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Let’s Talk about Short-term Sexual Strategies Kristin Jones.

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1 Let’s Talk about Short-term Sexual Strategies Kristin Jones

2 What is Short-Term Mating? Multi-male/ Multi-female Multi-male/ Multi-female “One-night stand” (Buss, 2005, p. 264) “One-night stand” (Buss, 2005, p. 264) Brief Brief Non-exclusive Non-exclusive Female and her relatives deal with the consequences of parenting (Buss, 2005) Female and her relatives deal with the consequences of parenting (Buss, 2005) Variations of STM – found cross-culturally Variations of STM – found cross-culturally Pre-marital sex Pre-marital sex Extramarital sex Extramarital sex Mate poaching (Barry & Schlegel, 1984; Broude & Greene, 1976; Jankowiak, Nell, & Buckmaster, 2002; Schmitt, Alcalay, Allik, et al., 2004 as cited in Buss, 2005) Mate poaching (Barry & Schlegel, 1984; Broude & Greene, 1976; Jankowiak, Nell, & Buckmaster, 2002; Schmitt, Alcalay, Allik, et al., 2004 as cited in Buss, 2005)

3 Mate Poaching 60% of men 60% of men 40% of women 40% of women 10% of relationships 10% of relationships 3% of partners “simultaneously poached” (Schmitt et al., 2004, p. 265 as cited in Buss, 2005) 3% of partners “simultaneously poached” (Schmitt et al., 2004, p. 265 as cited in Buss, 2005) Charm, deception, serial short-term mating (Schmitt et al., 2004 as cited in Buss, 2005) Charm, deception, serial short-term mating (Schmitt et al., 2004 as cited in Buss, 2005)

4 Assessing the Benefits of Short Term Mating 1.) Do people across all cultures engage in short-term mating when the costs are minimal? 2.) Are certain contexts more conducive to short-term strategies than others? Have such contexts shaped the selection of certain adaptations? 3.) Who benefited most from short-term mating? 4.) How are today’s contexts different from our ancestor’s? (Buss, 2005)

5 Support for Short-Term Mating No culture engages exclusively in ST strategies Physiological, psychological, and behavioral evidence No culture engages exclusively in ST strategies Physiological, psychological, and behavioral evidence Ideal contexts maximize benefits and minimize costs Ideal contexts maximize benefits and minimize costs Men benefit more than women Men benefit more than women Short term sex must produce some reproductive benefits Short term sex must produce some reproductive benefits Potential benefits may differ in today’s world Potential benefits may differ in today’s world (Buss, 2005)

6 Physiological Evidence Teste size – “external and scrotal associated with high sperm storage and more short term mating” (Buss, 2005, p. 267) Teste size – “external and scrotal associated with high sperm storage and more short term mating” (Buss, 2005, p. 267) Moderate sexual dimorphism Moderate sexual dimorphism Men 10% taller, 20% and heavier Men 10% taller, 20% and heavier (Dixson, 1998; Wolfe & Gray, 1982 as cited in Buss, 2005)) High rate of non-conceptive sex High rate of non-conceptive sex (Moller & Birkhead, 1989; Wrangham, 1993, as cited in Buss, 2005) Moderate sexual secondary Moderate sexual secondarycharacteristics (Cartwright, 2000; Mealey, 2000) Silver back – polygynous Silver back – polygynous Identical – monogamous Identical – monogamous

7 Evolved Psychological Mechanisms: “Indirect Indicators” of STM (Buss, 2005, p. 266) Mate preferences for STM (Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Gangestad & Simpson, 2000 as cited in Buss, 2005) Mate preferences for STM (Buss & Schmitt, 1993; Gangestad & Simpson, 2000 as cited in Buss, 2005) Universal adaptations to romantic Universal adaptations to romanticjealousy Men – sexual betrayal – Men – sexual betrayal – “Imagining you partner enjoying passionate sexual intercourse with that other person” (Buss et al., 1992 as cited in Buss, 2005) “Imagining you partner enjoying passionate sexual intercourse with that other person” (Buss et al., 1992 as cited in Buss, 2005) Women – emotional betrayal Women – emotional betrayal “Imagining your partner forming a deep emotional attachment to that person” (Buss et al., 1992 as cited in Buss, 2005) “Imagining your partner forming a deep emotional attachment to that person” (Buss et al., 1992 as cited in Buss, 2005)

8 STS: A Balancing Act Both sexes pursue STM when contexts Both sexes pursue STM when contexts are appropriate – benefits maximized, costs minimized (Buss, 2005) Women (Buss, 2005) Women (Buss, 2005) Quality over quantity Quality over quantity Greater Parental Investment Greater Parental Investment Men – Reproductive success through more partners, not children per partner (Betzig, 1986; Dawkins, 1986 as cited in Buss, 2005). Men – Reproductive success through more partners, not children per partner (Betzig, 1986; Dawkins, 1986 as cited in Buss, 2005). Stronger sex drive Stronger sex drive

9 Men’s Short-Term Mating ___________________________ ___________________________ Greater tendency for low cost, brief sexual encounters ( Bateson, 1983; Clutton-Brock & Parker, 1992 as cited in Buss, 2005) Intra-sex Competition Less Parental Investment Less Discriminating MORE PARTNERS

10 What men want... in a short term mate Fertility, not reproductive Fertility, not reproductive value (youth) Surbey & Conohan - Surbey & Conohan - (as cited in Buss, 2004) men more eager to engage in short-term eager to engage in short-term sexual encounters than women across all conditions Closing Time Phenomenon Closing Time Phenomenon No long-term commitment No long-term commitment Decreases ability to pursue short-term encounters, increases demand for investment ( Buss, 2004) Decreases ability to pursue short-term encounters, increases demand for investment ( Buss, 2004)

11 Men’s Mate Preferences, Female Self-Esteem and “The Double Standard” “I don’t think a woman should be afraid of her sexuality. It’s not a bad thing for a woman to feel confident and show her body in a way that’s right for her” Does status Matter? “If I want to wear lingerie outside of my clothes If I want to be erotic in my own videos If I want to be provocative, well that ain't a sin Maybe you're not comfortable in your own skin”

12 Male Status and Individual Differences in Mating Strategies High status men are more likely to successfully pursue short-term and long-term relationship needs (Borgerhoff Mulder, 1988; Turke & Betzig, 1985) High status men are more likely to successfully pursue short-term and long-term relationship needs (Borgerhoff Mulder, 1988; Turke & Betzig, 1985) Serial Monogamy Serial Monogamy Extra-marital affairs (Buss, 2000; Fisher, 1992) Extra-marital affairs (Buss, 2000; Fisher, 1992) Low status males Low status males Limited to monogamy Limited to monogamy Unequal sex ratio – more coercive, violent strategies (Malamuth, 1998; Thornhill & Palmer, 2000) Unequal sex ratio – more coercive, violent strategies (Malamuth, 1998; Thornhill & Palmer, 2000) Less to loose? Less to loose? What about date rape? What about date rape?

13 Blame it on testosterone? Men who are married have lower testosterone levels than their unmarried peers (Booth & Dabbs, 1993; Burnham et al., 2003) Men who are married have lower testosterone levels than their unmarried peers (Booth & Dabbs, 1993; Burnham et al., 2003) Even lower levels in men whose wives are pregnant, and desire children only with their partner (Gray, Kehlenberg, Barrett, Lipson, & Ellison, 2002; Hirschenhauser, Frigerio, Grammer, & Magnusson, 2002) Even lower levels in men whose wives are pregnant, and desire children only with their partner (Gray, Kehlenberg, Barrett, Lipson, & Ellison, 2002; Hirschenhauser, Frigerio, Grammer, & Magnusson, 2002) Men with high testosterone levels Men with high testosterone levels More sexual partners More sexual partners Initial sexual encounters at a younger age Initial sexual encounters at a younger age Higher sperm counts Higher sperm counts Divorce more frequently Divorce more frequently More likely to have extramarital affairs More likely to have extramarital affairs (G.M. Alexander & Sherwin, 1991) The digit test (Fowler et al., 2003) The digit test (Fowler et al., 2003) 2D: 4D low – more STM 2D: 4D low – more STM More children, more competitive and assertive, judged to be more attractive More children, more competitive and assertive, judged to be more attractive

14 What’s the Down-Side? Damage to reputation Damage to reputation Decreased parental investment, decreases the likelihood a child will survive Decreased parental investment, decreases the likelihood a child will survive Violence Violence Divorce Divorce (Buss, 2005)

15 Health Risks and STM Prostitution - “The Oldest Profession” Prostitution - “The Oldest Profession” Men – increased desire for casual sex Men – increased desire for casual sex Women – economics force them to exchange sex for resources Would STS change if prostitution was legalized? Sexually Transmitted Diseases Sexually Transmitted Diseases HPV HPV 50% of sexually active men and women in America will contract 50% of sexually active men and women in America will contract Chlamydia Chlamydia 2.8 million Americans each year 2.8 million Americans each year HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS 64% - Sub Saharan Africa 64% - Sub Saharan Africa 30% -South and Central America 30% -South and Central America

16 Evidence of Women’s Short Term Mating Behavior High frequency of male short-term mating necessitates willing females (Buss, 2004) High frequency of male short-term mating necessitates willing females (Buss, 2004) Orgasm – more sperm is retained Orgasm – more sperm is retained EPC likely to coincide with ovulation (Barker & Beliis, 1995) EPC likely to coincide with ovulation (Barker & Beliis, 1995) More likely to orgasm with Short-term partner ( Buss, 2003) More likely to orgasm with Short-term partner ( Buss, 2003) 20-50% of American women reported having an extramarital affair (Anathasiou et al., 1970; Buss, 1994; Glass & Wright, 1992; Hunt, 1974; Kinsey et al., 1948, 1953) 20-50% of American women reported having an extramarital affair (Anathasiou et al., 1970; Buss, 1994; Glass & Wright, 1992; Hunt, 1974; Kinsey et al., 1948, 1953)

17 Why women pursue STM Resource Hypotheses (Symons, 1979) Resource Hypotheses (Symons, 1979) Paternity confusion (Hrdy, 1981). Paternity confusion (Hrdy, 1981). Protection (Smith, 1984; Smuts 1985) Protection (Smith, 1984; Smuts 1985) Status Enhancement (Smith, 1984) Status Enhancement (Smith, 1984) Problems with this hypothesis? Problems with this hypothesis? Genetic Benefit Hypotheses Genetic Benefit Hypotheses Sexy Son Hypothesis (Fisher, 1958) Sexy Son Hypothesis (Fisher, 1958) Genetic Diversity (Smith, 1984) Genetic Diversity (Smith, 1984) Mate Switching Mate Switching mate no longer able to provide mate no longer able to provide

18 More Support for the Good Genes Hypothesis Symmetrical men tend to engage in short-term encounters with more women who are already in relationships (Buss, 2004) Symmetrical men tend to engage in short-term encounters with more women who are already in relationships (Buss, 2004) Do not experience benefits of long-term commitment Do not experience benefits of long-term commitment The opposite qualities are sought when women choose a monogamous partner (B.J Ellis, 1992, Kenrick, Sadalla, Groth, & Trost, 1990, as cited in Buss, 2005) The opposite qualities are sought when women choose a monogamous partner (B.J Ellis, 1992, Kenrick, Sadalla, Groth, & Trost, 1990, as cited in Buss, 2005) Attractive men are favored for STM because women want other women find their partner attractive (Buss & Schmitt 1993; Gangestad & Thornhill, 1997 as cited in Buss, 2005) Attractive men are favored for STM because women want other women find their partner attractive (Buss & Schmitt 1993; Gangestad & Thornhill, 1997 as cited in Buss, 2005) What evolutionary advantage might this serve?

19 Bad Reputations, Pregnancy, and Violence Promiscuity – damages a woman’s ability to initiate and maintain long-term relationships (Buss, 2004) Promiscuity – damages a woman’s ability to initiate and maintain long-term relationships (Buss, 2004) Pregnancy – higher infanticide (Daly & Wilson, 1988 as cited in Buss, 2004) Pregnancy – higher infanticide (Daly & Wilson, 1988 as cited in Buss, 2004) Women who primarily pursue STS are at greater risk for sexual abuse Women who primarily pursue STS are at greater risk for sexual abuse No mate for long term protection No mate for long term protection Date rape (Muehlnhard & Linton, 1987 as cited in Buss, 2004) Date rape (Muehlnhard & Linton, 1987 as cited in Buss, 2004) Abandonment by husband ( Symons, 1993 as cited in Buss, 2004) Abandonment by husband ( Symons, 1993 as cited in Buss, 2004)

20 EPC: “Social Monogamy need not imply sexual monogamy” (Buss, 2005, p. 348) Female benefits (Buss, 2000 as cited in Buss, 2005) Female benefits (Buss, 2000 as cited in Buss, 2005) Direct Direct Resources Resources Confusion of paternity Confusion of paternity Genetic Genetic Intrinsically good genes Intrinsically good genes Compatible genes Compatible genes Diverse genes Diverse genes Male Costs (Buss, 2000 as cited in Buss, 2005) Male Costs (Buss, 2000 as cited in Buss, 2005) Effort Effort Injury Injury Loss of current partner Loss of current partner Overall, “modest and variable across populations” (Buss, 2005, p. 362) Overall, “modest and variable across populations” (Buss, 2005, p. 362)

21 Variations in Female Sexual Strategies Increased interest in pursuing men outside their relationship during fertile period of cycle (U. Mueller& Mazar, 1997; Penton-Voak & Chen, 2004; Perrett et al., 1999 as cited in Buss, 2005) Increased interest in pursuing men outside their relationship during fertile period of cycle (U. Mueller& Mazar, 1997; Penton-Voak & Chen, 2004; Perrett et al., 1999 as cited in Buss, 2005) More attraction to masculine features More attraction to masculine features Prominent brows Prominent brows Large chins Large chins Deeper voices Deeper voices Markers of testosterone and immunocompetence (Gangestad & Thornhill, 2003 as cited in Buss, 2005) Markers of testosterone and immunocompetence (Gangestad & Thornhill, 2003 as cited in Buss, 2005)

22 Ovulation and STM When not fertile, women could only suffer the costs of EPCs, not reap the benefits When not fertile, women could only suffer the costs of EPCs, not reap the benefits Increased interest in genetic-benefits Increased interest in genetic-benefits for offspring relative to fertility may be an may be an adaptation to this problem (Benshoof & Thornhill, 1979 As cited in Buss, 2005)

23 Concealed Ovulation Cuckoldry Hypothesis: Concealed ovulation may prevent men from successfully engaging in more extreme types of mate guarding when partner is ovulating (Benshoof & Thornhill, 1979; Symmons, 1979 as cited in Buss, 2005) Cuckoldry Hypothesis: Concealed ovulation may prevent men from successfully engaging in more extreme types of mate guarding when partner is ovulating (Benshoof & Thornhill, 1979; Symmons, 1979 as cited in Buss, 2005) Female better able to seek out “good genes” Female better able to seek out “good genes” Paternity Confusion Paternity Confusion Prevent harm to child and self (Hrdy, 1979 as cited in Buss, 2005) Prevent harm to child and self (Hrdy, 1979 as cited in Buss, 2005) Limited support – most plausible when females mate promiscuously, assumes minimal male investment (Dixson, 1998 as cited in Buss, 2005) Limited support – most plausible when females mate promiscuously, assumes minimal male investment (Dixson, 1998 as cited in Buss, 2005)

24 Advantages of an Affair Male physical Attractiveness Male physical Attractiveness Sexy Son Hypothesis (Buss & Schmitt, 1993, Gangestad & Simpson, 1990; Kenrick et al., 1990 as cited in Buss, 2005)) Sexy Son Hypothesis (Buss & Schmitt, 1993, Gangestad & Simpson, 1990; Kenrick et al., 1990 as cited in Buss, 2005)) Dissatisfied with partner Dissatisfied with partner Mate Switching Hypothesis Mate Switching Hypothesis Love and emotional intimacy sited as the most compelling reasons women engage in EPC Love and emotional intimacy sited as the most compelling reasons women engage in EPC 77% of women vs. 43% of men (Glass and Wright, 1992 as cited in Buss, 2005) 77% of women vs. 43% of men (Glass and Wright, 1992 as cited in Buss, 2005)

25 Does EPC in females vary as a function of mate attractiveness? Gangestad &, Thornhill et al. (as cited in Buss, 2005) asked couples to each complete a survey about events in the past two days Gangestad &, Thornhill et al. (as cited in Buss, 2005) asked couples to each complete a survey about events in the past two days High fertility day High fertility day Women with less symmetrical partners were significantly more attracted to extra-pair men Women with less symmetrical partners were significantly more attracted to extra-pair men Women with symmetrical partners reported increased attraction to their mates Women with symmetrical partners reported increased attraction to their mates Luteal Phase Luteal Phase

26 Male Promiscuity and Attractiveness Most likely to engage in STS when they possess physical features most valued by women Most likely to engage in STS when they possess physical features most valued by women Low levels of genetic mutations – SYMMETRY Low levels of genetic mutations – SYMMETRY Women seeking ST encounters are most concerned with physical attractiveness (Buss, 2005) Women seeking ST encounters are most concerned with physical attractiveness (Buss, 2005) Cross cultural study by Schmitt (as cited in Buss, 2005) Cross cultural study by Schmitt (as cited in Buss, 2005) Men in almost all cultures who find themselves attractive are more likely than other men to engage in STS Men in almost all cultures who find themselves attractive are more likely than other men to engage in STS Male mate guarding may increase in less sexy men who are good providers when their partners are fertile (Haselton & Geangestad, 2004 as cited in Buss 2005) Male mate guarding may increase in less sexy men who are good providers when their partners are fertile (Haselton & Geangestad, 2004 as cited in Buss 2005) Could other factors explain these findings?

27 Sociosexuality (Gangestad & Simpson, 1990) Restricted Unrestricted Differences in perceived benefits Differences in perceived benefits Sexual skills Sexual skills Experimentation and orgasm Experimentation and orgasm Resources Resources “Unrestricted women” are more likely to have sex without strong indication of commitment from the man (Gangestad & Simpson, 1990) “Unrestricted women” are more likely to have sex without strong indication of commitment from the man (Gangestad & Simpson, 1990) What could these two factors be indicators of?

28 Socio psychological Explanations Mate value – “one’s overall desirability to the opposite sex” (Buss, 2004, p. 184) Mate value – “one’s overall desirability to the opposite sex” (Buss, 2004, p. 184) High Mate Value Men – high end of SOI – short-term strategy High Mate Value Men – high end of SOI – short-term strategy Women – low self-esteem (not mate value) correlated with short-term strategies Women – low self-esteem (not mate value) correlated with short-term strategies Father Absence – “mating-age” (Buss, 2005, p. 276) men are not dependable Father Absence – “mating-age” (Buss, 2005, p. 276) men are not dependable Cross-cultural support - Mayan and Belize (Waynforth, Hurtado, & Hill, 1998). Cross-cultural support - Mayan and Belize (Waynforth, Hurtado, & Hill, 1998). Onset of puberty, and sexual intercourse occur sooner, increase likelihood of STS (Ellis, McFadyen-Ketchum, Dodge, Pettis, & Bates, 1999; Surbey, 1998) Onset of puberty, and sexual intercourse occur sooner, increase likelihood of STS (Ellis, McFadyen-Ketchum, Dodge, Pettis, & Bates, 1999; Surbey, 1998) Dysfunctional relationships with parents linked to promiscuity in both sexes (Walsh, 1995, 1999) Dysfunctional relationships with parents linked to promiscuity in both sexes (Walsh, 1995, 1999)

29 Stressful Environment, Insecure Attachment, and Short-term Strategies Opportunistic Reproductive Strategies Opportunistic Reproductive Strategies Children exposed to high stress, insecure parent-child attachment (Belskey et al., 1991 as cited in Buss, 2005) Children exposed to high stress, insecure parent-child attachment (Belskey et al., 1991 as cited in Buss, 2005) Dismissing form of insecure attachment – male STM Dismissing form of insecure attachment – male STM Fearful preoccupied form of attachment – female STM (Schmitt, 2004 as cited in Buss, 2005) Fearful preoccupied form of attachment – female STM (Schmitt, 2004 as cited in Buss, 2005) Early physical maturation Early physical maturation Investing Reproductive Strategies Investing Reproductive Strategies Low childhood stress, more supportive Low childhood stress, more supportiveenvironments Chisholm (as cited in Buss, 2005) Chisholm (as cited in Buss, 2005) mortality and fertility may provide adaptivecues to shift sexual strategies What does this say about Evolutionary theory?

30 Global Environment and Sociosexuality Sex Ratio Sex Ratio Men favored- better able to conduct short- term relationships Men favored- better able to conduct short- term relationships Women favored- both sexes engage in more long-term relationships (Buss, 2005) Women favored- both sexes engage in more long-term relationships (Buss, 2005)

31 Life Transitions 30’s peak sexuality (Hook, 1981; Naeye, 1983 as cited in Buss, 2004) 30’s peak sexuality (Hook, 1981; Naeye, 1983 as cited in Buss, 2004) Percentage of fertile ovulatory cycles peaks at 70% Percentage of fertile ovulatory cycles peaks at 70% Increase likelihood of conceiving with long-term partner Increase likelihood of conceiving with long-term partner Encourage EPC to increase the “genetic quality or diversity of their offspring” ( Baker & Bellis, 1995; R.L. Smith, 1984 as cited in Buss, 2005). Encourage EPC to increase the “genetic quality or diversity of their offspring” ( Baker & Bellis, 1995; R.L. Smith, 1984 as cited in Buss, 2005). Adolescent promiscuity - normal development (Buss, 2004) Adolescent promiscuity - normal development (Buss, 2004) Encouraged in Mehinaku of Amizonia (Gregor, 1985 as cited in Buss, 2004) Encouraged in Mehinaku of Amizonia (Gregor, 1985 as cited in Buss, 2004)

32 Now What? Short-term mating behavior is an important part of the human sexual experience Short-term mating behavior is an important part of the human sexual experience Remember that along with the benefits, there is considerable risk Remember that along with the benefits, there is considerable risk Not likely to see changes in short-term behavior Not likely to see changes in short-term behavior Precaution must be taken to avoid harm to ones-self and potential partners Precaution must be taken to avoid harm to ones-self and potential partners

33 References Buss, D. M. (2004). Evolutionary Psychology: The new science of the mind (2 nd ed). Austin, TX: Pearson Education. Buss, D.M. (Ed.). (2005). Handbook of evolutionary psychology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Center for Disease Control: accessed Sept. 30, Center for Disease Control: accessed Sept. 30, Ellis, B. J., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J. Pettit, G. S., Woodward, L. (2003). Does father absences place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Child Development, 74, Simpson, J. A., & Gangestad, S.W. (1992) Sociosexuality and romantic partner choice. Journal of Personality, 60,


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