Presentation on theme: "Self-Efficacy: Fostering Student Determination. The Little Blue Engine by Shel Silverstein The Little Blue Engine by Shel Silverstein The little blue."— Presentation transcript:
The Little Blue Engine by Shel Silverstein The Little Blue Engine by Shel Silverstein The little blue engine looked up at the hill. His light was weak, his whistle was shrill. He was tired and small, and the hill was tall, And his face blushed red as he softly said, “I think I can, I think I can, I think I can.” The little blue engine looked up at the hill. His light was weak, his whistle was shrill. He was tired and small, and the hill was tall, And his face blushed red as he softly said, “I think I can, I think I can, I think I can.” So he started up with a chug and a strain, And he puffed and pulled with might and main. And slowly he climbed, a foot at a time, And his engine coughed as he whispered soft, “I think I can, I think I can, I think I can.” So he started up with a chug and a strain, And he puffed and pulled with might and main. And slowly he climbed, a foot at a time, And his engine coughed as he whispered soft, “I think I can, I think I can, I think I can.” With a squeak and a creak and a toot and a sigh, With an extra hope and an extra try, He would not stop — now he neared the top — And strong and proud he cried out loud, “I think I can, I think I can, I think I can!” With a squeak and a creak and a toot and a sigh, With an extra hope and an extra try, He would not stop — now he neared the top — And strong and proud he cried out loud, “I think I can, I think I can, I think I can!” He was almost there, when — CRASH! SMASH! BASH! He slid down and mashed into engine hash On the rocks below... which goes to show If the track is tough and the hill is rough, THINKING you can just ain’t enough! He was almost there, when — CRASH! SMASH! BASH! He slid down and mashed into engine hash On the rocks below... which goes to show If the track is tough and the hill is rough, THINKING you can just ain’t enough!
Self-Efficacy “…defined as people’s beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives. …determines how people feel, think, motivate themselves and behave. (Bandura, Self-Efficacy, 1994) “…refers to beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments.” (Bandura, Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control, p. 3)
Through the personal belief system you can… Doubt your capabilities by: - shying away from difficult tasks - shying away from difficult tasks - giving up - low aspirations - dwell on deficiencies - focus on adverse consequences of failure - and therefore undermine efforts by diverting attention from effective thinking, slowly recovering from setbacks, and falling easy to stress and depression. Believe in your capabilities by: - approaching difficult tasks as challenges to be mastered and not threats - fostering interest in something new or unknown - have high effort - and therefore think strategically, attribute failure to insufficient effort, quickly recover after failure, and reduce stress.
Self Efficacy: What defines these beliefs? How people deal with situations. Look at the process, not just the result. Vicarious/mastery experiences. Verbal persuasion. Social vs. Psychological (Self-Hindering or Self- Aiding concepts of thought) Understand thyself? Optimistic vs. Pessimistic. Dealing with stress/depression management. The good of failing, and the bad of always winning (externally). Chances for adversity.
Self-Esteem vs. Self-Efficacy Self-efficacy is concerned with judgments of personal capability, whereas self- esteem is concerned with judgments of self-worth. There is no fixed relationship between beliefs about one’s capabilities and whether one likes or dislikes oneself. (p.11)
Individual Factors Together That Create SELF-EFFICACY. Self-Concept: Composite view of one’s self formed through experience and feedback from others. Self-Esteem: Judgment of self-worth. Motivation: Intrinsic need to deal effectively with the environment. Proxy Control: Moving influence and power into your behalf through exercising the control that you do have. Locus of Control: Internal or external? Behavior (social skills/cues/different registers) Personal expectations Through these people create BELIEFS in capabilities, which determine the decisions we make and how we go about solving problems. They determine the level of control people will take over what they can influence and the goals that they make.
“Perceived self-efficacy is concerned not with the number of skills that you have, but with what you believe you can do with what you have under a variety of circumstances.” (p. 37) So, it is based on what you believe you can do (the limits you set on yourself), not your actual ability. “To claim that people visualize outcomes, and then infer their capabilities is to invoke backward causation…people do not judge that they will drown if they jump in deep water, and then infer that they must be poor swimmers. Rather, people who judge themselves poor swimmers will visualize themselves drowning if they jump in deep water” (p. 21).
“Individuals with low self-efficacy tend to believe that things are tougher that they really are. This creates stress and narrow vision of how best to go about the problem. By contrast, persons who have a strong sense of efficacy deploy their attention and effort to the demands of the situation and are spurred by obstacles to greater effort.” (p. 394) “High efficacy people attribute failure to insufficient effort; low efficacy people attribute failure to deficient ability.” (Collins, 1982)
How to create opportunities for self- efficacy: Locus of Control: Allowing the student’s internal locus to proceed and teaching how to self regulate. Helping students understand that “people make causal contributions to their lives, but they are not the sole causes of their destinies”(33). Which leads to coping and resiliency. Risk taking, chances for decisions and experiencing something new along with the positive or negative outcome that may come allowing for self reflection and evaluation. Role modeling, creating those vicarious experiences. Being a persuader to help cultivate people’s beliefs in their capabilities while also helping to create attainable successes.
Foster the Cognitive Organizational, monitoring, evaluating, and regulating one’s self. Using that “inner speech” for following thought processes/problem solving. Attributing accomplishments to effort rather than products. Understanding main ideas and what is really important. Do, don’t just hear. There must be actual experiences in which to transfer cognitive skills in order to exercise them. e.g. problem solving- creating a plan, follow through, and then reflection even in the little daily obstacles.
Academically… Students who doubt their intellectual efficacy gravitate toward students who devalue academic pursuits. The very technologies that people create to alter and control their environment can become a constraining force that in turn controls how they think and behave. (Products: tests, grades) “Academic efficacy plays an influential role in career choice and development. It predicts academic grades, the range of career options considered, and persistence and success in chosen fields.” (Betz & Hackett, 1986;Lent &Hackett, 1987)
Standards and Goals “People construct personal standards that they then use to guide, motivate and regulate their own behavior. People do things that give them self-satisfaction and a sense of self-worth. They refrain from behaving in ways that violate their personal standards because it will bring self-censure” (p.8) “Without standards against which to measure their performances, people have little basis for judging how they are doing or for gauging their capabilities. Goal attainments provide rising indicants of mastery that help to instill and verify a growing sense of personal efficacy.” (p. 217) (Choices, Decisions, Goals (prob. solving))
As a teacher… “Teachers’ beliefs in their efficacy affect their general orientation toward educational processes as well as instructional activities” (p. 241)
As a teacher Low efficacy teachers: - pessimistic view of students motivation - strict classroom control and regulations - use negative sanctions to get students to study - distrust their ability to manage a classroom - are stressed and angered by student misbehavior - Take a custodial view of their job - If they had to do it all over again, wouldn’t be where they are now.
As a teacher High efficacy teachers: - regard their students as reachable and teachable - create efficacy to create student achievement - direct efforts at resolving problems - invite and even initiate family involvement
As a teacher Good instruction should promote interest as well as technical skills in subject matter. Teaching that instills a liking for what is taught fosters self-initiated learning long after instruction as ceased.
Closing Children can learn a lot from computer terminals, but they need human teachers to help build their sense of efficacy, to cultivate their aspirations, and to find meaning and direction in their pursuits. The content of early schooling is perishable and long forgotten, but the interpersonal and self-development effects endure.