Commas with Conjunctions Which example is correct? 1. Derek finally finished his book of poems but his publisher was not satisfied. 2. Derek finally finished his book of poems, but his publisher was not satisfied.
Commas with Conjunctions Which example is correct? 1. A moose wandered into town, and scared several kids. 2. A moose wandered into town and scared several kids.
Commas with Conjunctions Imaginary period tip. Pretend there is a period right before the FANBOYS. If both parts divided by the imaginary period can stand alone as a complete sentences, use a comma before the FANBOYS in the original sentence. Otherwise, leave out the comma.
Let’s Practice: Is the comma correct? Tom decided he would walk to class, but changed his mind when it started raining. The water at the beach is cold today, and it will be even colder tomorrow. Braille is written as a series of dots or bumps, so visually impaired people can “read” it with their fingers. Grade 1 Braille is a system in which the dots represent letters, and some very short words.
Commas with Transitional Terms Transitional terms are words such as furthermore and however. These terms have little meaning by themselves, but they are important “signpost” words that allow readers to see a connection between two ideas. A transitional term can be moved around in a sentence (even deleted). Move only the term you are testing—not any other word or group of words.
Let’s Practice: Is the comma usage correct? 1. Consequently, we argue frequently. 2. My parents prefer that I major in a business-related field. Nonetheless, I plan to major in art history. 3. In general, blonde beards grow faster than darker ones. Nevertheless, my dark beard grows more rapidly than my blonde cousin’s. 4. Some medical experts say that sleeping on your right side improves digestion. Still, I prefer to sleep on my left side.
Commas with Adverb Clauses An ADVERB clause is a group of words that answers the question when, where, why, how, or to what degree about the VERB in the sentence.ADVERB VERB
Identifying Adverb Clauses Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions. Cause : as, because, since, so that Condition : as if, assuming that, if, in case, unless, when, whether Contrast : although, even though, though Place : where, wherever Time : after, as soon as, before, since, until, when, whenever
Comma Rules with Adverb Clauses 1. USE A COMMA after an adverb clause that begins a sentence. 2. USE NO COMMA before an adverb clause that ends a sentence, unless the clause strongly contrasts with the first part of the sentence. Contrasting adverb clauses usually begin with although, even though, or though.
Let’s Practice: Correct or Incorrect? 1. I cannot study when you are beating those drums. 2. When you are beating those drums, I cannot study. 3. The car will not start, until you put some gas in it. 4. Until you put some gas in it the car will not start.
Commas with Introductory Elements To make sure you have an introductory element/clause, see if you can delete it. If what remains is a complete sentence, what you deleted is an introductory element. introductory element/clause
Introductory Elements/Clauses Last Tuesday, there was a fire in one of the dorms. According to the school newspaper, no one was hurt. When the fire department finally arrived, several rooms were engulfed in flames. A friend of mine had her room filled with smoke. However, her room suffered no major damage. Tomorrow, school officials will tour the dorm and make recommendations. I have heard they plan to move everybody out within the next week.
Let’s Practice: Identify the Introductory Element/Clause 1. Because the air conditioner is broken, the house is too hot. 2. As soon as class is over, we have to eat. 3. Now that I am hungry, we can eat. 4. While the cat was sleeping soundly, three mice scurried into the kitchen. 5. Surviving seventy-five years longer than humans have existed, dinosaurs are extinct now.
Commas with Adjective Clauses A n adjective clause is a group of words that describes a NOUN: a person, place, thing, or idea. NOUN To punctuate adjective clauses correctly, you must first understand that there are two types of adjective clauses: 1. essential (or restrictive) 2. nonessential (or nonrestrictive) clauses. BREAKING NEWS
Essential Adjective Clauses What to Remember: 1. Essential adjective clauses provide important identifying information about the noun it describes. 2. Do not set essential adjective clauses off with a comma. Example: All of my roommates who went to the party were late for class.
Nonessential Adjective Clauses What to Remember: 1. Nonessential adjective clauses provide extra information about the noun, but the meaning of the noun would not significantly change if the clause were deleted. 2. Set off nonessential adjective clauses with commas. Example: All of my roommates, who went to the party, were late for class.
Deletion Tip Delete the adjective clause and look again at the noun it modified. If the noun is still clear, the clause is not essential. If deleting the clause creates confusion, the clause is essential.
Let’s Practice: Identify adjective clauses and determine Essential or Nonessential. 1. My roommate and I like to watch the New Orleans Saints who play near us this Sunday. 2. People who like cats often do not like dogs. 3. I know someone who wants you to work for her. 4. At midnight, Daisy called her boyfriend who said he was playing basketball. 5. Louis Armstrong who was a famous jazz musician died on his birthday.
How’d You Do? Identify adjective clauses and determine Essential or Nonessential. 1. My roommate and I like to watch the New Orleans Saints, who play near us this Sunday. 2. People who like cats often do not like dogs. 3. I know someone who wants you to work for her. 4. At midnight, Daisy called her boyfriend, who said he was playing basketball. 5. Louis Armstrong, who was a famous jazz musician, died on his birthday.
Commas with Appositives The Film: The Joy of Painting with Appositives The Joy of Painting with Appositives An appositive is a noun (or pronoun) that renames a previous noun (or pronoun). Like adjective phrases, you need to consider whether the renaming is essential or nonessential to whether or not to set off with commas.
Let’s Practice: Determine appositive and whether or not comma is needed. 1. My roommate a political science major plans to run for public office. 2. He has a date this Friday with Janet Spain the woman who sits next to you in history. 3. This note is for your friend Natalie. 4. I had to take Junior one of my cats to get his shots. 5. My English assignment a ten-page essay is due next week.
How’d you do? Determine appositive and whether or not comma is needed. 1. My roommate, a political science major, plans to run for public office. 2. He has a date this Friday with Janet Spain, the woman who sits next to you in history. 3. This note is for your friend Natalie. 4. I had to take Junior, one of my cats, to get his shots. 5. My English assignment, a ten-page essay, is due next week.