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Enriched Version.  Who entered the workforce and what kind of work did they do?  How did the roles of workers change?  What are unions and how did.

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Presentation on theme: "Enriched Version.  Who entered the workforce and what kind of work did they do?  How did the roles of workers change?  What are unions and how did."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enriched Version

2  Who entered the workforce and what kind of work did they do?  How did the roles of workers change?  What are unions and how did they work for improvements in the work place?  What were the results that the unions achieved?

3 “To protect the workers in their inalienable rights to a higher and better life; to protect them, not only as equals before the law, but also in their health, their homes, their firesides, their liberties as men, as workers, and as citizens…to this workers are entitled…The attainment of these is the glorious mission of the trade unions.” Samuel Gompers, 1898

4  Men left the home and began working outside of it because the industrial goods that were available for purchase significantly reduced their work at home. (leather shoes, wheat and corn harvesting and grinding, stoves and coal decreased the amount of wood needed to be cut)  Young unmarried ladies worked to help support their families until they were married, then they stayed home and tended to the house work.  Children worked in factories to help provide money for the family.

5 For liberty our fathers fought Which with their blood, they dearly bought, The Factory system sets at naught. A slave at morn, a slave at eve, It doth my inmost feelings grieve; The blood runs chilly from my heart, To see fair Liberty depart; And leave the wretches in their chains, To feed a vampyre from their veins. Great Britain's curse is now our own; Enough to damn a King and Throne.  “Portrait of a Factory Village” by Thomas Mann, 1833

6  Workers and owners began to drift apart as the working relationship changed. Owners began expecting more for less and could get away with it because there were others waiting to fill those jobs.  Roles of women:  More married ladies began working in factories out of necessity.  Women began graduating high school more and received jobs in an office doing typing or in schools as a teacher.  Women received far less pay than men.  The family unit suffered the loss of the mother and home maker.  Roles of minorities:  African Americans were not allowed to join labor unions except the Knights of Labor (after 1878)  Received less pay than Caucasian males.

7  Roles of children: Roles of children  Began working in factories at a very young age, many under the age of 12  Working resulted in lack of education, emotional disturbance, family breakdown and physical abuse  Earned less than adults  video video

8  Knights of Labor: 1869 Haymarket RiotHaymarket Riot  Depression made wages drop  40,000 Chicago workers struck against the McCormick Harvesting Machine Co.  May 1, 1886: demanded 8 hour work day  May 3, 1886: conflict between strikers and police; 4 strikers died  May 4 th : rally in Chicago’s Haymarket Square: ▪ About to break up when 200 police arrived ▪ A bomb exploded and 70 officers were wounded, 7 police and 1 civilian died. ▪ Police arrested 8 well known anarchists. ▪ Only one of them was present and charged with conspiracy. ▪ All 8 found guilty ▪ 4 hanged

9  Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers: Homestead Strike 1892  Strike against Carnegie Steel because of a threat to cut wages and dismantle the union  Workers picketed the plant.  Pinkerton guards came to protect the plant but were attacked by the strikers and run out of town.  Governor of Pennsylvania sent in militia  Strike lasted 9 months  Union didn’t gain anything from the strike  Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers dissolved  Steel Industry unorganized for 40 years afterwards  video video

10  American Railway Union: 1894 Pullman Sleeping Car Factory strike strike  Pullman cut wages but not the rent or prices at the store in the company town.  The union supported the strike-Led by Eugene Debs ▪ Any train with Pullmans on them wouldn’t be worked on or ridden. ▪ All railroad traffic stopped. ▪ President Cleveland ordered an end to the strike because Federal mail went through the railroad.  Federal offense not to deliver US mail ▪ Strikers refused and were jailed. ▪ Federal troops went into Pullman in July. ▪ Pullman strike ended and the American Railroad Union was destroyed

11  American Federation of Labor:  Founded by Samuel Gompers 1886  Organized independent craft unions into a group that worked to advance interests of skilled labor  Worked towards: ▪ 8 hour work day ▪ Better working conditions ▪ Use of union-made products  Used strikes and boycotts  Achievements: closed shop and the end of yellow-dog contracts

12  Industrial Workers of the World  Formed by unskilled workers in 1905  Encouraged militant aggression, obstruction of industry and damage to business  ,000 textile workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts struck for better working conditions and better wages. ▪ American Woolen Company met almost all of the demands

13  International Ladies Garment Workers Union  Most unions wouldn’t allow women to be members.  A strike by thousands of women shirtwaist workers led to the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.  Helped the victims of the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, NYC 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire ▪ 146 dead ▪ Led the way for factory inspection laws

14  Increased pay led to a higher standard of living.  The return of children to schools and homes helped strengthen the family unit.

15  Who entered the workforce and what kind of work did they do?  How did the roles of workers change?  What are unions and how did they work for improvements in the work place?  What were the results that the unions achieved?


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