Outcomes of this lesson Outcome 1Define Classical Conditioning Outcome2 Define operant conditioning Outcome 3 Explain classical conditioning- Watson’s work Outcome 4 Evaluate the positives and negatives of classical conditioning
Assumptions of behaviourism Behaviourism is an important branch of psychology that deals with observing the behaviours and habits of humans and animals. Human behaviour is learnt We are born Tabula Rasa – Blank slate There are 3 Assumptions.. We learn through association We learn by our environment and how we operate within it We learn through observation
Assumptions of behaviourism All human behaviour can be explained through observable actions All works on stimulus and response Only observable behaviour can be tested- no need of the mind- lab experiments Highly testable- has it is measurable Through the use of a scientific method we can analyse, quantify and compare behaviour
Starter task One person claps Straight after The other blows air into the eye of the third person Keep going What begins to happen?
Assumption 1 behaviour can be explained through Classical Conditioning = We learn through Association
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hh qumfpxuzI Born in Russia in 1849 Died 1936 Physiologist: The circulatory system of dogs and saliva levels Man of peace Classical conditioning 1904 Pavlov’s dogs
In classical conditioning, the dog learned to associate two stimuli when they occur together, such that the response originally elicited by one stimulus is transferred to another. The dog learnt to produce an existing response to a new stimulus.
classical conditioning: Pavlov’s Dogs game http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medi cine/pavlov/ http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medi cine/pavlov/
However It is a study on animals in a lab setting Is it comparable? Can we test this on humans?
Assumption 1 Classical Conditioning: Pavlov Watson We learn through Association
Watson The birth of Behaviourism Objective study of human behaviour Study of people’s actions with the ability to be able to predict and control them
Watson: Little Albert Watch the following clip and take notes http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXAC sOI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hBfnXAC sOI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMnhyGo zLyE http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMnhyGo zLyE
What did we see in this clip? Explain what was happening to little Albert
And for me… Thus, our behaviour is reduced down to mere stimulus from our surroundings and the learning of response to that stimulus…
In conclusion Involves learning what events in the environment go together We are learning associations between objects and the correct expected behaviour
Real life applications Potty training: Associate the toilet with the place to go.. Not the nappy! Our Beds as the place to sleep Routines, time of day we associate with eating- we learnt this when we were being weaned!
In conclusion: Human behaviour "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select--doctor, lawyer, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggarman and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years." – John B. Watson, Behaviorism, 1930 But hang on!!! Q1: What is Watson implying about human behaviour? Q2: What is wrong with the above notion?
Evaluation : Outcome 4 Q: what is good and what is bad?? The good: The bad
Hand-out: evaluation (The basics) Behaviourism up to now The good retestable – valid objective – results can be seen used in successful treatments: alcoholism and phobias Mostly tested in the lab: ecological validity (not real life) Experimenter bias (researcher bias) could behave in a way to influence participants Ignores mental processes- we can observe and learn!
Assumption 2: Behaviour can be explained in terms of Operant conditioning
Getting you thinking http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mt4N9GS BoMI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mt4N9GS BoMI Q: What is happening in this video?
Difference? Remember that classical conditioning involves a neutral stimulus that automatically triggers a response without thought while operant conditioning requires the voluntary action to use the surroundings and the use of reinforcement or punishment Example: If Sheldon didn’t offer chocolates than the girl’s behaviour wouldn’t even change!
Skinner and operant conditioning Skinner the idea that behaviour is determined by its consequences, be they reinforcements or punishments, which make it more or less likely that the behaviour will occur again.
Operant conditioning In operant conditioning, we learn to perform new behaviours through the consequences of the things we do. Consequences could be either positive or negative We use (operate on ) the environment around us to learn So if we manipulate the environment= behaviour will change https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=EZSk7oCNaH g&list=PLDE5F51C091BAC FE5&index=4 https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=EZSk7oCNaH g&list=PLDE5F51C091BAC FE5&index=4 https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=0hcRR_QQNP U&list=PLDE5F51C091BA CFE5&index=5 https://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=0hcRR_QQNP U&list=PLDE5F51C091BA CFE5&index=5
Positive and negative Reinforcement determines human behaviour Positive and negative reinforcement http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=H6LEcM0E0io 2:24 Examples of reinforcement
Think of some examples: Handout Positive reinforcement Introducing a new behaviour Negative reinforcement Taking away a behaviour
Evaluation: Anything wrong with this approach? Anything good with this approach?
Assumption 3 Human behaviour can be explained by Social Learning theory Read assumption 3 of hand-out Read Bandura and SLT section
Assumptions Aggression could be explained Learning by observation Potential for aggression- biological But the expression is learnt! Mental representation- cognitive Children will then use the learnt behaviour Only if the consequence is good!
Observation Video had to be removed- wouldn’t load up!
Bandura http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=NjTxQy_U3 ac http://www.youtube.co m/watch?v=NjTxQy_U3 ac Anything wrong with this experiment?
So…. We learn new behaviours through observation We observe others when they get positive or negative reinforcement This observation of reinforcement will determine if we imitate that behaviour This is called Vicarious reinforcement Social- cognitive psychology – we then build schemas (memories) for next situation and can decide what behaviour is appropriate- recap twins video