Presentation on theme: "Early Childhood Development in Public Policies - Why and How?"— Presentation transcript:
1 Early Childhood Development in Public Policies - Why and How? Inter-American SymposiumUnderstanding the State of the Art in Early Childhood Education and Care – The first three years of lifeMay 14-18, 2007 OAS Washington DC,Nurper Ulkuer, Senior Advisor – ECD UNICEF New York
2 Social / Public Policies Social Policy is defined as a series of public policies designed to promote social development, undertaken by a variety of actors through a range of instruments”WB Concept Note – New Frontiers of Social Policy-2005According to the World Bank’s concept note – New Frontiers of Social Policy, The key to socially sustainable development is the creation of inclusive and accountable institutions and the strenghtening of social capital across socio-cultural groups and trust between state and citizen to create socially cohesive societies. For the purpose of formulating social polices and series of public policies, it should be recognized that social development involves multiple levels of engagement at the level of individuals, social groups and society. As a working definition, social development can be described as the process of increasing;The capacity of social groups to exercise agancy, tranform their relationship with other groups and particiapte in development processesThe ability of society to reconcile the interest of its constituent elements, governs itself peacefully, and manage change.Social policies then become public policies aimed at three levels:Promote equality of opportunity to benefit individuals (micro-level),Equality of agency and institutional reform to benefit groups (meso-level), and horizontal and vertical social integration to benefit society (macro level).Equality of opportunity has been the most common principle for public action to redress inequality and discrimination.
3 Puplic Policies – supply Sides Economic Growth Strategiespro-poor (pro-young)-targeted infrastructure development – governanceImprove service deliveryhealth, education and social protectionSupply-side bottle necks – improved human capacity
4 Public Polices – demand side A multi-sectoral approachInvestment in a day-care programs can be co-targeted with increased participation of girls in educationA targeted cash transfer approachProviding cash to the poor – with or without a conditionality
5 Purpose of the presentation To discussWhy should ECD be included in the series of all public policies? Both on supply and demand sidesHow to include ECD in Public Polices?
6 Continuum of Child Development 8 -11yrsCompletion of primary schooling and gain of improved life chances.(Classes 3-5)Gender Socialization5-8yrsAdjustment to formal school and learning of three R’s while maintaining good health.(Classes 1-2)Gender Socialization3-6 yrsGender Socialization, psychosocial interaction, play,school readiness1 month-3yrsNutrition security,Vaccine cognitive stimulationGender SocializationPrenatal-1 monthSurvival, Gender Socialization
7 UNICEF Conceptual Framework-revised Enabling EnvironmentCare/StimulationFoodHealthBasic causesPoverty, Status of Women
9 What is the result?200 Million Children are not achieving their full developmental Potential – The Lancet ECD Series-2007Children are left home alone – Jodi Heyman – Forgotten FamiliesDomestic violence and Child abuse? – UN StudyMillions of children are OVCs -Exclusion –
10 The inter-generational cycle of poverty Arrows show high probabilities, no strict causality
11 ECD helps break the inter-generational cycle of poverty Arrows show high probabilities, no strict causalityMACROECONOMIC& SOCIAL POLICYLOWERPROBABILITIESECDLOWERSPROBABILITIES
12 Enabling environment -integrating programs around the family ResourcesServicesKnowledge/SkillsCaregiver/Child
13 Opportunidades - Mexico Since mid-1997 combats povertyCash to mothers – on condition to send daughter t schoolPositive results in educational achievements and nutritional status of the childrenLittle attention to early childcare and development to improve psychomotor and cognitive development
14 Brazil’s Bolsa Escola & Poupanaca-Escola Since 1995:Provides support to families with children 7 to 14 years.Stipend to the families on condition that student passes his/her gradeNo attention to psycho-social and cognitive development in early years –
15 Chile - Solidarios Created in 2002 -to reach 225,000 families Three componentsFamily support – CTTMonetary SubsidiaryPriority access to other social protection programmesLittle attention to ECD…
16 Wawa Wasi- PeruSpontaneous community organization” in response to the lack of childcare services for working mothers.Government provides basic financing and trained supervision.Is one of the good examples for – demand side policy
17 Subsidized day care - Canada Addresses the needs of poor families and children in Canada -Sustained employment opportunities for parentsQuality care for children – especially coming from single parent families (77%),
18 Social Protection System for all Children in Chile Starting April 2007The CCC will be implemented progressively in 100 municipalities during the course of 2007.The following components are expected to be developed during this year:Citizen education programGuide to pregnancy and childbirth entitled Empezando a crecerHumanized attention at childbirthEducation material on health checkups for childrenSingle family subsidy (prenatal and newborn)Technical assistanceBy 2008, the full system will be applied in 250 municipalities, and 345 municipalities will be receiving it in Thus, by 2010, the bicentenary of Chile’s independence, the new Comprehensive Early Childhood Protection System will be fully implemented.
19 “Chile Crece Contigo” A Social Protection System for Children Universal coverage for all children.Will cover all children under 10 years with especial attention to those from 0 to 3 years and their family.Will focus in children from 40% poorest households which represent 60% of all Chilean children and their families.Although this policy focuses on children from gestation to 10 years of age, special emphasis has been placed on the first four years of life. The aim for that stage is to guarantee the comprehensive development of the 60% of children that belong to the 40% of families of lowest income and greatest vulnerability. There will also be special concern for the young children of mothers who work outside the home, who are studying, or looking for work, in order to guarantee them quality care facilities. On this point, it is also intended to promote labour standards that adapt to families’ needs rather than the reverse, with a view to protecting maternity and promoting the father’s participation in the upbringing of his children.
20 “Chile Crece Contigo” Components Educational TV and radio programs for parents and children.Legislation improvement to better concile work and family life.Reinforcement of prenatal care with learning materials for new mothers and fathers.Encouragement of fathers involvementEducation programme on television and radio for all citizens, which will provide information and education for adults, especially mothers and fathers, on good practices in care and stimulation of children’s development, and on development needs in each of the stages of young childhood..A website providing online information on children’s development needs, with specialists to answer queries on child development and provide support in the task of being mothers and fathers. The website also offers educational and didactic material in support of the development needs in each stage of the early childhood cycle. This space is also expected to serve as a mechanism for exchange between fathers and mothers.A guide to pregnancy and childbirth will be provided entitled Empezando a crecer [Starting to grow], structured by weeks of gestation, containing information for the family, employment rights, practical advice and guidelines for each stage of pregnancy and childbirth.Workshops will be held with activities to prepare for childbirth, and for bringing up and looking after children.Health workers will visit the homes of expectant mothers that display any risk factor.Greater involvement by fathers will be actively promoted in these processes, which until now have been largely undertaken by women — partly because of a long-standing tradition that children and their upbringing belong to the female domain, but also because of the obstacles that many employers raise with their employees in regard to fulfilling family duties. Progress on this issue has been made with the recently legislation on postnatal leave for fathers, under which men are entitled to three days paternity leave following the birth of their child, which can be taken either consecutively, or else on separate days to make longer weekends. This cultural change also stems from the treatment that men receive from health and education workers, who tend to exclude them and belittle their role as informants on the child. There is a long way to go in this direction before such workers develop a welcoming attitude and empathy in helping fathers enter a domain that is new for them.
21 “Chile Crece Contigo” Components 4. Humanized services at childbirth5. Reinforcement of health controls for newborns with group activities for parents and early diagnosis and treatment for children with special needs.6. Especial attention for children from the 40% most poor with subsidies and free childcare provision when necessary.7. Special needs children and families support.Humanized services at childbirth, which means promoting painless delivery (universal access with guaranteed benefits - AUGE) and reducing the currently very high number of caesarean sections. The mother’s right to be accompanied by the father, another relative or significant other will be upheld, along with her right to intimacy, to be informed of any treatment, and to adopt the physical position for giving birth that is most comfortable to her and indicated by her culture.Lastly, but no less important, it is hoped to ensure early adherence and active support for maternal breast feeding.A new listing by the Ministry of Health of situations that give entitlement to subsidy and leave when a child under one year of age becomes seriously ill. This benefit will be extended to fathers and mothers of children with a disability which, while not serious, alters their normal development.Support for adoptive maternity and paternity. A period of no longer than two months for a child to be declared susceptible to adoption.Entitlement to postnatal leave and subsidy for adoptive mother’s and fathers, irrespective of the age of the adopted child.Postnatal entitlement from the moment the parents take charge of the child, rather than when the final adoption ruling is the issued.An attempt is being made to expand the right to childcare services. The fact that this currently is only mandatory for firms employing more than 20 women generates a series of discriminatory actions towards them. The aim is to make the right to childcare services available for any family, mother or father who requests it.Differentiated support and guarantees will also be provided for children from the 40% of households with lowest incomes or those who are especially vulnerable. This will be implemented through an automatic Single Family Subsidy paid throughout pregnancy, and the right to maintain the subsidy also automatically from birth until 18 years of age. The beneficiaries will be low-income persons not covered by social security.In addition, children belonging to the 40% of households with lowest income will have the following services guaranteed:Free childcare, of accredited quality, for all children of working mothers, those who are looking for work, those are studying, or those with special needs.Free playgroup services of accredited quality, of extended or partial hours, for all children between two and three years of age.Childcare and playschool facilities, non-conventional modalities, suited to the different realities (rural zones, seasonal work, and nightshift work).For children with special needs, access to technical help for the home is guaranteed, along with technical support for health and education establishments to enable them to provide care of adequate quality.Specific support for this segment will also be provided directly to families through preferential access to the programs and public services they need for their children’s development. This also includes bringing studies up to the appropriate level, help for mothers and fathers in finding work, improvement in housing, mental health services, legal assistance, prevention and services for domestic violence and child abuse, and prevention and services for alcohol or drug consumption, among the main items.
22 Comprehensive programs and services -0Health/NutrEducationAge 3Age 5Health/nutritionACSD/ IMCI Care for Dev. Parenting ProgramsCommunity ECD CentersParenting ProgramsACSDNutrition, HealthParenting Programs,Community Based ECDGroup learning opportunitiesprimary school-child to child8 plusSocial protection and Welfare polices – family empowermentGood governance – Community ParticipationNational Social and Economic Policies
23 Policy Continuum Parenting program ECD User fees Targeting Taxes Cash transfersTrade PolicyBudget allocationPoverty reduction strategies
24 We should invest in ECD- Human/Child Rights ArgumentEvery child has the right to developmentScientific ArgumentBrain developmentEconomic Argumenthigher return and productivityEquity ArgumentECD can help breaking the poverty cycle
25 Scientific Evidence for the Importance of Early Childhood Early years are preciousStimulation & Support (Halfon, Shulman, & Hochstein, 2005)Prevention & Intervention (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000)Mustard, F. (2005) Early Childhood to Policy. 2nd International Forum on ECCD, Bogota, Colombia.
27 Economic Evidence for the Importance of Early ChildhoodCarneiro, P., & Heckman, J.J. (2003). Human Capital Policy. University of Chicago.
28 Optimal vs. Actual Investment Economic Investment: Current SituationOptimal vs. Actual InvestmentPreschoolSchoolPost SchoolAgeCumulative Public InvestmentHeckman’s classic diagrams convince us thatOptimal Investment LevelsSource: Heckman & Carneiro Human Social Policy, 2003, Voices for America and the Child and Family Policy Center. Early Learning Left out An Examination of Public Investment in Education and Development by Child Age, 2004
30 What is needed?? What else is needed?????? WHY ECD is not fully in Public Policies ? Not fully scaled up after all these years?What is needed??What else is needed??????
31 What is needed? State of the art Policy Research Analysis Theoretical frameworkAttention to social settingsEstimation of cost, and affordability,Exploring financing and legislative mechanisms,
32 What is needed? Useable information Causes for developmental delays.. Thresholds – how much is good enoughEffect sizeInterpretation of the results into the language of policy makers
33 What is needed? Clear links to Global and Local Agendas Capacity gap analysis and strategies for capacity developmentLinks to other policies – social protection, labor (ILO), housing, environment….Alliance Building and partnership
34 UNICEF’s Approach Integrating ECD interventions into; National Development Plans, PRS, MTFs,Most importantly into demand-side policiesA state of the art policy research studies for impact assessment and analysis of the public policies on children, families and communitiesDeveloping global ECD indicators to monitor progress through regular HH studiesPartnering with others for a stronger policy advocacy to scale up ECD