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I) Roots of Conflict A) Wilmot Proviso failed proposal to keep slavery out of the Mexican Cession (led to the “Gag Rule”)

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Presentation on theme: "I) Roots of Conflict A) Wilmot Proviso failed proposal to keep slavery out of the Mexican Cession (led to the “Gag Rule”)"— Presentation transcript:


2 I) Roots of Conflict A) Wilmot Proviso failed proposal to keep slavery out of the Mexican Cession (led to the “Gag Rule”)

3 B) Compromise of 1850 California would come in to the Union as a free state; New Mexico & Utah Territories formed with no mention of slavery; slave trade ended in Washington DC; & the fugitive slave law toughened

4 C) Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)

5 D) Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) 1) “popular sovereignty” having a state decide for itself whether or not to allow slavery (repealed the Missouri Compromise) 2) Republican Party formed as an antislavery party made up of abolitionists, “Free Soilers”, &“conscience Whigs”

6 3) “Bleeding Kansas”

7 E) Dred Scott Supreme Court Decision (1857): Blacks had no rights & Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional

8 F) Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858) series of debates between Illinois Senator Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln that made Lincoln a national figure on the issue of slavery

9 G) John Brown’s Raid on Harper’s Ferry, VA (1859) led to the creation of the Confederate army (“meteor of the war”)

10 H) Abolitionists 1) William Lloyd Garrison’s The Liberator anti-slavery newspaper 2) Frederick Douglass

11 3) Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad called “Moses” by the slaves that she led north to freedom along the Underground Railroad (a series of safe house mainly leading to “free states” in the North)

12 I) Abraham Lincoln wins 1860 Presidential Election (1 st Republican President) calling for a restriction of slavery’s westward spread—not abolition 1) “…a house divided against itself cannot stand…” the country cannot remain half-slave and half-free—it must become all one thing or all another

13 J) South Carolina secedes from the Union


15 K) Jefferson Davis elected President of the Confederacy Confederate capital later moved to Richmond, VA II) The Civil War Begins: 4:30am, April 12, 1861 (Ft. Sumter, Charleston Harbor, SC) A) Lincoln suspends habeas corpus

16 III) Robert E. Lee: “…sacrifice everything but honor…” wouldn’t fight against Virginia (sectionalism) A) Arlington National Cemetery nation’s most hallowed ground

17 IV) Stonewall Jackson Confederate general who held his ground at Manassas, VA & helped win the battle (was accidentally killed by his own men at the Battle of Chancellorsville) V) George McClellan takes command but is unwilling to fight

18 VI) Shiloh, TN: changed people’s perception of the war made people realize that the war was going to be longer & bloodier than expected

19 VII) Antietam, MD: “bloodiest day in American history” In 1862, Lincoln told his cabinet that he had decided to free the slaves, but they worried that doing so without a victory on the battlefield would look desperate—so he decided to wait for a victory.

20 A) Emancipation Proclamation (1863) freed only those slaves in areas controlled by the Confederacy

21 VIII) Gettysburg, PA: largest battle of the war 1) 2 nd Day: Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (Little Round Top) saved the Union by holding his ground

22 2) 3 rd Day: Pickett’s Charge (turning point of the war) along with Vicksburg

23 IX) Vicksburg, MS: “key” to the Confederacy last Southern stronghold on the Mississippi “prairie dog town”

24 X) Grant Takes Command: “…superior numbers & doggedness…” even though the South had superior generals—at first—the North had more people & industry which Grant took advantage of as he kept on the attack & wore down Lee’s forces

25 XI) “Copperheads” Northern “Peace Democrats” who ran against Lincoln in 1864 promising an end to the war “with or without” victory (led by George McClellan)

26 A) William T. Sherman Takes Atlanta—Lincoln wins re-election

27 XII) Sherman’s March to the Sea—from Atlanta to Savannah to take Georgia out of the war

28 1 st inaugural (1861): let’s not fight Gettysburg Address (1863): finish the job 2 nd inaugural (1865): reunification ratify 13 th Amendment (outlawing slavery) & stop fighting XIII) Lincoln’s Reconstruction Plan (Presidential Reconstruction) A) easy on the South

29 XIV) Appomattox Courthouse, VA. (1865) Lee surrenders to Grant

30 XV) Assassination: John Wilkes Booth A) Ford’s Theater, Washington, DC B) Lincoln dies the next morning: “…now he belongs to the ages…”

31 XVI) Congressional (Radical) Reconstruction punish the south (military occupation & new state constitutions ratifying 14 th & 15 th amendments)

32 A) scalawags Southerners who “collaborated” with the North during Reconstruction B) carpetbaggers Northerners who came to the South during Reconstruction

33 C) Freedman’s Bureau 1 st government relief agency set up to help former slaves find food, shelter, employment, & an education (Morehouse College)

34 D) Johnson’s Impeachment (Tenure of Office Act) Radical Republicans failed to remove Andrew Johnson by one vote

35 XVII) End of Reconstruction: Rutherford B. Hayes (1876) Samuel Tilden won the election, but there were 20 disputed electoral votes in the South. A committee, set up to determine who got the votes, gave them to Hayes after he promised to end Reconstruction. He became President by one electoral vote.

36 19 XVIII) Aftermath: Blacks lose freedoms gained during the war which set stage for Civil Rights movement of the 1960s A) Democrats regain control of the South kept former slaves as second-class citizens C) Black Codes D) Jim Crow Laws segregation laws (keep blacks & whites apart) B) Ku Klux Klan

37 E) Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 Supreme Court decision that legalized segregation as long as it was “separate but equal” (overturned with 1954’s Brown v. Board of Education)

38 1) NAACP (1909) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People a) W.E.B. Dubois vs. Booker T. Washington Dubois wanted to fight for Black rights, while Washington wanted them to lift themselves up and not rely on Whites

39 F) Sharecropping a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of his crop

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