leads to poor lubrication.

27 Regional Gliding School Oil Temperature Gauge åMonitors temperature of oil.

28 Regional Gliding School Carburetor Air Temperature Gauge åEnables pilot to monitor the temperature of intake air or air/fuel mixture into the carburetor. åIf icing exists, the carburetor heat control unit can be activated by the pilot.

29 Regional Gliding School Tachometer (RPM Indicator) åMonitors the number of revolutions per minute the engine crankshaft is turning. åOn aircraft with fixed or controlled pitch propellers, RPM is controlled by the throttle.

30 Regional Gliding School Cylinder Head Temperature Gauge åRecords the temperature of one or more of the engine cylinder heads. åExtremely high cylinder head temperatures are immediate signs of engine overloading.

31 Regional Gliding School Manifold Pressure Gauge åUsually located beside the tachometer because both indicate engine power output. åA drop in manifold pressure usually indicates carburetor icing.

32 Confirmation Stage NOTE: You must use the buttons in the Confirmation Stage

33 Regional Gliding School A B C D Camshaft revolutions Engine power control All the above Let's try a few review questions on Aero Engines: Question #3 - What does the tachometer monitor? Crankshaft revolutions Aero Engines The Propeller and Engine Instruments

34 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

35 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

36 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

37 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

38 Regional Gliding School A B C D Cylinder Head Temperature Gauge Manifold Pressure Gauge Both A and C Let's try a few review questions on Aero Engines: Question #4 - What instrument indicates engine power output? Tachometer Aero Engines The Propeller and Engine Instruments

39 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

40 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

41 I’m afraid that answer is incorrect Let's try again... Flying Scholarship Program

42 That answer is correct. Let's move on...

43 Regional Gliding School Congratulations!! You have now completed the Propeller and Engine Instruments lesson of the Aero Engines Module. Of course, this lesson is always available to you for future reference if required. You are now ready to move along to the next module you have not completed or to any other module you wish. You can advance to the Self Test Module if you feel ready to challenge the final exam. Good Luck! Aero Engines The Propeller and Engine Instruments


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