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Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis.

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1 Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Psychoanalysis

2 The mind is like an iceberg. Most of it is beneath the surface.

3 Parts of the mind According to Freud Conscious mind –Thoughts we are aware of –Examples? Unconscious mind –Wishes, thoughts, feelings, and memories of which we are unaware –Largest part of the mind –How do we access? Preconscious mind –Temporary storage; memories easily brought into consciousness –Examples?


5 Freud’s theory People driven by biological desires –Food –Water –Sex –Aggression

6 The id, ego, and superego The Id –Unconscious mind –Life and death instincts –Life instincts = positive constructive behaviors –Death instincts = aggression and destructiveness –Pleasure principle Wants IMMEDIATE satisfaction regardless of society’s rules or rights/feelings of others Examples?

7 The id, ego, and superego The Ego –The self –Organizes ways to get what we want –Works out compromises with id (the reality principle) –Often “referees” between id and superego –Delayed gratification Examples?

8 The id, ego, and superego The Superego –Develops as we experience rules & values of society –Requires internalizing of values –Represents our sense of morality Examples?


10 Should I eat a bacon-double cheese burger? What would Id say? –“Yes. It is yummy and I am hungry.” What would Superego say? –“No. It is bad for my health. It is not an ecologically sustainable way to eat.” How would Ego resolve conflict? –Use defense mechanism (rationalization) to satisfy id and superego. “Well, just this one time won’t hurt. I’m in a big hurry and wouldn’t it be worse if I had a sensible meal and then had to speed to get to my meeting on time?”

11 How are the id, ego, and superego at work (or not)? Pastor Ted Haggard was the leader of America's largest evangelical Christian association, the founder and pastor of one of America's most famous mega-churches, a campaigner for "family values" and a vocal opponent of gay marriage legislation. Then a male prostitute came forward and claimed that Haggard had paid him for services and meth. Haggard admitted to having paid for a massage and said that he threw the drugs away. George and the éclair

12 Freud’s theory Unresolved conflicts can lead to anxiety –Objective anxiety –Neurotic anxiety –Moral anxiety These are the warning bells!

13 Anxieties Objective anxiety –Fear of tangible dangers (fire, wild animals, etc.) –Bad when carried to extreme Neurotic anxiety –Fear of punishment for expressing id-dominated behavior –Not afraid of instinct; afraid of punishment Moral anxiety –Conflict between id and superego –Often leads to shame and guilt

14 Freud’s theory Defense mechanisms –Unconscious tactics –Goal Prevent threats from surfacing Disguise threats that do surface

15 Defense mechanisms Eight groups (each has a defense mechanism) Task –Page 403 in textbook –Explain to class how defense mechanism works –Create a skit that shows defense mechanism in action

16 Defense mechanisms Displacement Group presentation Valentine’s Day g g

17 Defense mechanisms Denial Group presentation The Big Bang Theory R0K9jA&feature=endscreen R0K9jA&feature=endscreen

18 Defense mechanisms Rationalization Group presentation Yes Man Y Y

19 Defense mechanisms Sublimation Group presentation Mean Girls M M

20 Defense mechanisms Reaction Formation Group presentation Happy Endings

21 Defense mechanisms Regression Group presentation Friends &feature=autoplay&list=PL5C340852612A4869 &lf=results_video&playnext=2 &feature=autoplay&list=PL5C340852612A4869 &lf=results_video&playnext=2

22 Defense mechanisms Repression Group presentation Big Bang Theory

23 Defense mechanisms Projection Group presentation Friends &feature=related &feature=related

24 Defense mechanisms How many different defense mechanisms can you identify? Friends _KAmls _KAmls Reflection exercise Be conscious of your own defense mechanisms. Which ones do you tend to exhibit? Explain!

25 Name that defense mechanism 1.A physically abusive parent claiming that a beating is good for the child. 2.An 8-year-old child whose parents are getting divorced starts wetting the bed. 3.A young woman forcing the memories of sexual abuse into her unconscious mind. 4.After suffering major losses in the stock market, Jim trades in his luxury car for a small, cheaper car claiming that he wants to help stop air pollution. 1. Rationalization 2. Regression 3. Repression 4. Reaction Formation

26 Name that defense mechanism 5. After getting fired, Mr. James has been grumpy and short with his wife. 6. An aggressive young man takes up rugby to re-channel his aggressive impulses. 7. A student forgot that his dreaded final exam in geometry was Friday, despite having it marked on his calendar for weeks. 8. A young woman failed a class at school. She asks her teacher what she can do to pass the course. 5. Displacement 6. Sublimation 7. Repression 8. Denial

27 Name that defense mechanism 9. A student plans to cheat on an upcoming exam, which interprets the anxiety of students who desire to cheat on the exam. 10. A person frequently makes anti-gay slurs, yet harbors romantic feelings for a same-sex friend. 11.Tory was convicted for being a Peeping Tom. Now, he has left behind his sordid past and is a photographer for Playboy magazine. 12. After being criticized at work, Thomas argued with his wife and kicked the dog. 9. Rationalization 10. Denial 11. Sublimation 12. Displacement

28 Freud’s theory Personality development –Develops through childhood –Series of psycho-sexual stages –Different part of body becomes primary focus of pleasure –Failure to resolve conflict can lead to fixation

29 Oral stage Birth to 18 months Mouth is center of pleasure Problems could arise if weaned from breast or bottle too soon or too late Adult issues (if unresolved) –Smoking –Over eating –Talking too much

30 Anal stage Ages two to three Toilet training (anus) is center of pleasure Problems could arise if too soon or too late Adult issues (if unresolved) Anal retentive –Stingy and neat Anal aggressive –Disorganized or impulsive

31 Anal stage

32 Phallic stage Ages three to six Genitalia is center of pleasure Different for boys and girls Unresolved conflicts lead to relationship issues as adults

33 Phallic stage – Boys Sexual feelings for mother Unconsciously wants to get rid of father –Oedipus complex Ego represses desires Boy strives to be like father

34 Phallic stage – Girls Strong feelings for mother Realizes she has no penis –Penis envy Transfers feelings to father –Electra complex Ego represses desires Girl strives to be like mother

35 Latency stage Age six until puberty Sexual impulses dormant Child focuses on education & other issues Social skills develop Children generally play with same sex children

36 Genital stage From puberty on Genitals become source of pleasure Degree of fulfillment depends on resolution of conflicts from earlier stages

37 Assessing the Unconscious Freudian slips Lapse in speech which Freud believed reflected unconscious desires or beliefs atch?v=Hpu_iEsISuI atch?v=Hpu_iEsISuI Free association –Have patient do all of the talking – about anything – and then interpret Dream analysis –Interpreting latent (hidden) content of actual events (manifest content) of dreams

38 Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler Karen Horney Carl Jung Id impulses didn’t drive personality Desire for control drove personality People born with “life force” Introversion and extroversion developed personality Womb envy – men can’t bear children; life less meaningful Cultural factors create inferiority in women – not penis envy

39 Modern Psychoanalysis Reject: –Psychosexual stages –Id, ego, superego Maintain: −Role of the unconscious −Inner conflicts and Defense mechanisms

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