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Singularity of a Holomorphic Map Jing Zhang State University of New York, Albany.

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Presentation on theme: "Singularity of a Holomorphic Map Jing Zhang State University of New York, Albany."— Presentation transcript:

1 Singularity of a Holomorphic Map Jing Zhang State University of New York, Albany

2 Projective varieties are studied by linear systems of their divisors and hyperplane sections. For example, Lefschetz theorem on hyperplane sections: Let X be an n- dimensional submanifold of a projective space and H a hyperplane such that H intersects X with a complex manifold Y, then the inclusion homomorphism H i (X, Z) → H i (Y, Z) is an isomorphism for 0≤i≤n-2.

3 Classical Bertini’s theorem states that a general hyperplane section of an irreducible smooth projective variety over an algebraically closed field is smooth and irreducible. In fact, given any point P on X, a general hyperplane section passing through P is irreducible and smooth.

4 Let D be an effective big divisor on a compact connected complex manifold. We assume that X is projective. D is big if h 0 (X, O(nD))≥ cn d, where c>0 is a constant and d is the dimension of X.

5 Question : Let D be an effective big divisor on an irreducible smooth projective variety X. Given a point P 0 on X, is a general divisor passing through P 0 in |nD| is smooth for sufficiently large n?

6 Example. Suppose that the dimension of X is at least 3. Let D be an effective big divisor on X. Let Y=X-D and P 0 be a point on Y. Let π: X’→ X be the blow up of X at P 0. Then the pull back π*D is a big divisor on X’. But any effective big divisor D’ linearly equivalent to π*D on X' passing through a point on the exceptional divisor E is not smooth. It contains E and another component G.

7 For the convenience, we will use the following definition of base locus. Let F be an effective divisor on X. We say that F is a fixed component of linear system L if E>F for all E in L. F is the fixed part of a linear system if every irreducible component of F is a fixed component of the system and F is maximal with respect to the order ≥. If F is the fixed part of L, then every element E in the system can be written in the form E=E'+F. We say that E' is the variable (or movable) part of E.

8 A point x in X is a base point of the linear system if x is contained in the supports of variable parts of all divisors in the system. The set of all base points of L is a closed subset of the linear system L (viewed as a projective space) called the base locus of L.

9 Bertini’s theorem : If κ(D, X)≥2, then the variable part of a general member of the complete linear system |D| is irreducible and smooth away from the singular locus of X and the base locus of |D|. Here the D- dimension κ(D, X) is the maximal dimension of the image of the rational map defined by |nD| for all n>0.

10 Let U be an open subset of C n and f a holomorphic map from U to C m. Then the Jacobian matrix of f is Jf=(əf i /əz j ) 0≤i≤m, 0≤j≤ n where z 1,…, z n are local coordinates.

11 Definition : Let f: X → Y be a holomorphic map between two complex manifolds. Its rank at a point P on X is its rank of Jacobian at P. The rank of f is defined to be the maximal rank of its Jacobian on X.

12 Definition : Let f: X→Y be a holomorphic map between two complex manifolds of dimension n and m, where f=(f 1,..., f m ), each f i is a holomorphic function on X. A point P in X is a critical point if Jf(P) is not of maximal rank. It is a singular critical point if əf i /əz j (P)=0 for all i=1,..., m, j=1,..., n, that is, Jf(P) is a zero matrix.

13 If f is proper and surjective holomorphic map, then we have Sard's Theorem: There is a nowhere dense analytic subset S of M such that f has maximal rank at any point of X-S and f(S) is a nowhere dense analytic subset of Y.

14 More precisely, let X j = {xϵX, rank Jf(x)=j}. Then dimf(X j )≤j. Notice that if f is not an algebraic morphism and not proper, then even though f(S) has Lebesgue measure zero in Y, it is very complicated and might be dense in Y.

15 Definition. The dimension of the vector space Op/ (Əf 1 /Əz 1,..., Əf m /Əz n ) over the complex field C is called the Milnor number of the holomorphic map f at the point P, where (Əf 1 /Əz 1,..., Əf m /Əz n ) is the ideal generated by all partial derivatives Əf 1 /Əz 1,..., Əf m /Əz n in Op.

16 Let U be an open subset in C n and V an open subset of C m. Let f: (U, 0)→ (V, 0) be a holomorphic map such that f(z)=(f 1 (z),..., f m (z)), where z=(z 1,..., z m ) are the local coordinates.

17 Theorem. The origin 0 is an isolated singular critical point of f if and only if (1) the Milnor number is finite and not zero or (2) if and only if for every coordinate function z i, there is a positive integer N i, such that z i Ni is contained in the ideal (Əf 1 /Əz 1,..., Əf m /Əz n ), and Əf i /Əz j (0)=0 for all i=1,..., m, j=1,..., n.

18 If h 0 (X, O X (nD))>0 for some n>0 and X is normal, choose a basis f 0, f 1, …, f m of the vector space H 0 (X, O X (nD)), it defines a rational map Φ |nD| from X to the projective space P m by sending a point x on X to (f 0 (x), f 1 (x), …, f m (x)) in P m. Φ |nD| is a morphism if |nD| has no base locus, but may have fixed components. In this case, in fact, we replace Φ |nD| by Φ |nD-F|, where F is the fixed part.

19 Theorem. Let X be an irreducible smooth projective variety of dimension d and D an effective big divisor on X such that f= Φ |nD| defines a birational morphism. Let X j ={x ϵ X j, rank(Jf(x))=j}. If dimX j ≤ j-1 for all 0

20 Theorem. Let X be a smooth complete variety with an effective divisor D and f=Φ |nD| for sufficiently large n. If the dimension of Y j =X j ∩Y is less than j and dimY 0 =0, then the general member of |nD| passing through a fixed point P 0 on Y\Y 0 is a smooth divisor on Y. Here at every point y in Y j, the Jacobian matrix of f has rank j.

21 Thank you!


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