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L LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Interacting with L.

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Presentation on theme: "L LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Interacting with L."— Presentation transcript:

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2 L LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Interacting with L

3 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji© Objective: Interacting with language  know the metalanguage for interacting and communicating with language  have worked with a lot of practices in describing interaction and communication with language  You learn clause as exchange ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

4 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Interacting with language (1) Role in Exchange Commodity exchanged Goods & ServicesInformation Giving Initiation: Offer (polar interrogative, imperative, declarative, declarative + tag) Would you like this teapot? Expected response: accept Discretionary alternative: reject Initiation: Statement (declarative) He’s giving her the teapot. Expected response: acknowledge Discretionary alternative: contradict PROPOSALPROPOSITION GivingGiving, DemandingDemanding ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

5 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Interacting with language (2) Role in Exchange Commodity exchanged Goods & ServicesInformation Demanding Initiation: Command (imperative, polar and wh-interrogative, declarative) Give me that teapot. Expected response: undertake (comply with) Discretionary alternative: refuse Initiation: Question (polar and wh-interrogative) What is he giving her? Expected response: answer Discretionary alternative: disclaim PROPOSALPROPOSITION GivingGiving, DemandingDemanding

6 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Mood types Declarative Mood Indicative Imperative Interrogative Polar Wh ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

7 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Pattern in clause as exchange MOODRESIDUE SUBJECTFINITE POLARITY MODALITY TENSE PREDICATOR CIRC ADJUNCT CONJ ADJUNCTCONJ ADJUNCT MOOD ADJUNCT COMPLEMENT ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

8 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Unmarked Declarative (1)Declarative  Unfortunately we can’t come to the party.  The car had four bicycle wheels.  By this action she is transformed into a quasi-divine figure.  In the final scene she displays this. Comment Adjunct SubjectFinite - (Modal) PredicatorCirc Adjunct MoodResidue SubjectFinite + (Past)PredicatorComplement MoodResidue Circ AdjunctSubjectFinite + (Present)PredicatorComplement Res- Mood -idue Circ AdjunctSubjectFinite + (Present)PredicatorCirc Adjunct Res- Mood -idue AD1, 2, MD12MD

9 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Unmarked Declarative (2)Declarative  Jack could eat no fat  You will eat strawberries, sugar and cream  They open on Friday, don’t they?  The doctor will sign the script, won’t she? SubjectFinite + (future)PredicatorComplementFinite - (Modal) Subject MoodResidueMood tag SubjectFinite + (present)PredicatorAdjunctFinite - (Present) Subject MoodResidueMood tag SubjectFinite + (future)PredicatorComplement MoodResidue SubjectFinite + (modal)PredicatorComplement MoodResidue AD1, 2, MD12MD

10 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Marked Declarative & ExclamationDeclarative  Then came the production line.  ‘Stuff and nonsense’ said Alice loudly  Never had she seen such power invested in one woman  How banal these examples are! Mood AdjunctFinite + (Past)SubjectPredicatorComplement Mood Residue H- ComplementSubjectFinite + (Present)Predicator Res- Mood -idue ComplementFinite + (Past)PredicatorSubjectCirc Adjunct Re- Mood -s- Mood -idue Conj AdjunctFinite + (Past)PredicatorSubject Mood Residue Mood AD1, 2, MD12MD

11 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 InterrogativeInterrogative (1)  Does Penny play squash?  Can I get there by candlelight?  Who killed the man? Finite + (Present)SubjectPredicatorComplement MoodResidue Finite + (Modal)SubjectPredicatorCirc Adjunct MoodResidue Wh- SubjectFinite + (Past)PredicatorComplement MoodResidue Inter 1, 212

12 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 InterrogativeInterrogative (2)  Who has stolen my pen?  Who did you see?  Why didn’t she leave? Wh- SubjectFinite + (Present)PredicatorComplement MoodResidue Wh- ComplementFinite + (Past)SubjectPredicator Res- Mood -idue Wh- Circ AdjunctFinite – (Past)SubjectPredicator Res- Mood -idue Inter 1, 212

13 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 ImperativeImperative (1)  Don’t you put it there  Don’t put it there  Put it there  You, put it there Finite -SubjectPredicatorComplementCircumstantial Adjunct MoodResidue Finite -PredicatorComplementCircumstantial Adjunct MoodResidue PredicatorComplementCircumstantial Adjunct Residue SubjectPredicatorComplementCircumstantial Adjunct MoodResidue Imper 1, 212

14 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 ImperativeImperative (2)  Do put itthere  Let’s put it there  I need to see your passport  Can I see your passport? Finite +PredicatorComplementCircumstantial Adjunct MoodResidue SubjectPredicatorComplementCircumstantial Adjunct MoodResidue SubjectFinite + (Modal)PredicatorComplement MoodResidue Finite + (Modal)SubjectPredicatorComplement MoodResidue Imper 1, 212

15 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Metalanguage: describing interaction with L (1)  Two grammatical features that carry the main burden of interpersonal meanings are the SUBJECT and FINITE  Subject:  Realized by a nominal group  Responsible for the exchanges information, goods and service  Finite:  The expression of interpersonal meanings  The verbal group which expresses TENSE—a sign of time MODALITY—a sign of the speaker’s opinion, and POLARITY.  Subject and Finite combine to make the MOOD of the clause ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

16 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Metalanguage: describing interaction with L (2)  PREDICATOR (the doing, happening or being) is the rest of the verbal group  ADJUNCTS  Circumstantial Adjuncts which answer the questions how, when, where, by whom;  Conjunctive Adjuncts which have textual function: for instance, anyway, moreover, therefore, meanwhile, nevertheless;  Comment Adjuncts or Evaluative Comments which express the speaker’s comment on what he or she is saying: frankly, apparently, hopefully, to my surprise, unfortunately Pattern in C as Exchange

17 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Metalanguage: describing interaction with L (3)  COMPLEMENT  which answer the question what, to whom, did what  potential to be subject  nominal group acting to complete the argument set up in the clause.  RESIDUE  Predicator  Complement(s)  Adjunct(s)  VOCATIVE, direct address in spoken language  PERSON, the interactants (speaker and addressee)

18 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Mood Adjunct (within Mood system)  Polarity and modality Polarity and modality  Temporality Temporality  of mood of mood ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment Pattern in C as Exchange

19 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Polarity and modality  polarity: not, yes, no, so  probability: probably possibly, certainly, perhaps, maybe  usuallity: usually, sometimes, always, never, ever, seldom, rarely  readiness: willingly, readily, gladly, certainly, easily  obligation: definitely, absolutely, possibly, at all cost, by all means Mood adjunct

20 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Temporality  time: yet, still, already, once, soon, just  typically: occasionally, generally, regularly, mainly Mood adjunct

21 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Of Mood  obviousness: of course, surely, obviously, clearly  intensity: just, simply, merely, only, even, actually, really  degree: quite, almost, nearly, scarcely, hardly, absolutely, totally, utterly, entirely, completely  comment: hopefully, unfortunately, apparently Mood adjunct

22 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Minor speech function/clause  Exclamation  Protolanguage: wow, yuck, aha, ouch  Language: terrific, you sod, God’s boots, bugger you, bullshit  Calls  Vocative: Charlie, You there, Maam  Greeting  Salutation: hullo, welcome, goodbye, see you  Wishing: cheers, congratulations  Alarm  Warning: look out, carefull keepoff  Appeal: help, fire, a drink Mood adjunct ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

23 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Finite verbal operators Temporal operators PastPresentFuture PositiveDid, was Had, used to Does, is has Will, shall Would, should NegativeDid not, was not Hadn’t, didn’t + used to Does not, is not Has not Will not, shan’t Wouldn’t, shouldn’t Modal operators LowMedianHigh PositiveCan, may Could, might Will, would Is/was to Must, ought to Need, has/had to NegativeNeedn’t, doesn’t/didn’t + need to/have to Won’t, wouldn’t Shouldn’t (is/wasn’t to) Mustn’t, oughtn’t to Can’t, couldn’t,(may/might not, has/had not to) ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

24 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Modalization and Modulation commodity exchange speech function type of intermediacytypical realizationexample information Proposition: statement, question modalization probability (possible /probable /certain) finite modal operator modal adjunct (both the above) they must have known they certainly knew they certainly must have known usuality (sometimes /usually /always finite modal operator modal adjunct (both the above) it must happen it always happens it must always happen goods-&- service Proposal: command, offer modulation obligation (allowed /supposed /required) finite modal operator passive verb predicator you must be patient! you’re required to be patient! inclination (willing /keen /determined) finite modal operator adjective predicator I must win! I’m determined to win ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

25 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Tenor of the discourse  Agentive or societal role:  roles of the participants  Power and status:  equal or hierarchic  temporary or permanent  Social distance:  minimal or maximal  interact on a familiar and frequent basis or on a formality and objectivity Guide Step 1, 2, 3,123 T of D ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

26 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Guide to tenor of the discoursetenor of the discourse  Who is speaking?  Who is being spoken to?  What sort of social distance is there between the speakers?  Is the relation between speakers equal or unequal?  Are any items in the text positively or negatively appraised?  What are the appraised motifs? Step 1, 2, 3,123 T of D

27 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Segmenting text (step 1) O.K, I want you to go over And get the ball…. Now sit down there…. Sit down over there…. Now roll it Roll it over to Tiffany And she’ll push it back to you There you go (LAUGHTER) And back again (LAUGHTER) Oh not too hard (WARNING) You’ll hurt her There you go (LAUGHTER) Oh! O.K, pick it up And throw it … like that Oh (DISMAY) Go And get it Step 1, 2, 3,123 T of D

28 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Analyzing text (step 2)  The speaker tends to use imperative  The speaker demands goods and service that the other participants apparently comply  The relationship is quite unequal.  The speaker also appraises the addressee as in There you go (+ appraisal) and Oh, not too hard! You’ll hurt her (- appraisal)appraisal  The social distance is minimal Step 1, 2, 3,123 T of D

29 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 AppraisalAppraisal motifs  Interpersonal resources concerned with authorial attitude, social evaluation and the positioning of both reader and authorial voice. 11, 2, 323 ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

30 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 AppraisalAppraisal motifs  Engagement:  negotiating monoglossic or heteroglossic diversity, thus negotiating proposition or proposal (perhaps, it seems, he says, I declare, however, obviously) 11, 2, 323

31 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 AppraisalAppraisal motifs  Attitude:  Affect: +/- emotional response (like, fear)  Judgment: evaluation of human behavior (corruptly, skillfully)  Appreciation: evaluation of entities (beautiful, striking) 11, 2, 323

32 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 AppraisalAppraisal motifs  Graduation:  Force: raising and lowering intensity (graded) Implicit (adore, love, like) Explicit (slightly, somewhat, really)  Focus: sharpening and softening (non graded) Sharpen (a true friend) Soften (kind’v, sort’v, as good as) 11, 2, 323

33 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Describing context (step 3) Interpersonal meaningsTENOR OF DISCOURSECommentary Mood selection: mainly imperative – go, get, roll, pick up, throw, push, sit some declarative with probability/futurity – will push, will hurt Person selections: 2 nd = child addressee 3 rd = other child, ball Appraisal + Praise for the child’s capacity from mother – There you go - Warning that child’s action ‘too hard’ and could lead to hurting sibling As a result of our analysis and knowledge of context of culture we can write up our description Agentive or societal roles: Mother and children Status: unequal Social distance: minimal The mother is the only speaker. Almost all the clauses in the text are in imperative mood – the speaker demands action and the other participants apparently comply so the relationship between speakers is unequal. However, they seem very close, and they are familiar to each other so the social distance is minimal. Step 1, 2, 3,123 T of D

34 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 Assignment  Find a text, break it down into its clauses and put the clauses into the mood system (pattern), and write up the tenor of the discourse.  Find a short news item, break it down into its clauses and put the clauses into their appraisal values. ObjectiveObjective, Interacting w L, Mood, C as exchange, Metalanguage, Mood adjunct, Minor c, Finite verbal,Interacting w LMoodC as exchangeMetalanguageMood adjunctMinor cFinite verbal ModalizationModalization, T of D, Appraisal, AssignmentT of DAppraisalAssignment

35 LS Liliek Soepriatmadji©2008 THANK YOU


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