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The Other Kind of Induction John P. McCaskey History · Philosophy · Case Study.

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1 The Other Kind of Induction John P. McCaskey History · Philosophy · Case Study

2 The Other Kind of Induction “Socratic Induction” Two things may be ascribed to Socrates: inductive reason- ing and universal definitions. Which kind of argument [is] called by the learned, “Socrates Induction” has not yet been... tried except only by Plato... in settling on definitions [Anatomist should proceed] according to the rule of Socrates. Socrates made extensive use of it in his discussions

3 Particular & universal proposition s Particular things & universal terms Two Conceptions of Induction Induction is a proceeding from particulars to a universal.

4 Man, horse, mule are long-lived. Bileless animals are man, horse, mule. Bileless animals are long-lived. It is true of Father, Son and Holy Ghost. Father, Son and Holy Ghost are God. It is true of God. This animal chews by moving its lower jaw. That animal chews by moving its lower jaw. The other animal chews by moving its lower jaw. All animals chew by moving the lower jaw. What is true of the observed is true of all. This is true of the observed. This is true of all. Scholastic Induction Particular & universal proposition s

5 Induction takes its force from the syllogism. So it suffices to discuss the syllogism which is, as it were, principal. Induction, therefore, so far as it is an argument, may, of course, be stated syllogistically. This view takes inductions to be defective deductions—deductions that do not quite make the grade. An inductive inference can always be looked upon as an aspiring but failed deductive inference. Scholastic Induction Particular & universal proposition s Particulars and universals are primarily propositions

6 A kind of inference that gains force the more it is like a complete enumeration, an argument that can be rendered as a syllogism. Prior Analytics B 23 misunderstood A kind of inference inferior to deduction. Positive instances determine reliability. Particulars and universals are primarily propositions Scholastic Induction

7 Particular & universal proposition s Particular things & universal terms Two Conceptions of Induction Particulars and universals are primarily propositions Induction is a proceeding from particulars to a universal.

8 Prosecuting a wrongdoer, even if your own father. What is piety? That’s an example. What is piety itself? Doing what pleases the gods. But gods disagree. And there are many kinds of disagreement: Disagreement over which number is greater. Disagreement over which thing is larger. Disagreement over which thing is heavier. Disagreement over just and unjust. Disagreement over beautiful and ugly. Disagreement over good and bad. Piety is what pleases all gods. But is it pious because it pleases the gods or does it please the gods because it is pious? What is loved vs. what loves. What is the difference? What is led vs. what leads. What is seen vs. what sees. So... what is admired vs. what admires. I don’t know which. Let’s start over. Isn’t everything pious also just but not vice versa? Yes. Then piety is a kind of justice. What kind? Socratic Induction Two things may be ascribed to Socrates: inductive reasoning and universal definitions.

9 A kind of inference that gains force the more it is like a complete enumeration, an argument that can be rendered as a syllogism. Prior Analytics B 23 misunderstood A kind of inference inferior to deduction. Positive instances determine reliability. Particulars and universals are primarily propositions A compare-and- contrast process for discovering properties that characterize all members of a kind, some of which are unique to the kind, some of which even define the kind. Topics Posterior Analytics Socrates Not an inference and not inferior to deduction. Breadth and depth of comparisons determine reliability. Particulars and universals are primarily things, concepts, or terms. Scholastic Induction Socratic Induction Ampliation takes place at the propositional level. Ampliation takes place at the conceptual level.

10 Socratic Induction Prosecuting a wrongdoer, even if your own father. What is piety? That’s an example. What is piety itself? Doing what pleases the gods. But gods disagree. And there are many kinds of disagreement: Disagreement over which number is greater. Disagreement over which thing is larger. Disagreement over which thing is heavier. Disagreement over just and unjust. Disagreement over beautiful and ugly. Disagreement over good and bad. Piety is what pleases all gods. But is it pious because it pleases the gods or does it please the gods because it is pious? What is loved vs. what loves. What is the difference? What is led vs. what leads. What is seen vs. what sees. So... what is admired vs. what admires. I don’t know which. Let’s start over. Isn’t everything pious also just but not vice versa? Yes. Then piety is a kind of justice. What kind? Two things may be ascribed to Socrates: inductive reasoning and universal definitions. Socrates

11 Categories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics BookII Ἐπαγωγὴ μὲν οὖν ἐστι καὶ ὁ ἐξ ἐπαγωγῆς συλλογισμὸς τὸ διὰ τοῦ ἑτέρου θάτερον ἄκρον τῷ μέσῳ συλλογίσασθαι. Ἐπαγωγὴ μὲν οὖν ἐστι καὶ ὁ ἐξ ἐπαγωγῆς συλλογισμὸς τὸ διὰ τοῦ ἑτέρου θάτερον ἄκρον τῷ μέσῳ συλλογίσασθαι. Induction then is— or the from-induction deduction— deducing one extreme to the middle through the other extreme. Induction then is— or the from-induction deduction— deducing one extreme to the middle through the other extreme. Socrates Of the two deductions, then, the “induction” one, that is the “from-induction deduction” is deducing that one extreme belongs to the middle through the other extreme. Of the two deductions, then, the “induction” one, that is the “from-induction deduction” is deducing that one extreme belongs to the middle through the other extreme. Socratic Induction Scholastic Induction Aristotle

12 Socratic Induction Categories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics Topics Aristotle Socrates Ensure property applies in individual cases.Ensure property applies in individual cases. Test kinds broader and narrower.Test kinds broader and narrower. Identify linked contraries.Identify linked contraries. Ensure the predicate can be applied broadly.Ensure the predicate can be applied broadly. Use terms that are unambiguous.Use terms that are unambiguous. Identify temporal qualifications.Identify temporal qualifications. Identify dependencies.Identify dependencies. Use language that makes clear in what way exceptions are allowed.Use language that makes clear in what way exceptions are allowed. Check relationship of whole to parts.Check relationship of whole to parts. Be clear whether relationship is absolute or relative.Be clear whether relationship is absolute or relative Use observations and comparisons to... BookV

13 Socratic Induction Aristotle Socrates Cicero GalenStoicsEpicureansQuintilian

14 Aristotle Socrates Cicero GalenStoicsEpicureansQuintilian Scholastic Induction Neo-Platonists Clement Simplicius Philoponus Alexander of Aphrodisias Socratic Induction The great Alexandrian synthesis: better known by nature vs. better known to usbetter known by nature vs. better known to us prior vs. posteriorprior vs. posterior knowing the fact vs. knowing the reasoned factknowing the fact vs. knowing the reasoned fact deduction vs. inductiondeduction vs. induction deduction as a priori vs. induction as a posteriorideduction as a priori vs. induction as a posteriori Makes Prior Analytics B 23 the definitive text First to suggest that induction gains its force by a complete enumeration of particulars.

15 al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Boethius Neo-Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus Scholastic Induction 6 th c. → 12 th c. Study of the Organon IsagogeIsagoge CategoriesCategories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics TopicsTopics Peter of Spain Zabarella AlbertAquinasScotusOckham

16 al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Boethius Neo-Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus Scholastic Induction Peter of Spain Zabarella AlbertAquinasScotusOckham [In induction it] is required to suppose that he has listed all the things.... One cannot in virtue of the fact that Socrates and Plato and Cicero run, induce of necessity that every man runs.

17 al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Boethius Neo-Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus Scholastic Induction Peter of Spain Zabarella AlbertAquinasScotusOckham Devices for addressing the conflict between induction as a kind of defective syllogism and induction found elsewhere in the corpus: Formal vs. material reduction to syllogism Formally valid vs. materially valid Regular induction vs. abstraction Regular induction vs. demonstrative induction Use of “et cetera” 6 th c. → 12 th c. Study of the Organon IsagogeIsagoge CategoriesCategories On Interpretation Prior Analytics Posterior Analytics TopicsTopics

18 Aristotle Socrates Cicero al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Peter of Spain Boethius Neo-Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus GalenStoicsEpicureansQuintilian Zabarella RenaissanceHumanists AlbertAquinasScotusOckham VallaAgricolaNifo Scholastic Induction Socratic Induction Cicero defines induction as follows.... Boethius, who followed a different school, disagrees...

19 Aristotle Socrates Cicero Bacon Whewell GalenStoicsEpicureansQuintilian RenaissanceHumanists Socratic Induction Idols Concepts, not propositions Comparisons, not enumerations The predicate, not the subject al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Peter of Spain Boethius Neo-Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus Zabarella AlbertAquinasScotusOckham Scholastic Induction Hume

20 Aristotle Socrates Cicero Bacon Whewell GalenStoicsEpicureansQuintilian RenaissanceHumanists Socratic Induction al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Peter of Spain Boethius Neo-Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus Zabarella AlbertAquinasScotusOckham Scholastic Induction Mill Whately

21 Mill Whately Every Tom, Dick, Harry, etc. is an animal. [ Every man is Tom, Dick, Harry, etc. ] Therefore, every man is an animal. [Induction is] a Syllogism in Barbara with the major* Premiss suppressed. * Not the minor, as Aldrich represents it. Every induction may be thrown into the form of a syllogism by supplying a major premise.... The uniformity of nature will appear as the ultimate major premise of all inductions. [ What is true of the observed is true of all. ] This is true of the observed. Therefore, this is true of all. To the Deductive Method... the human mind is indebted for its most conspicuous triumphs in the investigation of nature. The Deductive Method... is destined to henceforth irrevocably to predominate in the course of scientific investigation.

22 Aristotle Socrates Cicero Bacon Whewell GalenStoicsEpicureansQuintilian RenaissanceHumanists Socratic Induction al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Peter of Spain Boethius Neo-Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus Zabarella AlbertAquinasScotusOckham Scholastic Induction Mill Whately

23 The Case of Cholera

24 1820 s 1830 s 1840 s 1850 s 1860 s 1870 s 1880 s 1890 s 1900 s 1910 s 1920 s C. accidentalis C. spontanea

25 C. accidentalis Epidemic C. C. Morbus = 1820 s 1830 s 1840 s 1850 s 1860 s 1870 s 1880 s 1890 s 1900 s 1910 s 1920 s 1825

26 C. spontanea C. accidentalis Epidemic C. C. Morbus ≠ ? 1820 s 1830 s 1840 s 1850 s 1860 s 1870 s 1880 s 1890 s 1900 s 1910 s 1920 s 1832 =

27 Epidemic Cholera Cholera Morbus Broad Street Pump Epidemic 1820 s 1830 s 1840 s 1850 s 1860 s 1870 s 1880 s 1890 s 1900 s 1910 s 1920 s 1854 C. spontanea C. accidentalis

28 1820 s 1830 s 1840 s 1850 s 1860 s 1870 s 1880 s 1890 s 1900 s 1910 s 1920 s Epidemic Cholera Cholera Morbus Asiatic Cholera Bilious Cholera European Cholera Cholera Infantum Cholera Morbus 1870 C. spontanea C. accidentalis

29 1820 s 1830 s 1840 s 1850 s 1860 s 1870 s 1880 s 1890 s 1900 s 1910 s 1920 s Epidemic Cholera Cholera Morbus Asiatic Cholera Bilious Cholera European Cholera Cholera Infantum Cholera Morbus Robert Koch Louis Pasteur Cholera Outbreak Cairo 1883 C. spontanea C. accidentalis True cholera (wirklich, echt)

30 1820 s 1830 s 1840 s 1850 s 1860 s 1870 s 1880 s 1890 s 1900 s 1910 s 1920 s Epidemic Cholera Cholera Morbus Asiatic Cholera Bilious Cholera European Cholera Cholera Infantum Cholera Morbus Asiatic Cholera  Cholera : Cholera Infantum Cholera Morbus

31 Cholera is a malady characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal griping, lack of urination, and spasms in the leg. Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae. Nominal Definition Definition by Formal Cause General Statements Universal Statements And if I ever found one that wasn’t _____ I wouldn’t call it a ____________ Tides are regular rising and falling of sea levels that occur twice a day. Tides are regular rising and falling of sea levels caused by gravitational forces. Dew is moisture on the ground after nights when there was no rain. Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation. Electrical resistance is a material’s opposition to the passage of electricity. The resistance of a device is the ratio of voltage across it to current through it.

32 Components of a Philosophy of Socratic Induction Ampliation takes place at the conceptual level. 1

33 Components of a Philosophy of Socratic Induction General Statements Universal Statements All Ps are Q. 2

34 Cholera is a malady characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal griping, lack of urination, and spasms in the leg. Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae. Synthetic a posteriori Analytic Tides are regular rising and falling of sea levels that occur twice a day. Tides are regular rising and falling of sea levels caused by gravitational forces. Dew is moisture on the ground after nights when there was no rain. Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation. Electrical resistance is a material’s opposition to the passage of electricity. The resistance of a device is the ratio of voltage across it to current through it. Components of a Philosophy of Socratic Induction 3

35 Cholera is a malady characterized by vomiting, diarrhea, intestinal griping, lack of urination, and spasms in the leg. Cholera is an intestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae. Formal Cause Tides are regular rising and falling of sea levels that occur twice a day. Tides are regular rising and falling of sea levels caused by gravitational forces. Dew is moisture on the ground after nights when there was no rain. Dew is water in the form of droplets that appears on thin, exposed objects in the morning or evening due to condensation. Electrical resistance is a material’s opposition to the passage of electricity. The resistance of a device is the ratio of voltage across it to current through it. Components of a Philosophy of Socratic Induction 4 Material and Efficient Causes

36 Components of a Philosophy of Socratic Induction 5 Boundaries can be changed. Personal and discretionary Good, bad, better, worse Evolve and mature Boundaries differ in stability. Organic theory of concept-formation

37 Particular & universal propositions Particular things & universal terms Induction is a proceeding from particulars to a universal. Bacon Whewell Renaissance Humanists Aristotle Socrates Cicero Galen Stoics Epicurean s Quintilian Socratic Induction al-Farabi Averroes Avicenna Peter of Spain Boethius Neo- Platonists Clement Alexander of Aphrodisias Simplicius Philoponus Zabarella Albert Aquinas Scotus Ockham Scholastic Induction McCaskey PopperSalmonRescher Keynes Bain Jevons Ampliation takes place at the conceptual level. Mill Whately All Ps are Q. Analytic a posteriori FormalCauses


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