Presentation on theme: "Atoms Unit 3 Introduction to the Atom History of the Atom"— Presentation transcript:
1Atoms Unit 3 Introduction to the Atom History of the Atom +-
2Some of the First Discussions about the Atom…. Democritus (400 BC) named the atom, which means indivisible, and said it was the smallest particle and could not be broken down.He was pretty much correct in that if you did break the atom down, it wouldn’t be that “element” any more. But he wasn’t aware that the atom was made up of particles.IN OTHER WORDS: Gold is an element. The smallest part of gold that is STILL gold is an atom.
3Greeks Philosophers Continue the Discussion and Disagree Aristotle (350 BC) believed matter could always be broken down into smaller and smaller parts.And this is true to a certain extent… but eventually you come to the small basic particles that can no longer be broken apart.In other words: You CAN break an atom of gold down into its parts… protons, electrons and neutrons, however, it wouldn’t be gold anymore.
4His ideas are now called the Atomic Theory of Matter Dalton's Atomic TheoryIn 1808, John Dalton proposed that elements were composed of atoms & that only whole numbers of atoms can combine to form compoundsHis ideas are now called the Atomic Theory of MatterDalton’s Atomic Theory ( AD) was widely accepted but not totally correct
5Dalton’s Atomic Theory All matter is composed of atoms. THIS IS TRUEAtoms of the same kind of elements are identical; atoms of different elements are different from each other. THIS IS PARTLY TRUEELEMENT1ELEMENT2ELEMENT3ELEMENT4Dalton’s Atomic Theory
6Atoms can’t be changed, created, or destroyed. THIS IS PARTLY TRUE You can make compounds out of combinations of different atoms THIS IS TRUEChemical reactions are rearranging or recombining atoms THIS IS TRUE++
7Atomic Theory Not all of Dalton’s claims were true Atoms CAN be divided into even smaller particles (Protons, electrons, neutrons)Some elements have atoms that have different masses. (ISOTOPES)Atomic Theory
8Atomic Theory Dalton’s Atomic Theory of Matter has been modified. What remains is…All matter is composed of atomsAtoms of any one element differ in properties from atoms of another elementAtomic Theory
9In the 1800’s it was determined that atoms are actually composed of several basic types of smaller particlesIt’s the number and arrangement of these particles that determine the atom’s chemical properties.A new definition of an atom is the one we use today: The smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that original element.Atomic Theory
10Plum Pudding ModelJJ Thomson’s cathode ray tube experiment in the late 1800s showed that atoms had smaller parts, called negative corpuscles; he developed the “plum pudding model.”The plum pudding model showed electrons (the plums) mixed in together with protons (the cake batter)
11Negative particles embedded in a sphere of positive plasma-like matter. THINK…Chocolate Chip Cookie
12Scientists still didn’t really understand how the particles were put together in an atom. This was a difficult question to resolve, given how tiny atoms are. They didn’t have GOOGLE to find out the answer!Most thought it likely that the atom resembled Thomson’s modelAtomic Structure
13Rutherford’s gold foil experiment In 1911, Ernest Rutherford showed:1) atoms had a hard, dense, positively charged nucleus where most of the mass resided.2) negatively charged electrons outside the nucleus, and that the atom was actually mostly empty space.
15Bohr Model of the AtomNeils Bohr put electrons into different energy levels or shells.(This model is not correct either… electrons do not travel in orbits or paths like the model suggests)
16Modern Day Theory (Electron Cloud Theory) The Modern Theory suggests that electrons are located somewhere in a cloud.
172) Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons. Basic and important facts to remember: 1) All atoms contain the same basic parts (protons, neutrons, electrons)2) Atoms of different elements have different numbers of protons.The Periodic Table lists atoms in consecutive order by their Atomic NumberThe atomic number is directly related to the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element
18Atoms have: A nucleus small, dense part of the atom consists of protons and neutronsAn electron cloudlarge part of the atom that is empty space except for the electrons that are moving very fast and very randomly around the nucleusNucleusElectron Cloud
19The total number of protons & neutrons determines the mass of the atom Called the “Mass Number” (atomic mass is the averaged mass of the isotopes and is given on the periodic table. Simply round the atomic mass to get the mass number)A Carbon atom, has 6 protons and 6 neutrons, so its mass number is 12If you know the atomic number & mass number of an atom of any element, you can determine the atom’s composition and the number of neutrons.
20The Proton The protons are what give the atom its charge (+) They add mass to the atom as well. Each proton is equal to one AMU (atomic mass unit)The number of protons in an atom determines what element it is.The atomic number signifies the number of protonsProtons are held together in the nucleus by the “Strong Force” otherwise they would repel each other.
21The Neutron The neutron adds mass (1 amu) to an atom but has NO charge Atoms of the same elements are identical due to the number of protons, but there can be different numbers of neutrons (we call those isotopes)To find the number of neutrons, subtract the atomic number from the mass number.
22ElectronsElectrons have almost no mass, and we DO NOT count their mass.Located outside the nucleus in the electron cloud (aka: shells, orbitals, energy levels) moving at incredibly high speeds.Electrons have a negative (-) charge.Electrons found in the outermost shells of the atom are responsible for chemical reactions. Electrons have different amounts of energy depending what energy level they are at.Electrons can be removed and added to atoms quite easily, unlike protons.
23Subatomic Particles Particle Symbol Charge Relative Mass Electron eProton pNeutron n
24Location of Subatomic Particles 10-13 cmelectronsprotonsneutrons10-8 cmnucleus
25in an atom and determines what element it is Atomic NumberCounts the numberof protonsin an atom and determines what element it is
26Atomic Number on the Periodic Table 11NaAtomic NumberSymbolThe symbol represents the element. RULE: The first letter is always capitalized, and IF there is a second letter, it is lower case.
27All atoms of an element have the same number of protons 11Na11 protonsSodium
28Atomic Mass on the Periodic Table 11Na22.99Atomic NumberSymbolAtomic MassAtomic mass is the weighted average mass of all the atomic masses of the isotopes of that atom. That is why there is a decimal.
29Mass Number Counts the number of protons and neutrons in an atom (note: Atomic Mass is different from Mass Number. On your periodic table of elements, the atomic mass is usually given and you need to round it to the nearest whole number to use to figure Neutrons)
30Atomic Notation atomic number 11 Shows the mass number and atomic numberGives the symbol of the elementmass number23 Na sodium-23atomic number 11
31Number of Electrons An atom is neutral when no charge is indicated. The net charge is zeroRemember: Atomic number = Number of protonsand therefore….Number of protons = Number of electrons when the atom is neutral.
32Subatomic Particles Showing the P E N O P Zn8 p p+ 30 p+8 e e- 30 e-8 n 16 n 35 n
33IsotopesAtoms with the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons.Atoms of the same element (same atomic number) with different mass numbersIsotopes of chlorine35Cl 37Clchlorine chlorine - 37
34Learning CheckNaturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes, 12C, 13C, and 14C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of these carbon atoms.12C C 14C#p _______ _______ _______#e _______ _______ _______#n _______ _______ _______