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Focus On Grammar Book 2, 5 th edition Lesson 10: Gerunds and Infinitives (difficult and boring, but Lesson 11, Adjective Clauses, is coming soon!)

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Presentation on theme: "Focus On Grammar Book 2, 5 th edition Lesson 10: Gerunds and Infinitives (difficult and boring, but Lesson 11, Adjective Clauses, is coming soon!)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Focus On Grammar Book 2, 5 th edition Lesson 10: Gerunds and Infinitives (difficult and boring, but Lesson 11, Adjective Clauses, is coming soon!)

2 9.0 – Overview of Gerunds and Infinitives There are some rules, but this chapter calls on your ability to memorize. This is much worse than memorizing irregular verbs, but just as important. – Page 325  He admitted eating rice. – Page 338  He decided to eat rice. – ve.html ve.html

3 10.1 Gerund Overview A Gerund (and a gerund phrase) is a verb that is used as a noun. – Pizza is good. Soccer is good. Surfing is good. Eating rice is good. It looks just like the present participle, which is used with BE in the progressive tenses) – Eat  eating; play  playing; write  writing Since it is a noun, it can be found any place we find nouns. (subject, object, object of a prep.)

4 10.6 – Infinitive Overview After CERTAIN verbs, adjectives After expressions with “it”. – Writing well is important. – It is important to write well. As the Infinitive of Purpose – Why does he work very hard? – He works (in order) to make a lot of money.

5 10.2 Gerund as subject If you want to put a verb in the subject, use a gerund or gerund phrase. Gerunds are non-count, like water and rice, so give it a singular verb. – A lot of writing is good practice. – Writing many essays is important. – Visiting many stores has advantages. – Speaking many languages makes our brain strong.

6 ??Infinitive as Subject?? ….. I wouldn’t call this a subject… – ?Delayed Subject? Most of these can be real subjects if the INFINITIVE is used. “For someone to verb” can’t be switched around easily; this is a useful construction.

7 10.3 – Gerund After CERTAIN verbs This is a list you need to memorize All these “GO” activities can be used without “go” I mind, I don’t mind, I put off, I can’t help…

8 Infinitive after CERTAIN verbs This is another list you need to memorize

9 Infinitive or Gerund after CERTAIN verbs Some verbs can take either one This is another list you need to memorize (page 340)

10 10.4 – A gerund after prepositions NEVER use the infinitive after a preposition – I am accustomed to pizza. – I am accustomed to seeing movies late at night. – [I am accustomed to to see movies…] You need to choose the correct preposition – Study page 327 – A good dictionary should have examples with different prepositions (care) To care for, to take care of, to care about, in care of…

11 10.5 – Gerunds in Adverbial Phrases This is similar to (but not the same as) the gerund phrases in 7.11 – Same with a time preposition (when, after, before) – Different with by, without

12 10.6 – Infinitive Overview After CERTAIN verbs, adjectives After expressions with it. – Writing well is important. – It is important to write well. As the Infinitive of Purpose – Why does he work very hard? – He works (in order) to make a lot of money.

13 ??Infinitive as Subject?? ….. I wouldn’t call this a subject… – ?Delayed Subject? Most of these can be real subjects if the INFINITIVE is used. “For someone to verb” can’t be switched around easily; this is a useful construction.

14 10.8 – Infinitive after Adjective Some adjectives can be followed by an infinitive…

15 Infinitive after CERTAIN verbs This is another list you need to memorize

16 Infinitive or Gerund after CERTAIN verbs Some verbs can take either one This is another list you need to memorize

17 10.11 – Objects with infinitives We often have an object before these verbs – The Infinitive of Purpose = “In Order To” 42  [I came to America for studying.] I came to America to study.

18 10.13 – BE USED TO noun & USED TO verb This has nothing to do with gerunds and infinitives, except that we use the gerund after “BE used to” BE/GET USED TO: – She is used to spicy food. (accustomed to) – She was used to working long hours. USED TO – use the base form after this modal – She used to write essays very well. – She used to eat spicy food


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