2The mind is like an iceberg. Most of it is beneath the surface.
3Parts of the mind According to Freud Conscious mind Thoughts we are aware ofExamples?Unconscious mindWishes, thoughts, feelings, and memories of which we are unawareLargest part of the mindHow do we access?Preconscious mindTemporary storage; memories easily brought into consciousness
5Freud’s theory People driven by biological desires Food Water Sex Aggression
6The id, ego, and superego Examples? The Id Unconscious mind Life and death instinctsLife instincts = positive constructive behaviorsDeath instincts = aggression and destructivenessPleasure principleWants IMMEDIATE satisfaction regardless of society’s rules or rights/feelings of othersExamples?
7The id, ego, and superego Examples? The Ego The self Organizes ways to get what we wantWorks out compromises with id (the reality principle)Often “referees” between id and superegoDelayed gratificationExamples?
8The id, ego, and superego Examples? The Superego Develops as we experience rules & values of societyRequires internalizing of valuesRepresents our sense of moralityExamples?
10Should I eat a bacon-double cheese burger? What would Id say?“Yes. It is yummy and I am hungry.”What would Superego say?“No. It is bad for my health. It is not an ecologically sustainable way to eat.”How would Ego resolve conflict?Use defense mechanism (rationalization) to satisfy id and superego. “Well, just this one time won’t hurt. I’m in a big hurry and wouldn’t it be worse if I had a sensible meal and then had to speed to get to my meeting on time?”
11How are the id, ego, and superego at work (or not)? Pastor Ted Haggard was the leader of America's largest evangelical Christian association, the founder and pastor of one of America's most famous mega-churches, a campaigner for "family values" and a vocal opponent of gay marriage legislation. Then a male prostitute came forward and claimed that Haggard had paid him for services and meth. Haggard admitted to having paid for a massage and said that he threw the drugs away.George and the éclair
12Freud’s theory These are the warning bells! Unresolved conflicts can lead to anxietyObjective anxietyNeurotic anxietyMoral anxietyThese are the warning bells!
13Anxieties Objective anxiety Fear of tangible dangers (fire, wild animals, etc.)Bad when carried to extremeNeurotic anxietyFear of punishment for expressing id-dominated behaviorNot afraid of instinct; afraid of punishmentMoral anxietyConflict between id and superegoOften leads to shame and guilt
14Freud’s theory Defense mechanisms Unconscious tactics Goal Prevent threats from surfacingDisguise threats that do surface
15Defense mechanisms Eight groups (each has a defense mechanism) Task Page 403 in textbookExplain to class how defense mechanism worksCreate a skit that shows defense mechanism in action
16Defense mechanisms Displacement Group presentation Valentine’s Day
17Defense mechanisms Denial Group presentation The Big Bang Theory
18Defense mechanisms Rationalization Group presentation Yes Man
19Defense mechanisms Sublimation Group presentation Mean Girls
20Defense mechanisms Reaction Formation Group presentation Happy Endings
21Defense mechanisms Regression Group presentation Friends
22Defense mechanisms Repression Group presentation Big Bang Theory
23Defense mechanisms Projection Group presentation Friends
24Defense mechanisms http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hM2UV_KAmls How many different defense mechanisms can you identify?FriendsReflection exerciseBe conscious of your own defense mechanisms. Which ones do you tend to exhibit? Explain!
25Name that defense mechanism A physically abusive parent claiming that a beating is good for the child.An 8-year-old child whose parents are getting divorced starts wetting the bed.A young woman forcing the memories of sexual abuse into her unconscious mind.After suffering major losses in the stock market, Jim trades in his luxury car for a small, cheaper car claiming that he wants to help stop air pollution.1. Rationalization2. Regression3. Repression4. Reaction Formation
26Name that defense mechanism 5. After getting fired, Mr. James has been grumpy and short with his wife.6. An aggressive young man takes up rugby to re-channel his aggressive impulses.7. A student forgot that his dreaded final exam in geometry was Friday, despite having it marked on his calendar for weeks.8. A young woman failed a class at school. She asks her teacher what she can do to pass the course.5. Displacement6. Sublimation7. Repression8. Denial
27Name that defense mechanism 9. A student plans to cheat on an upcoming exam, which interprets the anxiety of students who desire to cheat on the exam.10. A person frequently makes anti-gay slurs, yet harbors romantic feelings for a same-sex friend.11.Tory was convicted for being a Peeping Tom. Now, he has left behind his sordid past and is a photographer for Playboy magazine.12. After being criticized at work, Thomas argued with his wife and kicked the dog.9. Rationalization10. Denial11. Sublimation12. Displacement
28Freud’s theory Personality development Develops through childhood Series of psycho-sexual stagesDifferent part of body becomes primary focus of pleasureFailure to resolve conflict can lead to fixation
29Oral stage Birth to 18 months Mouth is center of pleasure Problems could arise if weaned from breast or bottle too soon or too lateAdult issues (if unresolved)SmokingOver eatingTalking too much
30Anal stage Ages two to three Toilet training (anus) is center of pleasureProblems could arise if too soon or too lateAdult issues (if unresolved)Anal retentiveStingy and neatAnal aggressiveDisorganized or impulsive
32Phallic stage Ages three to six Genitalia is center of pleasure Different for boys and girlsUnresolved conflicts lead to relationship issues as adults
33Phallic stage – Boys Sexual feelings for mother Unconsciously wants to get rid of fatherOedipus complexEgo represses desiresBoy strives to be like father
34Phallic stage – Girls Strong feelings for mother Realizes she has no penisPenis envyTransfers feelings to fatherElectra complexEgo represses desiresGirl strives to be like mother
35Latency stage Age six until puberty Sexual impulses dormant Child focuses on education & other issuesSocial skills developChildren generally play with same sex children
36Genital stage From puberty on Genitals become source of pleasure Degree of fulfillment depends on resolution of conflicts from earlier stages
37Assessing the Unconscious Freudian slipsLapse in speech which Freud believed reflected unconscious desires or beliefsFree associationHave patient do all of the talking – about anything – and then interpretDream analysisInterpreting latent (hidden) content of actual events (manifest content) of dreams
38Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler Carl Jung Karen Horney Womb envy – men can’t bear children; life less meaningfulCultural factors create inferiority in women – not penis envyCarl JungKaren HorneyId impulses didn’t drive personalityDesire for control drove personalityPeople born with “life force”Introversion and extroversion developed personality
39Modern Psychoanalysis Maintain:Role of the unconsciousInner conflicts and Defense mechanismsReject:Psychosexual stagesId, ego, superego