2(1). May be preceded by a or an in the singular, PLURALCOUNTABLE NOUNa bookone bookbookssome bookstwo booksmany booksfew booksa few booksA count noun:(1). May be preceded by a or an in the singular,(2). Takes a final -s or –es in the pluralNONmoneysome moneya lot of moneymuch moneylittle moneya little moneyA noncount noun:(1). Is not preceded by a or an;(2). Has no plural form; does not take a final –s
3Following is a list of some common nouns which are usually or always used as noncount nouns: Advice work* weather clothing fruit**Information homework water furnitureFoods housework rain jewelryBread evidence snow luggagebutterIntelligence wind machinery cheeseSlang ignorance air moneyCoffee vocabulary knowledge dewMusic meat significance fogPostage milk fun hailScenery pepper enjoyment courageHeat traffic rice happinessHonesty humidity transportation saltSadness luck lighting baggagesugar
4Work is used as a count noun when it means “ a work of art”; e. g *Work is used as a count noun when it means “ a work of art”; e.g., There are many works of art in the museum. (Compare: I have some work to do tonight.)**Many food terms are used as count nouns when they mean “a kind of”;e.g. An orange is a fruit. (Compare: I had fruit for dessert.)
5BE CAREFUL with the noun 'hair' which is normally uncountable in English: She has long blonde hairIt can also be countable when referring to individual hairs:My father's getting a few grey hairs now
7Transitional Words and Phrases IllustrationThus, for example, for instance, namely, to illustrate, in other words, in particular, specifically, such as.ContrastOn the contrary, contrarily, notwithstanding, but, however, nevertheless, in spite of, in contrast, yet, on one hand, on the other hand, rather, or, nor, conversely, at the same time, while this may be true.AdditionAnd, in addition to, furthermore, moreover, besides, than, too, also, both-and, another, equally important, first, second, etc., again, further, last, finally, not only-but also, as well as, in the second place, next, likewise, similarly, in fact, as a result, consequently, in the same way, for example, for instance, however, thus, therefore, otherwise.TimeAfter, afterward, before, then, once, next, last, at last, at length, first, second, etc., at first, formerly, rarely, usually, another, finally, soon, meanwhile, at the same time, for a minute, hour, day, etc., during the morning, day, week, etc., most important, later, ordinarily, to begin with, afterwards, generally, in order to, subsequently, previously, in the meantime, immediately, eventually, concurrently, simultaneously.
8SpaceAt the left, at the right, in the center, on the side, along the edge, on top, below, beneath, under, around, above, over, straight ahead, at the top, at the bottom, surrounding, opposite, at the rear, at the front, in front of, beside, behind, next to, nearby, in the distance, beyond, in the forefront, in the foreground, within sight, out of sight, across, under, nearer, adjacent, in the background.ConcessionAlthough, at any rate, at least, still, thought, even though, granted that, while it may be true, in spite of, of course.Similarity or ComparisonSimilarly, likewise, in like fashion, in like manner, analogous to.EmphasisAbove all, indeed, truly, of course, certainly, surely, in fact, really, in truth, again, besides, also, furthermore, in addition.DetailsSpecifically, especially, in particular, to explain, to list, to enumerate, in detail, namely, including.
9ExamplesFor example, for instance, to illustrate, thus, in other words, as an illustration, in particular.Consequence or ResultSo that, with the result that, thus, consequently, hence, accordingly, for this reason, therefore, so, because, since, due to, as a result, in other words, then.SummaryTherefore, finally, consequently, thus, in short, in conclusion, in brief, as a result, accordingly.SuggestionFor this purpose, to this end, with this in mind, with this purpose in mind, therefore
11Most nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es. SingularPluralboatboatshathatshousehousesriverrivers
12A noun ending in -y preceded by a consonant makes the plural with -ies. SingularPlurala crycriesa flyfliesa nappynappiesa poppypoppiesa citycitiesa ladyladiesa babybabies
13There are some irregular formations for noun plurals There are some irregular formations for noun plurals. Some of the most common ones are listed below.SingularPluralwomanwomenmanmenchildchildrentoothteethfootfeetpersonpeopleleafleaveshalfhalvesknifekniveswifewiveslifelivesloafloavespotatopotatoes
15Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural. sheepfishspeciesaircraft
16Some nouns have a plural form but take a singular verb. Examples:news The news is on at 6.30 p.m. athletics Athletics is good for young people. linguistics Linguistics is the study of language. darts Darts is a popular game in England. billiards Billiards is played all over the world.Some nouns have a plural form and take a plural verb.trousers My trousers are too tight. jeans Her jeans are black. glasses Those glasses are his.others include:savings, thanks, steps, stair, customs, congratulations, tropics, wages, spectacles, outskirts, goods, wits
18In English the Future Time is expressed in a number of ways In English the Future Time is expressed in a number of ways. The most common are with will and be going to. See examples from the following sentences.I will finish my homework in an hour.I'm going to finish my homework in an hour.With be going to, make sure the verb be agrees with itssubject.I'm going to eat a whole watermelon.She's going to eat a whole watermelon.Actually, we're going to eat a whole watermelon together.
19In speech, the words going to are often pronounced ? gonna .? Don't forget the be verb.A: What are you gonna do this weekend?B: I'm gonna stay home and clean my carpet.NOT: I gonna stay?NOT: I'm gonna to stay?
20What's the difference between will and be going to? Both can be used interchangeably in some cases. (Predictions and guesses)My prints will be here tomorrow.My prints are going to be here tomorrow.Be going to is preferable for strong intentions or for describing the inevitable.I'm going to give her a piece of my mind.There's no way they can score 21 points in 2 minutes. We're going to win!
21Will is the preferable form for making offers or expressing pop decisions. A: Who will help me finish this chocolate cake?B: I will.A: I have two tickets left for the front row.B: I'll take them.
22Sometimes future time can be expressed with either the present or present progressive tense. In such cases, time words must be expressed or clearly implied.I fly to Beijing tomorrow.I'm flying to Beijing tomorrow.Sorry I can't attend the picnic on Saturday. I'm flying to Beijing .
23Chapter 19: GerundGerunds are defined as the -ing form of a verb. They have several functions.1. Used as subjects and complementsSkiing is my favorite sport.Hiking can be very strenuous.Seeing is believing2. Used as objects following prepositions and prepositional expressionsThanks for tending my children.The job consists of typing, filing, and answering the phone.3. Used as objects following certain verbs*.The children enjoyed watching the parade.Ms. Terrell avoided paying her taxes until it was too late.
24Gerunds can sometimes take objects of their own: Roland is afraid of making mistakes.Sandy is considering leaving New York.
25admit begin discuss hate love practice regret stop avoid denyadvise can't help dislike hesitate mention prefer remember suggestgo like postponeanticipate complete enjoy imagine mind quit resent threatenrecommend start understandappreciate consider finish intend miss recall resist tolerateattempt delay forget keep neglect recollect risk try
26*The verb stop is followed by either a gerund or an infinitive, depending on meaning. I stopped smoking (meaning “I no longer smoke”)He stopped to light his pipe (meaning”He stopped doing something else in order to light his pipe”)**Notice that the verb phrase, can’t help (eaning “can’t prevent” or can’t stop”) is used with gerund.His jokes are so funny that I can’t help laughing at themI couldn’t help overhearing your comment***The verb go is followed by the –ing form of many “activity verbs”: go shopping, go dancing, go skiing, go bowling and others
27Chapter 21: ModalsModal auxiliary verbs are used to moderate the main verb, that is to enhance or restrict the verb to a certain context.The most common modal auxiliaries in English are:Can could may might should will would must
28Notice the usage of modals in the following sentences: I pay my taxes.General declaration of fact. Paying taxes is something I normally do.
29I can pay my taxes.Expresses ability. I have the means (funds) to pay.I might pay my taxes.Expresses possibility, but not certainty. Maybe I will pay; maybe I won't.I will pay my taxes.Expresses future intent. I resolve to do it at some later time.I should pay my taxes.Expresses mild obligation. It is required, and I expect to comply.I could pay my taxes.Expresses possibility. If I have nothing else to do with the money, I might pay taxes.I would pay my taxes.(In this case), expresses reservation. If I had the money (but I don't). . .I must pay my taxes.Expresses strong obligation.I am required and have to comply.
30Modals are followed by only the base form of the verb and are not used alone unless there is a clear connection to a main verb.He must to finish his homework. (I)He must finish his homework. (C)Jack could heard the bell. (I)Jack could hear the bell. (C)Penny will going to the movie. (I)Penny will go to the movie. (C)
31Chapter 22: Conditional Sentences TYPE 1 CONDITIONAL1. Form In a Type 1 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if clause is the simple present, and the tense in the main clause is the simple future'IF' CLAUSE (CONDITION)MAIN CLAUSE (RESULT)If + simple present If it rains If you don't hurrySimple future you will get wet we will miss the train.
322. Function In these sentences, the time is the present or future and the situation is real. They refer to a possible condition and its probable result. They are based on facts, and they are used to make statements about the real world, and about particular situations. We often use such sentences to give warnings:If you don't leave, I'll call the police.If you don't drop the gun, I'll shoot!Examples:If you drop that glass, it will break.Nobody will notice if you make a mistake.If I have time, I'll finish that letter.What will you do if you miss the plane?
33NOTE: We can use modals to express the degree of certainty of the result: If you drop that glass, it might break.I may finish that letter if I have time.
34. TYPE 2 CONDITIONAL SENTENCES 1. Form In a Type 2 conditional sentence, the tense in the 'if' clause is the simple past, and the tense in the main clause is the present conditional:'IF' CLAUSEMAIN CLAUSEIf + simple past If it rained If you went to bed earlierPresent conditional you would get wet you wouldn't be so tired
35Present conditional, form The present conditional of any verb is composed of two parts - the modal auxiliary would + the infinitive of the main verb (without 'to'.)Subjectwouldinfinitive without toShelearn
36Affirmative I would go Negative wouldn't ask Interrogative Would she come?Interrogative negativeWouldn'ttheyaccept?
37In spoken English, would is contracted to 'd. I'dWe'dyou'dhe'd, she'dthey'd
38The negative contraction = wouldn't. Example: to accept, Present conditionalAffirmativeNegativeInterrogativeI would acceptI wouldn't acceptWould I accept?You would acceptYou wouldn't acceptWould you accept?He would acceptShe wouldn't acceptWould he accept?We would acceptWe wouldn't acceptWould we accept?They would acceptThey wouldn't acceptWould they accept?
392. FunctionIn these sentences, the time is now or any time, and the situation is unreal. They are not based on fact, and they refer to an unlikely or hypothetical condition and its probable result. The use of the past tense after 'if' indicates unreality. We can nearly always add a phrase starting with "but", that expresses the real situation:If the weather wasn't so bad, we would go to the park (...but it is bad, so we can't go)If I was the Queen of England, I would give everyone £100. (...but I'm not, so I won't)
40Examples of use:1. To make a statement about something that is not real at present, but is possible:I would visit her if I had time. (= I haven't got time but I might have some time)2. To make a statement about a situation that is not real now and never could be real:If I were you, I'd give up smoking (but I could never be you)Examples:a. If I was a plant, I would love the rain. b. If you really loved me, you would buy me a diamond ring. c. If I knew where she lived, I would go and see her. d. You wouldn't need to read this if you understood English grammar. e. Would he go to the concert if I gave him a ticket? f. They wouldn't invite her if they didn't like her g. We would be able to buy a larger house if we had more moneyNOTE: It is correct, and very common, to say "If I were" instead of "If I was".
41Chapter 23: Past Tense Explanation 1. The simple past tense is expressed with the past form of the verb and nothing else.My grandfather died last year. (C) My grandfather was died last year. (I) My grandfather has died last year. (I)2. The simple past tense refers toa. action which occurred at a specific time in the past b. completed action c. past status
42Examples Specific past action I ate lunch at noon today. He drove to work yesterday.Completed actionShe finally mailed the letter. Jan finished her report on time.Past statusJohn was still single in Jane was a movie star.
43Common problems with the past tense 1. Using the present tense when the past tense is required.Last week, Tonya fix her neighbor's car. (I) Last week, Tonya fixed her neighbor's car. (C)2. Using "was" with verbs in the past tense.It was happened one night in September. (I) It happened one night in September.(C)
44Correct the mistakes in the following sentences: 1. Last night, Samantha have pizza for supper.2. My pet lizard was died last month.3. Yesterday I spend two hours cleaning my living room.4. This morning before coming to class, Jack eats two bowls of cereal.5. What was happened to your leg?
45Chapter 24: Making Predictions In English the Future Expression can also used to make some predictionsFormS + will + V1S + will + be + Present ParticipleS + will + have + V3
46I will finish my homework in an hour. My prints will be here tomorrow.In the future people will have bigger heads.I think she will be coming late to the classHe will not be attending the seminarMr. Andi will have taken his salaryMy mother will have prepared the meal.