Presentation on theme: "Complex Sentence PRACTICE CLASS #12 (#13) 2012-05-29/30."— Presentation transcript:
Complex Sentence PRACTICE CLASS #12 (#13) 2012-05-29/30
PAGE 169 – exercise 8 AN EXERCISE TO TEST YOUR KNOWLEDGE ON LINKERS
PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (a-c) You should retire before you are too old. He gave an order that John be transformed into managing director. OR He gave an order that John should be transformed into … It is possible that some people may/might blame you.
PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (d-f) She said that he/she must have been waiting since that morning. If you are skeptical, you cannot learn. If I had not examined the photograph myself, I would have thought it was a fake.
PAGE 169 – exercise 8 (g-i) Although I really disliked the questionnaire, I liked the interview. As they do not exercise, some people become really unfit. Some runners train so hard that they have great pain.
WORKBOOK: PAGE 155 (TYPES OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES) NOW, A LITTLE BIT OF THEORY…
PAGE 170 – exercise 9 THEY BOOKED THE TICKETS IN ADVANCE SO THAT THEY WOULDN’T MISS THE PLAY. AS HE ALSO SPOKE WITH A STRONG ACCENT, I DIDN’T UNDERSTAND ALL HE SAID. WE ARE GOING TO THE COAST IN ORDER TO TAKE SOME PHOTOS OF SEA BIRDS. HAVING REALIZED I’D BE LATE FOR AN APPOINTMENT, I PHONED MY SECRETARY. adverbial clause of purpose adverbial clause of cause adverbial clause of purpose adverbial clause of time OR cause
PAGE 170 – exercise 9 HE IS A VERY KEEN FISHERMAN, SO HE SPENDS A LOT OF TIME BY THE RIVER. IF WE LEAVE EARLY, WE WON’T HAVE TO HURRY. I WON’T SHUT THE DOOR SO THAT THE CAT MAY COME IN. GIVE ME A NAIL IN ORDER TO HANG THIS PICTURE UP / IN ORDER FOR ME TO BE ABLE TO HANG THIS PICTURE UP. I AM GOING TO PUT THIS NOTE HERE IN ORDER FOR EVERYONE TO BE ABLE TO SEE IT. adverbial clause of result adverbial clause of condition adverbial clause of purpose
PAGE 170 – exercise 9 BACAUSE THERE WAS A LOT OF RAIN LAST NIGHT, MANY OF THE ROADS ARE FLOODED. JANE LENT HER SISTER A SKIRT (FOR HER) TO WEAR IT AT THE PARTY. YOU SHOULD HAVE A CHECK-UP, IN CASE YOU HAVE A HEART CONDITION. adverbial clause of cause adverbial clause of purpose adverbial clause of condition
PAGE 170 – exercise 10 AFTER PAYING/HAVING PAID AT THE CASH DESK, I LEFT THE SUPERMARKET. (WHILE/AS HE WAS) GETTING INTO BED …, HARRY HEARD A STRANGE NOISE. HAVING GOT TO THE AIRPORT, HE IMMEDIATELY DASHED… THE MOMENT HE… / AS SOON AS HE… / NO SOONER… THAN….
PAGE 170 – exercise 10 HAVING HEARD HIM SCREAMING AT THE OTHER END OF THE HALL, THEY THOUGHT… ONCE PUBLISHED, THE BOOK WILL SELL LIKE HOTCAKES. LYING ON THE BED, JILL WAS CRYING. (AS HE WAS) GETTING OFF THE BUS, THE MAN SLIPPED.
PAGE 170 – exercise 10 HAVING FINISHED ALL HER SHOPPING, SHE WENT FOR … NOT KNOWING HIS ADDRESS, I COULDN’T CONTACT HIM. BECAUSE I… DIDN’T…, I … HAVING TRAVELLED A LOT, SHE KNOWS A LOT ABOUT OTHER COUNTRIES. TRAVELLING A LOT, SHE KNOWS…
PAGE 170 – exercise 11 I’LL GIVE HIM YOUR MESSAGE AS SOON AS HE CALLS. -CLAUSE OF TIME- LET’S GO BEFORE IT STARTS RAINING. -CLAUSE OF TIME- WHEN YOU’RE IN PARIS NEXT MONTH, COME AND SEE ME. -CLAUSE OF TIME-
PAGE 170 – exercise 11 AS SOON AS WE MAKE/HAVE MADE OUR DECISION, WE WILL…. -CLAUSE OF TIME- NO MATTER HOW SORRY SHE FEELS, THE DAMAGE…. -CLAUSE OF CONCESSION- WE ARRIVED AT THE CINEMA EARLY, SO AS NOT TO MISS…. -CLAUSE OF PURPOSE- I WAS WORKING SO HARD THAT I FORGOT … -SIMPLE SENTENCE (comparative clause in AdvP)-
PAGE 170 – exercise 11 SHE BEHAVES AS IF SHE WERE THE OWNER OF THE PLACE. -ADVERBIAL CLAUSE OF COMPARISON- IN CAS I DIDN’T HAVE THE CHANCE TO SEE HER AGAIN, I SAID… -CONDITION- THE CHILDREN CAN STAY HERE PROVIDING THEY DON’T MAKE ANY NOISE THE CHILDREN CAN STAY HERE UNLESS THEY MAKE NOISE -CONDITION-
PAGE 175 – exercise 17 RETURNS WOULD BE HAD BECOME STOOD WOULD SEE WOULD BE HAD LISTENEDWOULD BE HAD BEEN WEARING WOULDN’T HAVE DROWNED
PAGE 175 – exercise 18 (a-d) EVEN THOUGH MR ELKINS IS 94, HE IS STILL GOING STRONG. concession IN SPITE OF/DESPITE THE FACT THAT HARRY WAS WELL QUALIFIED FOR THE JOB, HE DIDN’T GET IT. concession ALTHOUGH I’VE BEEN WITHOUT A CAR FOR MOST OF MY LIFE, I’VE ALWAYS MANAGED. concession EVEN THOUGH/ALTHOUGH SOME PERSONAL INFORMATION MAY BE NECESSARY, I WON’T GIVE IT. concession
PAGE 176 – exercise 18 (e-h) ALTHOUGH I DON’T MIND FILLING IN THE FORM, I OBJECT.... concession IF THEY UNDERSTAND THE PROBLEM, THEY WILL FIND.... condition WE WOULDN’T HAVE COME FROM OUR HOLIDAY EARLY, IF WE HADN’T RUN OUT OF MONEY. condition I WILL LET YOU KEEP…, PROVIDING THAT YOU LOOK AFTER IT. condition
PAGE 176 – exercise 18 (i-k) I’LL TELL YOU WHAT HAPPENED AS LONG AS YOU DON’T TELL ANYONE ELSE. condition I WOULDN’T HAVE HAD AN ACCIDNET, IF I HAD BEEN WATCHING THE ROAD. condition IF YOUR SHOULD (WAS TO/WERE TO) BECOME PRESIDENT, WHAT WOULD (WILL) YOU DO? condition
PAGE 176 – exercise 19 SHOULD ANYTHING STRANGE HAPPEN, LET ME KNOW. HADN’T YOU TOLD ME, I WOULD NEVER HAVE BELIEVED IT. HAD HE LISTENED TO MY ADVICE, HE WOULD BE A RICH MAN NOW. SHOULD YOU INVITE THEM, MARY WILL BE ANGRY WITH YOU. WERE I IN YOUR SHOES, I WOULDN’T WORRY LIKE THAT.
WORKBOOK: PAGE 162 (TENSE IN SUBORDINATE CLAUSES) NOW, A LITTLE BIT OF THEORY…
PAGE 176 – exercise 20 (a-d) He treats me as though we hadn’t met. You will be free to go out as soon as you have finished (finish) your homework. I can hardly wait until I am 18. I will leave a message for you, in case I AM out when you phone.
PAGE 177 – exercise 20 (e-g) If he said such a thing to the boss, he’ll be in trouble. I shall let my house while I am away. She dances so beautifully as if she had been taking dancing lessons.
PAGE 177 – exercise 21 IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT HE MAKE UP HIS MIND… IT IS A SHAME THAT SOME PEOPLE SHOULD BE … THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS SUGGESTED A NEW PLAN BE/SHOULD BE MADE. THE CRUCIAL THING IS THAT EVERYONE VOTE ON SUNDAY.
WORKBOOK: PAGE 158 (TYPES OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF CONDITION) NOW, A LITTLE BIT OF THEORY…
PAGE 174 – exercise 15, part I HYPOTHETICAL: Da imam (Kada bih imao) više novca, ne bih sedeo ovde. OPEN: Imaćeš problema, ako (ukoliko) je ona otišla kući. HYPOTHETICAL: Da sam na odmoru (Kada bih bio …), obilazio bih Italiju. OPEN: Moraš odmah da pojuriš za njom, ako je nema. HYPOTHETICAL: Da se vozimo brodom (Kada bismo se...), bio bih mnogo srećniji.
PAGE 174 – exercise 15, part II (a-f) OPEN: If you said that, you are going to have problems (you’ll be in trouble). HYPOTHETICAL: You would understand everything, if you listened carefully. HYPOTHETICAL: He would have arrived on time, if he had caught the 8 o’clock train. OPEN: You can stay with us, if you (will) change. OPEN: If he caught the 8 o’clock train, he should (will) be here on time. HYPOTHETICAL: If went on that trip, I would go with you. HYPOTHETICAL: He would arrive on time, if he had caught the 8 o’clock train.
PAGE 174 – exercise 15, part II (g-i) g. Išli bismo na pecanje da ne pada kiša. ______________________________________________________ HYPOTHETICAL: We would go fishing if it were not raining. HYPOTHETICAL: I would have accepted the proposal if I had been in your shoes. OPEN: If he has been a good student up to now, he is still going to be one.
A VERY, VERY BRIEF OVERVIEW INDIRECT SPEECH
An indirect speech sentence is a complex sentence structure consisting of the main clause (REPORTING CLAUSE (1)) and a subordinate clause (REPORTED CLAUSE (2)) which functions as a direct object. Han Solo said (1), “I love you, Lea (2).” Han Solo told Lea (1) that he loved her (2).
REPORTED CLAUSE Depending on the sentence discourse type of the reported clause (statement, question, command, exclamation), the object nominal clause can be structurally realized in several ways:
CHANGES IN INDIRECT SPEECH When converting DIRECT SPEECH TO INDIRECT SPEECH, changes occur because the conditions under which the utterance was produced changed: BACKSHIFT of tenses (if the reporting verb is in the past tense) CHANGES OF PRONOUNS (central and demonstrative) ADJUNCTS OF TIME AND PLACE ALSO CHANGE now > then today > that day here > there Etc.
BACKSHIFT is optional if the time reference of the original utterance is still valid at the time of reporting: King Leonidas said that he was/*is a citizen of the world. Leonidas said that nothing could/can harm a freedom- loving man. I didn’t know that our meeting is/was next Thursday.
INDIRECT SPEECH LAST TWO EXERCISES
PAGE 177 – exercise 22 (a-d) She said that she had to hurry as her father was always furious if any of them were late for meals. My uncle said that if I was short of money, he could lend me $50 and I didn’t have to worry about paying back. He warned us (that) we’d better take our sleeping bags as we might have to sleep out. Tom said that he’d have enjoyed the journey if the man next to him hadn’t snored all the time
PAGE 177 – exercise 22 (e-g) I asked if I should write to Ann. She said (that) I needn’t because she would see her the next day. Peter said (that) he wished he had something to eat. His sister said that he’d only just had lunch and she didn’t know how he could always be hungry. He said that he must leave (would have to leave) town early the next morning because he mustn’t be late at the meeting. He asked what the problem (was) that most students were complaining about (was).
PAGE 177 – exercise 22 (h-i) He suggested that she cut her hair because she’d find it much easier to get a job if she looked tidy. He said that he had to rush home after the lecture.
PAGE 178 – exercise 23 (a-d) He replied that she might not believe that, but he’d never been to a disco in his life, as he was afraid he just wouldn’t be able to stand the noise. John told him it was clearly high time he went to one, adding that she’d take him where he’d be surprised at the civilized atmosphere. He replied that it sounded great, but if he went out that evening, he wondered who was to do all the work he was supposed to do, pointing out that it had to be done by the following morning. He asked who I was doing it for and if it could wait, adding that she had had a lot of work one of the previous days, but she hadn’t let it spoil her evening.
PAGE 178 – exercise 23 (e-h) Willie retorted that if his work spoilt his evening, he wouldn’t be an architect, explaining that he often had to work in the evenings because some of his clients do not like (did not like) to be kept waiting.. She asked Helen what she would do if Ben was too late to drive her to the airport. She admitted that she didn’t know what she would do if Ben was late, but she added she thought he ought to be there in good time, because he was (is) seldom late. He replied that that was true, but that he might have trouble with his car, adding that he must catch that plane, whatever happened.
PAGE 178 – exercise 23 (i-l) He said that Helen didn’t need to worry because Ben wouldn’t be late. He said that he didn’t need to go back to his office after lunch, so that he was at their disposal then. Her father complained on the phone that she couldn’t have arranged to come at a worse time, explaining that he couldn’t possibly meet her at the airport that Friday, and he added that he had just come from Japan and there would be several business maters that he must see before that weekend, Sheila asked a passing driver if he could give her a lift because her car had broken down and the driver told her to hop in.
LET’S FINISH IT! THE VERY LAST EXERCISES OF THE COURSE!!!
PAGE 178 – exercise 23 (i-l) He asked her if she would like to stop for a coffee, but she answered (that) she’d much rather he drove straight on, so she could keep an important appointment.